MALE Wigeric (Wigericus, Widricus)

Count 899, 902, 909 (in Bidgau), 908×915.
Count palatine, 916.

In act of king Zwentibold, on 23 January 899, Wigeric (Widiacus) appeared together with count Ricuin (who later married his widow) ["..., quia Richquinus et Widiacus venerandi comites nostri ..." MGH DD Zw 66 (#27); Wampach (1935), 147 (#134)]. On 19 September 902, in an act of Ludwig das Kind (Louis the Child), rights in Trèves passed from the count to the bishop, with the consent of count Wigeric ["... per consensum Wigerici comitis ..." MGH DD LdK 121 (#17); Wampach (1935), 151-2 (#138); Chatelain (1898-1901), 109, n. 5]. In February of 903 or 904, count Wigeric gave all of his lands in Itzig (Eptiacum) in Woevre to the abbey of Echternach [Wampach (1935), 152-3 (#139); also, see the map at the end, showing Itzig just to the southeast of Luxemburg]. On 1 January 909, Wigeric was witness to a charter ("Signum Widrici comitis") in which a certain Roricus exchanged property with the abbacy of Saint-Maximin in Trier, receiving from the abbey property "in pago Bedinse in comitatu Widrici in villa vocabulo Eslingis"... [Wampach (1935), 156-161 (#141a, b)].

In the period 908×915, king Charles the Simple gave to the church of Saint-Lambert at Liège the abbacy of Hastière an der Maas, then held by royal order by count Windricus for his life and the lives of his wife Cunigundis and of Adalbero, one of his sons, nepos of Charles, with the qualification that they continue to hold the said abbacy for their lives ["In nomine sancte et individuae Trinitatis. Carolus divina propiciante clementia rex Francorum. Si congruis fidelium nostrorum petitionibus aurem nostre munificentie aperimus, eorum propensius animos ad nostram fidelitatem invitamus. Animadverterit igitur sancte Dei ecclesie nostrorumque fidelium tam in presenti quamque in futuro tempore succedentium industria, quia nostre dignitatis sublimitatem cum omni humilitate adeuntes comes Reynerus et demarcus et Rotbertus comes et demarcus necnon et Rotbertus nobis dilectis pronis flagitaverunt genibus ut quamdam abbatiam nomine dictam Hasteriam, quam comes Windricus per preceptum habebat regale, que sita est in comitatu Coivense, super fluvium Mosam, ipso consentiente et deprecante, per nostre authoritatis preceptum sancte Marie et sancti Lamberti contulissemus, ea scilicet ratione, quatenus eandem abbatiam et alteram in honore sancti Rumoldi martyris constructam, que sita est in comitatu Penis [recté Renis] supra fluvium Tameram, que etiam sub potestate Stephani sancti Tungrensis ecclesie episcopi habebatur, ipso etiam consentiente et deprecante, diebus vite sue et uxoris eius nomine Cunegundis et unius filiorum ipsorum videlicet nostri nepotis Adelberonis, possideant cum omni integritate. Quorum libentissime precibus annuentes, concedimus animo libenter, quod nostram maiestatem deprecatum est humiliter, ac tamen ut supradictum est diebus vite sue et uxoris eius et unius filii ipsorum, habeant, teneant atque possideant suprascriptas abbatias cum ecclesiis et mancipiis utriusque sexus, terris cultis et incultis, vineis, silvis, pratis, pascuis, aquis aquarumve decursibus et omnibus iuste et legaliter ad se pertinentibus, iure siquidem beneficario et usufructuario; post illorumque ab hac luce discessum, nemine contrariante, premorata abbatiae revertantur ambe cum omni integritate ad eandem potestatem de qua Maslinas fuisse noscuntur. Et ut hoc nostre auctoritatis preceptum firmius habebatur veriusque credatur et attentius observetur, manu propria subter firmavimus, et annuli nostri impressione sigillari iussimus." Wampach (1935), 164-6 (#144); for the dates, Wampach states that another document dated 18 January 908 is earlier (details unclear), and the date of the document is bounded on the other side by Regnier's death in 915].

At Herstal on 19 January 916, the count palatine Widricus (Widricus comes palatii) is included in a list of many Frankish nobles, which also includes Ricuin and his son Otto. [Parisot (1898), 616; Barth (1990), 185-7; Wampach (1935), 160-1 (#146); see also RHF 9: 526-7 (which, unfortunately, is mostly illegible on these pages in the copy downloadable from Gallica)]. He is not on a similar list 13 June 919 [Parisot (1898), 633; Barth (1990), 187-8; Wampach (1935), 161-2 (#147)], but neither is Ricuin. Since Cunégonde married Ricuin as her second husband, and the latter died in 923, Wigeric certainly died before the latter date, and probably before 919 (see below).

Wigeric may have been the corrupt ("depravatus") count Wigeric who, evidently during the tenure of bishop Ludhelm of Toul (895-906), ordered a chapel to be constructed at Mazerais by the advice of unjust men, which was later ordered destroyed by bishop Gauzlin of Toul and bishop Adalbero of Metz on 20 July 943 or 944 ["Widricus quidam comes depravatus consilio quorundam iniquorum hominum fieri iussit prefatum capellum - in loco nuncupato Masiriaco super fluvium Mattis" Wampach (1935), 197 (#157)]. Parisot would identify this Wigeric with the present count [Parisot (1904), 322, n. 4], but Wampach noted that the style is strange, because of the negative way in which Wigeric is described, in a document involving Adalbero (his son if the identification is correct) [Wampach (1935), 198; see also Depoin (1905-8), 38].

Date of Birth: Unknown.
Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: After 19 January 916, probably before 13 June 919.
He and Ricuin of Verdun were both listed among those at the meeting at Herstal on 19 January 916, but neither was at the meeting there on 13 June 919 [see above]. Given that he certainly died long enough before Ricuin of Verdun (d. 15 November 923) to account for his widow's marriage to the latter, his absence on 13 June 919 is best explained by his death before that date. However, as was pointed out by Hlawitschka, it cannot be regarded as certain that Wigeric was deceased by this date [Hlawitschka (2002), 64-5].
Place of Death: Hastières (also buried there).
In a charter of Adalbero I, bishop of Metz, dated 6 October 944, he states that his father (genitor) Wigeric died at and was buried at Hastières ["... genitor meus nobilis comes Vigiricus fecit, qui in eodem monasterio ergastulo soltus mortis et traditius sepulture, ..." Wampach (1935), 200 (#158); see below for a full transcript of the charter].

Father: Unknown.
Mother:
Unknown.
Although it appears that Wigeric was of royal descent, based on the statement in the life of abbot John of Gorze that his son Adalbero was of royal descent on both the paternal and maternal side ["... Adalbero, preter spem omnium, cum esset regii quidem paterna simul ac materna stirpe longe retro usque ab hominum memoria sanguinis, ..." Vita Iohannis Gorziensis, c. 40, 76; Adalbero's maternal royal descent is known, as discussed on Cunégonde's page], there does not appear to be any good reason to accept any of the various conjectures which have arisen regarding Wigeric's parentage. See the Commentary section below.

Spouse: Cunégonde, daughter of Ermentrude, who was daughter of Louis II, king of France. (She m. (2), Ricuin, d. 923, count of Verdun.)
The name of Wigeric's wife is clearly documented by the document of 908×915, mentioned above, and by the donations of their children Adalbero and Liutgarde, mentioned below. The identification with Ermentrude's daughter Cunégonde is discussed in detail on
Cunégonde's page.
See the Commentary section for other supposed wives.

Children:
The two charters which directly document Adalbero and Liutgarde as children of Wigeric are quoted below. For further details on these individuals, see Cunégonde's page.

MALE Adalbero I, b. say 905×910?, d. 26 April 962, bishop of Metz, 929-962.
["In nomine sancte et individue Trinitatis. Adelbero beate Metensis ecclesie presul humillimus omnibus eiusdem ecclesie pontificibus, bonis ditari perhennibus. Scriptum est ut, ante omnia et super omnia regnum Dei et iusticiam eius querentes, postposito mundialis amoris onere, intentionis nostre studium ad patrie celestis, quam primi parentis offensione humanum genus amisit, repetendam hereditatem omni vigilantia et devotione properemus, et ad Dominum per eundem Christum nobis restitutum infatigabiliter tendamus, quo feliciter cum eo in eternum gaudere mereamur. Quapropter ad multorum venire desidero memoriam, qualiter parentes mei in palatio regum suis temporibus existentium inter primores regni, qui virtute ac sapientia claruerunt, fuerunt sublimati et quomodo eorum liberalitate multarum rerum ac prediorum, auxiliante Deo, possessores extiterunt et magnam in regno dignitatis gratiam obtinuerunt; qua factum est ut inter cetera meorum genitorum largitatis beneficia, post eorum discessum, abbatiam sanctae Dei genetricis perpetuaeque Virginis Mariae in loco Harsteria in comitatu Lotmensi super fluvium Mosae, dono largitionis eorum perpetuis temporibus possidendum promueri. Denique me ad decus pontificale conscendente, dignae memoriae Ottonis multigenarum regis adiens presentiam, ipsius poposci industriam, ut eam ecclesie sancti Stephani, Metensi videlicet, cuius rector tunc fore dinoscebar, sue principalitatis dono redonaret et authoritate regie dignitatis iterando confirmaret. Qui siquidem nostris pulsatus precibus, omnibusque palatii regibus, rectoribus, quorum maxima pollebat multitudine, dignam nostram esse petitionem affirmantibus, ut vir bonus retribuit et sui honoris preceptum sigillo roboratum proprio, manu porrexit regia, auxiliante quoque totius creature protectoris clementia. Inde cum eiusdem redeuntes gratia, cartam nobiscum allatam, prefati martyris Christi imposuimus altari vultu alacri. Deinde cordi fuit ut concessam visitaremus parochaim, iusta et digna bono statuentes desiderio, inutilia similiter abiciendo, tandem infra muros urbis quoddam reperimus monasterium, in honorem principis apostolorum Petri scilicet et egregii confessoris Dei Sulpitii dicatum, in quo etiam corpus venerabilis Glodesindis esse dinoscitur humatum, valde, quod non esset fortuitu, in malis actibus diffamatum. Hoc, ut erat necesse, ad restaurationem reducere cupientes, normam sancti Benedicti, ut fuit olim, inibi statuimus, ac neptem nostram Himiltrudem sanctis monialibus, preficimus. Et ne isdem locus ad priorem causam paupertatis et inopie rediret statum, pro Dei amore ac reverentia et pro parentum meorum optata requie seu et anime mee salute, proque eorum qui in felicibus votis et factis cooperatores et auxiliatores mihi specialiter fuerunt, remuneration, prefatam abbatiam iam dicto concessi loco, quemadmodum mihi genitor meus nobilis comes Vigiricus fecit, qui in eodem monasterio ergastulo solutus mortis et traditus sepulture, quo omni tempore ad prebendam sanctarum monialium Deo in annotata ecclesia servientium, cum omnibus sibi appendiciis habeatur subiecta et sub nullius regatur abritrio, nisi cui abbatissa ipsius loci commiserit ........ Adelbero sancte Mettensis ecclesie humilis episcopus subscripsi. ... Actum Mettis publice sub die pridie non(as) Octob(ris), anno VIIII. regnante domno Ottone rege feliciter, indictione III." Metz, 6 October 944, Wampach (1935), 199-200 (#158)]

FEMALE Liutgard, living 8 April 960; m. (1) Adalbert; m. (2) Eberhard.
"In nomine sancte et individue Trinitatis.Cum scriptura divina omnem hominem moneat elemosinis esse peccata redimenda, quia: Sicut aqua extinguit ignem, ita elemosina extinguit peccatum; et item: Facite elemosinam et munda erunt omnia vobis; idcirco ego Liutgardis necessariam esse huius precepti obedicionem omni christiano, prospiciens tam salubri ammonicioni fidelem obediente aurem accomodare disposui et ne inutilis esset et vana cogitacio operibus adimplere curavi. Tradidi igitur sancto confessori Christi Maximino, qui in suburbio urbis Treverice requiescit, quoddam mee proprietatis predium Mambra nuncupatum ad opus monachorum ibidem Deo servientium in comitatu Mithegovve, cui Godefridus comes presse videtur, quod michi ex parentibus meis Wigerico et Cunegunda hereditario iure acceccit, pro remedio et absloutione eorundem parentum meorum, seniorum quoque meorum Alberti et Everhardi vel filiorum meorum et remissione peccatorum meorum, cum ecclesia eiusdem ville et omnibus appendiciis suis, vel quicquid eo locis (!) possessionis habere videbar tam in mancipiis quam in edificiis, terris cultis et incultis, pratis, pascuis, silvis, aquis aquarumve decursibus, molendinis, mobilibus scilicet et immobilibus, exitibus et reditibus, quesitis et adquirendis, ut absque ullius contradictione iure perpetuo teneant et possideant, ea siquidem conditione, ut meis utilitatibus quousque vixero, cædat et postea plena et perfecta possessione ad prescriptum cenobium appendeat. Ne vero hec traditione debilis et infirma esse videretur, vestituram eis de eadem proprietate concessi: mansum videlicet unum cum ancilla Alphilda et filiis eius Woppone, Humboldo et Thietgero. Si vero post obitum meum eiusdem monasterii abbas vel alia persona eundem locum in beneficium aut in precariam alicui dare temptaverit, in primis ipse Deo omnipotenti reus existat et idem predium in ius heredum meorum absque ullo illorum periculo vel culpa redeat; familia quoque predicti loci eisdem legibus, quibus ab antiquitate vel sub parentibus meis vel etiam me subiecta fuerat, utatur nec aliis gravioribus subdi cogatur. Acta est hec traditio publice Treviris in cenobio sancti Maximini sub die VI. idus Aprilis anno Dominice incarnationis D CCCCº LXº, indictione III, regno serenissimi Ottonis XXV, per manum Irimberti sub fideiussoribus, quos vulgo saleburgiones vocamus: Cunrado, Folmaro, Wolmaro, astante ipsius loci abbate Wikero omnique congregatione monachorum coram eiusdem cenobii advocatis Adalberto et Hildrado et testibus subnotatis: Erbardo, Bernuino, Alberto, Liuthardo, Thiedone et multis aliis." 8 April 960, Wampach (1935), 216-9 (#168)]

MALE Gozlin, d. 18 October 942, count, ancestor of the dukes of Lower Lorraine; m. Uda, who was living 18 May 963.

Probable sons:
For the following two sons, the evidence tilts strongly in favor of Wigeric being the father.
See Cunégonde's page

MALE Frédéric I, d. 978, duke of Upper Lorraine 959-978, m. 954 (betrothed 951), Beatrix, daughter of Hugues Capet, king of France.

MALE Sigefroid/Siegfried, still living 997, ancestor of the counts of Luxemburg; Lay abbot of Echternach, 949×950-973 (later advocate); advocate of Saint-Maximin, 981; count in Moselgau, 982; m. Hedwig.

Possible son (but perhaps a son of Ricuin instead):
There does not seem to be any strong evidence placing Giselbert as a son of either Wigeric or Ricuin, and it remains uncertain which one was his father. See Cunégonde's page

MALE Giselbert, probably count in Ardennes and lay-abbot of Moyenmoutier.

Brother:

MALE Frédéric, d. 23 October 942, abbot of Saint-Hubert in Ardennes.
Called "patruus" of Adalbero I, bishop of Metz ["In his patruus iam dicti venerabilis domni Adelberonis fuit Fridericus, qui infantulus quidem monasterio sancti Humberti fuerat mancipatus, ...", Vita Ioh. Gorz., c. 55, 86-8], he was buried at Saint-Maximin [ibid.]. The necrology of Gorze gives 23 October as his date of death ["Fridericus, istius monasterii monachus et abbas s. Huberti" Nec. Gorze, 88; Wampach (1935), 207 (#164), n. 3, cites Wampach, Grundherrschaft Echternach, I, 1, p. 211, n. 5 (not seen by me) for the date of death]

Probable relatives of Wigeric or of his wife Cunégonde:

Ève, countess, living 16 August 950, d. 19 or 20 February (xi kal. Martii), before June 960.
m. Hugues, count of Chaumontois, deceased by ca. 940?;
and their sons:
Arnoul, d. 13 June, before 16 August 950, count.
Odelric, d. 969, archbishop of Reims, 962-9.
The relations between the four members of the above family are well documented, but their exact connection to any other group of individuals is unclear. The parentage of Odelric as son of a count Hugues is verified by Flodoard ["Cujus legationis redditi certiores per Brunonem archepiscopum, elegimus ad episcopatum Remensem Odelricum, illustrem clericum, Hugonis cuiusdam comitis filium, favente Lothario rege cum regina matre praefatoque Brunone." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 962, 153-4], and the dates of death of Ève and Arnoul are given by the necrologiy of Saint-Arnoul ["Commemoratio Evae Comitissae, quae dedit Layum cum omnibus apendiciis suis monasterio sancti Arnulphi, et in eodem tumulari voluit cum Hugone sponso et filiis suis Arnulpho et Ulrico Archiepiscopo Rhemensi" Hlawitschka (1961), 4; "Arnulphus comes pro quo datus est fiscus de Laio sancto Arnulpho cum omnibus apendiciis suis; Eva vero comitissa eius mater, quae hunc fiscum dedit, XI kal. Martii memoratur." ibid. (note that xi kal. Marttii is 19 February in most years, but 20 February in leap years)]. The same general outline of the family is given by the necrology of the abbey of Remiremont ["Dedit Eva comitissa et filius eius Odelricus pro remedio animae comitis Hugonis et filii eorum Arnulphi mancipia septem aut octo, qui debent censum ad festivitatem divi Bartholomaei" Hlawitchka (1961), 5] and by the Historia S. Arnulfi Mettensis, which includes the claimed descent from bishop Arnulf of Metz ["Hugone comite Calvomontise et Eva, uxore eius, Udelrico archiepiscopo Remense et Arnulpho comite, fratre eiusdem, filiis praedicti Hugonis, ..." Ex Historia S. Arnulfi Mettensis, MGH SS 24: 530; "Generosa etenim beati Arnulphi prosapia longe lateque diffusa adeo est divinitus exaltata, ut regni Francorum obtinerat sceptra. Ex horum germine nobili comes prodiit Arnulphus, clarissimi comitis quondam Hugonis filius, qui paci iusticieque studens, dum obviat nocentibus, innocenter est trucidatus. Cuius corpus mater eius venerabilis Eva nomine procurans diligentissime, ad beatissimi basilicam Arnulphi Mettim devexit illicque sepulture contradens, castrum sui iuris quod dicitur Layum pro filii sui [anima], qui requiescit ibidem, ut in carta continetur, delegavit." ibid., 537]. The most detailed account of bishop Odelric and his family is by Hlawitschka [Hlawitschka (1961)].

Indications that this family group was related to bishop Adalbero I of Metz come mainly from certain charters involving donations of the estate of Lay in Chaumontois by Ève and her family, which are fabrications in their present form, but appear to be based at least in part on genuine information. The fact that Ève did possess Lay is verified by the life of abbot John of Gorze, and she was already a widow when she appeared there [ca. 940? "... apud predium nomine Laium cum comitissa Eva tunc vidua, ..." Vita Ioh. Gorz., c. 101, 128-130]. These documents call Adalbero a relative of either Ève or of her son Arnoul ["Utque hoc efficeretur, venerabilis Adelberonis Metensium Episcopi meique (i.e., Ève) consanguinei ...", "in venerabili Adelberone religioso pontifice Dei dilecto et bonorum hominum charo, filii mei dilecti Arnulphi defuncti consanguineo." Hlawitschka (1961), 3, n. 6, citing Calmet, Histoire de Lorraine, 2, preuves: 197, 199], and the Historia S. Arnulfi Mettensis (which, however, is not independent of the others) states the same ["... domino Udelrico Remensi archiepiscopo, ..., et Metensi episcopo venerabili Adelberone, eorum cognato, ..." ibid., 537; see also GC 10: Instr. col. 16-17]. One of these, dated 16 August 950, lists "duke" Frédéric, count Sigfroid, and count Giselbert among the witnesses, which also suggests a connection ["... Signum Friderici ducis. Signum Sigifridi comitis. Signum Gisleberti comitis. ..." Wampach (1935), 205-6 (#162); note that Wampach's reference of Udalrich as the "Gemahl" of Eva is an error]. However, since Frédéric was not yet duke in 950, this document cannot be genuine in its present form, and Wolfram suggested that the appearance of Adalbero in the document is a later addition [Wolfram (1888-9), 68-9]. [See also Calmet (1715×28), 6-10; Parisot (1907-8), 57: 346]. Without giving any clear evidence, Depoin conjectured Hugues to be a son of count Hugues of Toul, who in turn he made a son of Hugues, illegitimate son of king Lothaire II, thus making his sons Carolingians [Depoin (1904b), 384-5; Depoin (1907), 328, 331; Depoin (1908-10), 14: 424]. In his review of Depoin's work, Parisot argued convincingly against Depoin's theory [Parisot (1909), 457-8]. Wampach suggests that Ève was a daughter of a sibling of Wigeric [Wampach (1935), 172 (#147), 205-6 (#162)]. Lefort identifies Ève as the supposed first wife of Wigeric (see below), making Hugues the first husband [Lefort (1900), 358, n. 3]. Although a relationship between bishop Adalbero I of Metz and this family seems probable, the details remain unknown.



Commentary

Legendary counterpart of Wigeric: Wederic de Florennes.
Legendary wife (existence doubtful): Ève.
Legendary daughter by Ève
(existence doubtful):
FEMALE Berthe, m. Ebroin, count of Florennes.

According to some authors, Wigeric is regarded as either the same person as or related to Wederic de Florennes, who appears in the history of the monastery of Waulsort as the maternal grandfather of Eilbert/Ybert, the monastery's founder ["... Iste igitur Ebroinus industria sua et virtute multa acquirens, filiam Wederici comitis et eius uxoris Evae, quae in nominis agnitione Berta nuncupabatur, sumpsit in coniugum, accipiens cum ea, dante ipso genitore atque genetrice, Florinas et quicquid ad eundem pagum Florinensem pertinent. ..." Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii, c. 1, MGH SS 14: 505; "Prefati siquidem Ebroini pater comes Bovo fuit, qui dictus est Sine-barba, et huius pater Bovonis comes Warinus de Asclovia extiit, qui fuit filius incliti nobilissimique comitis Nammerici Narbonensis ex Ermengarde comitissa, sorore Bonefacii magni principis de Papia." ibid., c. 2; "Iste autem Ebroinus ex prefati comitis Wederici et eius uxoris Evae filia, quae, ut superius prefati sumus, Berta dicebatur, septem habuit filios, ..." ibid., c. 2; "Primus itaque in ordine generationis comes Eilbertus fuit, maior et natu et dignitate, secundus post hunc comes Uddo de Roix, deinde comes Heribertus de Sancto Quintino, Gerardus de Odenarde, comes Boso, comes Witerus et Macuardus venerabilis episcopus. ..." ibid, c. 3]. There are a number of things about this account which invite suspicion, such as the fact that Eilbert's father Ebroin is also said to be the father of Heribert II of Vermandois (of which Saint-Quentin was the main fortress), as is made clear by the claim that Eilbert and his brother Heribert captured king Charles of France. ["Igitur anno ab incarnation Domini nongentesimo vicesimo secundo Karolus rex Francorum captus ab Eiberto et frate eius Heriberto usque ad Peronam deducitur et ab eisdem sub vinculis carceralis custodiae ibidem diebus multis religatur." ibid., c. 5, 507]. Given a blunder like this, the lateness of the source, and the presence of legendary figures from the Chansons de Geste like Aymeri de Narbonne (thinly disguised as Nammericus above) and Raoul de Cambrai [ibid., c. 6, 507; c.8, 508], there is good reason to doubt the tales.

The reason that one might identify the Wedricus of this "history" with the present Wigeric is easy to see. The monastery of Hastières was dependent on that of Waulsort in later times, and the association of Wigeric with Hastières is well documented. Also, Florennes and Hastières are near each other. However, while the association between Hastières was a bone of contention at the time Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii was being written in its current form, it did not exist at the time of Wigeric. Indeed, the monks at Hastiéres had a story of their own, obviously fabricated, which placed Wigeric's possession of Hastières in Merovingian times. In this version, Widricus is a son of the fictional Hoacher, duke of Lorraine, and was married to a woman who was a friend of king Sigebert (whose daughter Reniscenda was buried at Hastiéres), and who was a relative of St. Arnulf, bishop of Metz ["Quia vero predictis et aliis bonis insignis erat, facta est conventualis ecclesia a comite Widrico, filio Hoachrii ducis Lotaringie, qui ambo in eadem requiescunt ecclesia (i.e., Hastiéres), et Sancto Stephano Mettis legittime tradita per memoriam reliquarum sancti Stephani, que erant in ecclesia Hasteriensi, quonaim idem sanctus Stephanus tunc erat, sicut nunc est, patronus Mettensis. Ideo eciam Mettis traditia est Hasteria, quia uxor predicti Widrici comitis amica erat Sigeberti regis, cuius filia sancta Reniscendis requiescit in ecclesia Hasteriensi, uxor eciam eiusdem Widrici comitis consanguinea erat sancti Arnulphi Mettensis episcopi. ..." Appendix to Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii, MGH SS 14, 541; the same manuscript contains a chart in which Widricus is married to king Sigebert's daughter Berta, ibid., n. 1]. Similary, in a false charter dated 656, a comes Widericus mentions his father Ohacrius Lothariensium dux and wife Berta aunt (amita) of king Sigebertus ["Ego comes Widericus, nobili prosapia exortus, quomodo in vita mea egi omni venture generationi relinquendum curavi. Defuncto namque patre meo scilicet Ohacrio Lothariensium duce nobilissimo, qui a stirpe processerat Hisperici Francorum regis, uxorem magne nobilitatis duxi nomine Berta scilicet Mettensis regis Sigiberti amita." Cart. Waulsort, 412; note, for example, that the duchy of Lorraine would not yet exist for another couple of hundred years].

Witte [(1893-4), 5: 40] and Vanderkindere [(1902) 2: 204, 328-9] accept the genealogical information of Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii, and the identification of Wederic de Florennes with our count Wigeric [Parisot (1907-8), 7, n. 3 also identifies Schötter as earlier in proposinging this identification], making Ève an earlier wife and Berthe a daughter of Wigeric. Both Depoin and Parisot pointed out (at about the same time, apparently independently) that if the usual identification of the Ebroin of Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii with an Ebroin who appeared in 879 is correct, then it is chronologically dificult to make him a son-in-law of Wigeric [Depoin (1905-8), 28-9; Parisot (1907-8), 7, n. 3]. Depoin instead made Wederic de Florenne the maternal grandfather of Wigeric (on which, see more below)), but Parisot, while expressing doubt, did not rule out the suggestion that Ève was an earlier wife of Wigeric [Parisot (1907-8), 18-9]. "Fixing" the error regarding Heribert II of Vermandois has also been attempted, by turning him into a maternal half-brother of Eilbert [see, e.g., Chaume, 1: 543 (table VIII), and the page of Heribert I]. For a discussion of the genealogies of Historia Walciodorensis Monasterii, see Misonne (1967).

While there seems to be a good case that the Wederic who appears in the legendary account of the founding of the monastery of Waulsort had our Wigeric as an underlying historical basis, the genealogies given in this source cannot be regarded as historically accurate. Not only do we have the lateness of the source itself, the existence of a severe blunder regarding Heribert II of Vermandois, and the presence of legendary characters, but there was also a clear motive for deliberate falsification of the claim that Wigeric (who held Hastières) was a maternal grandfather of Eilbert (founder of Waulsort). The claim that reliable genealogical information can be obtained from this source must be rejected, and there is no good reason to believe that Wigeric had an earlier marriage [see also Renn (1941), 20-2].

Conjectured origins for Wigeric
Wigeric's parentage remains unknown. However, there have been numerous conjectures in that regard.

Depoin:
Conjectured father
(unlikely):
Nithard, fl. 876 or 881×2, son of Liutgarde (fl. 876 or 881×2) [by, it is conjectured, Regnier, d. 876, lay-abbot of Echternach].
Conjectured mother (unlikely): Blitrude, fl. 876 or 881×2, conjectured to be a daughter of Wederic de Florenne and Ève, daughter of Gerard de Roussilon.
This theory by Depoin is based largely on a charter from the cartulary of Gorze, in which a Leutchardis mentions her son Nithard, her daughter-in-law Blitrude, and her grandsons Wigeric and Nithard, probably in 876 or 881×2 ["... qualiter Leutchardis, Deo sacrata, necnon et filius suus Nithardus, ..., Leutcharde videlicet, et filio ejus jam dicto Nithardo, atque uxori sue Belethrude, et filio ipsius Widerico scilicet, et equivoco ejus item Nithardo, ..." Cart. Gorze, 125-6 (#69); Depoin (1905-8), 32; for the date, see Marichal (1902), 25-7; Reumont (1902), 282]. Noting that our Wigeric had a daughter named Liutgarde, Depoin identifies Wideric, son of Nithard and Blitrude, with our Wigeric [ibid., 32-40]. Estimating Wederic de Florenne to be two generations prior to Wigeric, he accepts the connection of Wigeric and Wederic but not their identity, and makes Blitrude a daughter of Wederic and Ève [ibid., 40], the latter of who he would make a daughter of Gerard de Roussillon [ibid, 30]. By a further conjecture Depoin would make Nithard a son of Regnier, lay abbot of Echternach, who was killed in battle on 8 October 876 [Depoin (1905-8), 61ff; for more on this Regnier, see the page of his possible relative
Regnier I]. [For genealogical tables outlining his theories, including earlier conjectured ancestors, see Depoin (1905-8), 58, 69]. However, in the absence of any indication that Liutgarde and her son and grandsons belonged to the nobility, Depoin's conjecture must be considered unlikely [see also Renn (1941), 19-20].

Medieval fabrication:
Falsely attributed father
(fabulous):
Hoacher, duke of Lorraine.
Parisot [(1907-8), 58: 9, n. 3] cites one author (Sackur) who would make Hoacher the father of Wideric. As a fabulous figure who supposedly existed during Merovingian times, he was obviously not Wigeric's father. However, see the next item.

Nonn:
Conjectured father
(dubious):
Odacar, fl. 893-902, count in Bliesgau and Ardenne.
Count in Bliesgau in 893, and in Ardenne in 902 [see Wampach (1935), 142-9], Odacar also appears in the annals in 897-9 [Regino, Chronicon, MGH SS 1: 607-9]. Based on the assumption that the Hoacher/Ohacrius of the falsified documents discussed above was based on genuine information, Ulrich Nonn noted the similarity of the form Ohacrius to the name of the count Odacar who appeared in 893-902, and speculated that the latter was the father of Wigeric [Nonn (1978)]. As no other evidence was given to support this conjecture, it must be regarded as doubtful.

Schötter, Jaerschkerski:
Falsely attributed father:
Adalard/Adalbert, son of Eberhard of Friuli by Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious.
This theory is based on the charter of Wigeric's daughter Liutgarde, in which she mentions her seniores Adalbert and Eberhard, and a false charter mentioning an alleged son of Wigeric and Cunégonde named Henry, which also mentions his alleged seniores Adalbert and Eberhard, in wording taken directly from Liutgarde's charter. The usual interpretation of this is that Adalbert and Eberhard were Liutgarde's husbands (in that order), and there is no good reason to accept either the false charter of the probably fictional Henry or the alternate translation of ancestors, as was proposed by Schötter [not seen by me], and accepted by Jaerschkerski [Jaerschkerski (1868), 291; against this, see Parisot (1907-8), 58: 9-10]. In addition, Adalard and Adalbert are not variants of the same name.

Meyer:
Falsely attributed parents:
Roric & Anstrude.
This is based on one version of the charter of Roric of 909, already mentioned above, referring to Roric's wife Ansdruda and son Wigericus ["..., uxori quoque meae Ansdrudae, filioque meo Wigerico ..." Wampach (1935), 161 (#141b)], in which the present Wigeric appears as Widricus. Jaerschkerski [(1868), 291], in his review of Meyer's work [not seen by me], argues against this theory, and states that he showed that Rorico was not the father of Wigeric in p. 8, n. 7 of his "Abhandlung" [evidently his Godfrid der Bärtige, which I have not seen]. Given that the forms of the name are different in the document, that there is nothing in the document which would suggest that the Widricus and Wigericus therein were the same person, and that there is also no reason from this document to believe that Roric was of a comital family, this claim must be rejected [See also Parisot (1907-8), 58: 9].

Falsely attributed later wife: Amalrada, daughter of Dietrich, count in Westfalen; she supposedly m. (2) Ricuin of Verdun; (3) Eberhard of Hamaland.
This is based on a theory first proposed by Depoin [Depoin (1907), 329-330], and later developed further by Brière [Brière (1962)]. This scenario suggested that Wigeric's wife Cunégonde died during his lifetime, and that he next married Amalrade/Amaurée, that she was the widow who married Ricuin, and that she then married Eberhard of Hamaland, by whom she was mother of bishop Thierry I of Metz. The whole point was to explain a supposed reference of bishop Adalbero II (son of duke Frédéric of Upper Lorraine) as nephew of Thierry I, when, as Parisot pointed out in his severe criticism of this theory, the reference was in fact to Adalbero III and Thierry II [Parisot (1907-8), 58: 101-4; Parisot (1909)]. The main modification by Brière (who seems unaware of Parisot's criticism of Depoin's work) was to make Sigefroid a son of Eberhard and Amalrade/Amaurée. Not only is this theory based on a mistaken interpretation of the sources, but it is directly contradicted by the statement that Ricuin was the vitricus of Adalbero [see Ricuin's page]. There is no reason to give it the slightest credence. (See also the page of Dietrich.)

Falsely attributed daughter (said to be by alleged first wife Ève): FEMALE Leva, said to be wife of Raoul, count of Ivoix.
Of count Rodolphe of Ivois ([said to have] d. bef. 946), Vanderkindere states that "Son épouse Leva (Éva?) devait être parente de Wigeric de Verdun" followed by a genealogical table making her a conjectured daughter of Wigeric [Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 343 (qualified with a "?"), 474 (no "?")]. The primary basis of this reconstruction is the 946 record of a certain matrona Leva [MGH DD O I, 159-160 (#80); Wampach (1935), 201 (#159)], followed by an attempt to link with further records to obtain an outline genealogy [Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 343], a genealogy which would connect them with the Raoul who was count of Verdun in 949 and a count Raoul who married a certain Ève (different from the above, according to Vanderkindere) [see Cunégonde's page; see also Witte (1893-4) 5: 53-4; Bloch (1898-1902), 10: 400ff.; Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 338-343, 368-9; Parisot (1905b), 106; Parisot (1907-8), 57: 260-1 (the last two criticising Vanderkindere's genealogy); Depoin (?), 267-8 (suggests genealogy different from Vanderkindere); Laret & Dupont (1979), 808-810]. As an evident onomastic guess based on a falsely attributed wife of Wigeric, there is no reason to accept this.

Supposed son (existence doubtful): Henry, supposedly fl. 970.
See Cunégonde's page.

Early mistaken identification as same person: Wigeric and Ricuin, count of Verdun.
[Uhlirz (1902), 1: 44 cites several early authors (Bertholet, Jeantin, Thijm) as identifying Wigeric and Ricuin as same person.]



Bibliography

Barth (1990) = Rüdiger E. Barth, Der Herzog in Lotharingien im 10. Jahrhundert (Sigmaringen, 1990).

Bédier (1907-8) = Joseph Bédier, "La légende de Raoul de Cambrai", Revue Historique 95 (1907): 225-262; 97 (1908): 1-26.

Bloch (1898-1902) = Hermann Bloch, "Die älteren Urkunden des Klosters S. Vanne zu Verdun", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 10 (1898): 338-449; 14 (1902): 48-150.

Brière (1962) = Pierre Brière, "Les origines de la première Maison de Luxembourg", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 79 (1962): 9-22.

Calmet (1715×28) = Augustin Calmet, Histoire du prieuré de Lay (published in 1863 by Henri Lepage, from Calmet's manuscript of 1715×28).

Cart. Gorze = A. d'Herbomez, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Gorze (Mettensia 2, Paris, 1898).

Cart. Waulsort = Georges Despy, Les Chartes de l'abbaye de Waulsort, tome I (946-1199) (Brussels, 1957).

Chatelain (1898-1901) = V. Chatelain, "Le Comté de Metz et la vouerie épiscopale du VIIIe au XIIIe siècle", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 10 (1898): 71-119; 13 (1901): 245-311.

Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, (vol. 1, Dijon, 1925).

Depoin (1904a) = Joseph Depoin, "Sifroi Kunuz, comte de Mosellane, tige de la Maison de Luxembourg", Ons Hemecht 10 (1904): 307-315, 349-358, 422-431, 507-516.

Depoin (1904b) = Joseph Depoin, "Questions mérovingiennes et carolingiennes", Revue des Études historiques 70 (1904): 377-385 [especially part II: "De l'emploi du prénom d'Arnoul aux IXe et Xe siècles", pp. 382-5].

Depoin (1905-8) = Joseph Depoin, Études sur le Luxembourg à l'époque carolingienne. I. Le domaine de Mersch et ses possesseurs (2nd ed., Luxembourg, 1908 [1st ed. 1905]).

Depoin (1907) = Joseph Depoin, "Wicman II, comte de Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au Xe siècle", Congrés de Gand, 1907: 3-39; or Annales de XXe congrés de l fédération archéologique et historique de Belgique, i, 315-351. [not seen by me]

Depoin (1908-10) = Joseph Depoin, "Études sur le Luxembourg à l'époque carolingienne. II. Le roman de s. Meingaud", Ons Hemecht 14 (1908): 220-4, 313-318, 377-381, 417-424, 454-461; 15 (1909): 69-76, 110-4, 132-136, 174-8, 219-222, 260-265, 298-306, 321-328, 378-385; 16 (1910): 4-10, 41-6, 84-9, 125-131, 162-8, 202-8, 244-9, 284-295.

Depoin (1910) = Joseph Depoin, "Obits Mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois, et messins", Revue Mabillon 6 (1910): 261-279.

Flodoard, Annales = Ph. Lauer, ed., Les Annales de Flodoard (Paris, 1905).

GC = Gallia Christiana.

Hlawitschka (1961) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Zur Lebensgeschichte Erzbischof Odelrichs von Reims", Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 109 (1961): 1-20.

Hlawitschka (2002) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "War Graf Siegfried I. von Luxemburg ein Sohn Herzog Giselberts von Lothringen?", Schriften der Sudetendeutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften und Künste: Forschungsbeiträge der Geisteswissenschaftlichen Klasse 23 (2002) 53-67.

Jaerschkerski (1868) = F. Jaerschkerski, reviews of Ernst Meyer, De Brunone I, archiepiscopo Coloniensi, Lotharingiae duce. Quaestiones VII, (Ph.D. dissertation, Berlin, 1867), and of Franz Schulze, De Brunonis, archiepiscopi Coloniensis, ortu et studiis praecipuisque rebus ab eo gestis, (Inaugural dissertation, Halis Saxonum, 1867), Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen 1 (1868): 281-292.

Laret & Dupont (1979) = A. Laret & C. Dupont, "À propos des comtés post-carolingiens: les exemples d'Ivoix et de Bastogne", Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 57 (1979): 805-824.

Lefort (1900) = Alfred Lefort, "La Maison Française de Luxembourg", Ons Hemecht 6 (1900): 356-366, 417-427, 456-468, etc.

Marichal (1902) = Paul Marichal, Remarques chronologiques et topographiques sur le cartulaire de Gorze (Mettensia 3, Paris, 1902).

Misonne (1967) = Daniel Misonne, Eilbert de Florennes. Historie et Légende. La Geste de Raoul de Cambrai (Louvain, 1967).

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series (Zw=Zentibold, etc.).

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Nec. Gorze = Michel Parisse, Le Nécrologe de Gorze (Nancy, 1971). [Also edited by Charles Aimond, "Le Nécrologe de Gorze", Bulletin mensuel de la Société d'archéologie lorraine 63 (1914): 76-85]

Nonn (1978) = Ulrich Nonn, "Das gefälschte Urkunde des Grafen Widerich für das Kloster Hastière und die Vorfahren der Grafen von Luxemburg", Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 42 (1978): 52-62 [not seen by me].

Parisot (1898) = Robert Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (1898, reprinted Geneva, 1975).

Parisot (1904) = Robert Parisot, review of Lauer, Le règne de Louis IV d'Outre-Mer (Paris, 1900), in Annales de l'Est 18 (1904) 319-325.

Parisot (1905a) = Robert Parisot, "Sigefroy le premier des comtes de Luxembourg - était-il fils de Wigeric?" Annales de l'Est et du Nord 1 (1905): 76-83.

Parisot (1905b) = Robert Parisot, review of Vanderkindere (1902), volume 2, Annales de l'Est et du Nord 1 (1905): 99-107.

Parisot (1907-8) = Robert Parisot, "Les Origines de la Haute-Lorraine et sa première maison ducale (959-1033), Mémoires de la Société d'Archéologie Lorraine et du Musée historique Lorrain 57 (1907): 151-428; 58 (1908): 5-265.

Parisot (1909) = Robert Parisot, review of Depoin, Wicmann II, comte du Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au dixième siècle, in Annales de l'Est et du Nord 5 (1909): 457-460.

Parisse (1981) = Michel Parisse, "Généalogie de la Maison d'Ardenne", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 95 (1981): 9-41.

Renn (1941) = Heinz Renn, Das erste Luxemburger Grafenhaus (963-1136) (Rheinisches Archiv 39, Bonn, 1941).

Reumont (1902) = H. Reumont, "Zur Chronologie der Gorzer Urkunden aus karolingischer Zeit", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 14 (1902), 270-289.

Uhlirz (1902) = Karl Uhlirz, Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reiches under Otto II. und Otto III., 2 vols., (Leipzig, 1902).

Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).

Vita Ioh. Gorz. = Michel Parisse, ed. & trans., La Vie de Jean, abbé de Gorze (Picard, 1999) [Vita Iohannis Gorziensis, Latin with parallel French translation; also edited (Latin only) by Georg Heinrich Pertz, MGH SS 4: 335-377; citations are by chapter number and page in Parisse's edition].

Wampach (1935) = Camillus Wampach, Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit, I (Luxemburg, 1935).

Witte (1893-4) = Heinrich Witte, "Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und das Westrich", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 5 (1893): 26-107; 7 (1895): 79-124.

Wolfram (1888-9) = Dr. Wolfram, "Kritische Bemerkungen zu den Urkunden des Arnulfklosters", Jahrbuch für lothringische Geschichte 1 (1888-9), 40-80 [especially pp. 62-9: II. Die Urkunden der Gräfin Eva (950) und ihres Sohnes Udalrich (958).]


I would like to thank Peter Stewart for his comments on the internet newsgroup/mailing list soc.genealogy.medieval/GEN-MEDIEVAL in response to many of my postings there on this subject, and for sharing copies of sources with me. I also thank James Hansen for sharing copies of sources.



Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 5 April 2007.

Minor revision uploaded 3 August 2008: added details from Nonn (1978), see above under conjectured father Odacar.

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