MALE Sigefroid/Siegfried [of Luxemburg] (Sigefridus Kunuz, Sicco)

Lay abbot of Echternach, 949×950-973 (later advocate).
Obtained Luxemburg castle, 963.
Advocate of Saint-Maximin, 981.
Count in Moselgau, 982.

Sigefroid is often regarded as the first "count of Luxemburg" in the modern secondary sources. However, there is no evidence that the title even existed during the lifetime of Sigefroid, or indeed for many years afterward. He was, however, the first of his family to possess the castle which eventually gave its name to the modern country of Luxemburg when he acquired the castellum quod dicitur Lucilinburhuc by exchange in 963 (see the second following paragraph). While it is clear that the castle was held by his family after his death, it is generally unclear at first which of his many sons and grandsons were in possession of Luxemburg castle at any given time. By the twelfth century, when descendants of Sigefroid were regularly appearing in the records with the title of count of Luxemburg, the succession becomes more clear, but modern attempts to fill in a "succession" of "counts of Luxemburg" back to Sigefroid, using whatever meager hints are available from the sources, are anachronistic. [For a detailed discussion of the title "count of Luxemburg", see Twellenkamp (1991)]

Sigefroid appears to have been known by the similar name Sigebert on occasion, evidently appearing under the latter name with his brothers Frédéric and Giselbert as witnesses to the testament of their brother Gozlin in 943 ["... Friderici, Gisilberti, Sigeberti fratrum predicti Gozlini, ..." Wampach (1935), 196 (#156)], although some possibility remains that Sigebert was an otherwise unknown brother [see the paragraph on the capture of bishop Wigfrid of Verdun later this section]. In 949×950, Sigefroid became lay-abbot of Echternach in succession to the recently deceased duke Hermann of Swabia (d. 949) ["Post Herimannum successit dux Sigefridus; cuius hortatu idem Otto imperator anno 34. regni sui, imperii vero 12, incarnationis autem Domini 974, indict. 2. canonicos ex hoc loco expulit et turmam monachroum hic adunavit abbatemque Ravangerum eis prefecit. Haec apud Magedeburch sancita sunt" Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium, MGH SS 13: 739 (see also p. 741); similarly in Monumenta Epternacensia, MGH SS 23: 32-3; Wampach (1935), 205 (#161)]. A supposed act of 16 August 950, false in its surviving form, but perhaps based in part on a genuine act, has Sigefroid appearing as a witness between his brothers Frédéric and Giselbert ["... Signum Friderici <ducis>. Signum Sigifridi comitis. Signum Gisleberti comitis ..." Wampach (1935), 205-6 (#162); Frédéric was not yet duke in 950; see the outline of Hugues de Chaumontois and his wife Ève on the page of Wigeric]. In an act of archbishop Bruno of Cologne on a 31 October, evidently 958×9, count Sigefroid is mentioned as attempting to obtain the village of Bodeux ["... villam ... nomine Baldav ..., quam Sigfridus comes, ut adquireret, ... valde laborabat. ... comes cum consensu uxoris et filiorum et amicorum suorum ..." Wampach (1935), 215 (#168); Uhlirz (1956), 46]. On 18 May 963, Sigefroid was a witness to a donation of countess Uda, widow of his brother Gozlin ["... Sigefrido comite, Richuvino comite, ..." Wampach (1935), 230 (#172); see the page of Gozlin for more details].

The most frequently discussed event in Sigefroid's career was his acquisition of the castle of Luxemburg by exchange on 12 or 17 April 963 [Palm Sunday (dies palmarum, "day of the palms", 12 April in 963) and xv. kal. May (17 April) did not coincide in 963, so there is some error here; the date of 17 February 963 given by Wampach (1935), 271 (#173) has no clear explanation]. In return for the castle, located in the pagus of Methingow in the comitatus of count Godefroid (son of Sigefroid's brother Gozlin), Sigefroid gave the monks of Saint-Maximin land which he held in the village of Feulen in the pagus of Ardenne in the comitatus of count Giselbert, evidently Sigefroid's brother of that name. Another brother of Sigefroid, duke Frédéric of (Upper-)Lorraine, gave his consent to the charter. The text of the charter appears in the next paragraph, along with a translation.

"In nomine unigeniti Filii Dei. Notum sit omnibus populis in Christum credentibus tam presentibus quam venturis, clericis atque laicis, quod Sigefridus comes de nobili genere natus castellum quod dicitur Lucilinburhuc in proprietatem desiderans adipisci, perrexit ad dominum Brunonem archiepiscopum, fratrem videlicet imperatoris Ottonis, qui tunc principatum totius regni post ipsum tenebat, eique suum desiderium manifestibat. Cuius scilicet archiepiscopi accepto consilio et impetrata licentia ab eo venit ad abbatem Wikerum et ad reliquos sancti Maximini monachos in quorum predio idem castellum fuerat positum, petens ut ei liceret cum suo alode illud commutare. Quod abbas libenter una cum fratribus consentiens, placuit atque convenit inter eos ut res pro ambarum parcium oportunitate commutarentur. Dedit itaque prefatus comes ad sanctum Maximinum de rebus suæ proprietatis legali traditione mansum unum et dimidium cum servis, censualibus, in comitatu Giselberti comitis in pago Arduennæ in villa que dicitur Viulna. Accepit a predicto abbate consentiente monachorum congregatione supranominatum castellum cum exitibus et reditibus et omnibus terris ab alveo fluminis Alsuntiae usque ad illos veteres truncos qui stant ante munitionem eiusdem castelli secundum quod protenditur in longum et latum. Igitur posita est haec eadem munitio in pago Methingowi in comitatu Godefridi comitis super ripam Alsuntiæ fluminis. Factum est itaque concambium istud ea constitutione ut utraque persona abbatis videlicet et comitis ex eo quod accepit, habeat in perpetuum liberam et aptam potestatem tenendi, tradendi, vendendi, vel quicquid exinde voluerit facere absque ullius hominis contradictione. Acta est namque haec mutatio sive etiam traditio publice in civitate Treverensium in monasterio memorati patroni in die palmarum XV. Kal(endas) Maii adstante abbate Wikero simulque Hilderado eiusdem coenobii advocato et aliis quam pluribus testibus, monachis, canonicis atque laicis. S(ignum) domni Brunonis archiepiscopi qui hoc concambium legaliter fieri iussit. S(ignum) Heinrici Trevirorum archimandritæ qui consilio istius rei per omnia interfuit. S(ignum) Asolfi prepositi. S(ignum) Ramuoldi decani. S(ignum) Sandradi celerarii. S(ignum) Adalungi m(onachi). S(ignum) Christiani m(onachi). S(ignum) Gerberni m(onachi). S(ignum) Hirimberti m(onachi). S(ignum) Willeri m(onachi). S(ignum) Volmari. S(ignum) Hildradi m(onachi). S(ignum) Warneri m(onachi). Nomina laicorum: S(ignum) Friderici Luthariensium ducis cuius consensu et collaudatione opus istud totum peractum est. S(ignum) Liuthardi. S(ignum) Nortperti. S(ignum) Sarachonis. S(ignum) Adalberti. S(ignum) Geisonis. S(ignum) Tancradi. S(ignum) Anselmi. S(ignum) Walteri. S(ignum) Harperni. S(ignum) Ruotperti. S(ignum) Thietperti. S(ignum) Thietfridi. Facta est igitur huius carte conscriptio anno dominice incarnationis D CCCC. LXIII., indictione VI., regni Ottonis regis et patris sui cæsaris principatum tenentis IIº."
Translation: In the name of the only begotten son of God. Let it be known to all people believing in Christ, present as well as absent, clerics and laymen, that count Sigefridus, born of noble origin, desiring to obtain as property the castle which is called Lucilinburhuc [Luxemburg], proceeded to the lord archbishop Bruno, viz., the brother of emperor Otto, who [Bruno] then held the first place in the entire kingdom after [the emperor] himself, and disclosed his desire to him [Bruno]. With the advice of the archbishop having been obtained, and license secured from him, he [Sigefridus] went to abbot Wikerus and to the other monks of Saint-Maximin, in whose estate the castle was situated, asking that he be allowed to exchange it with his own allod. The abbot, willingly consenting along with the brothers, agreed, and [the parties involved] met among themselves, so that the possessions might be exchanged to the advantage of both parties. The aforesaid count thus gave to Saint-Maximin, legally handed over from his own property, one and a half manses with tenants bound to pay rent [censuales], in the comitatus of count Gislebertus in the pagus of Ardenne in the village which is called Viulna [Feulen]. He accepted from the aforesaid abbot, with consent of a meeting of the monks, the above named castle, with the outlets and returns and all lands from the riverbed of the river Alzette up to those old tree trunks which stand before the fortifications of the same castle, behind which it extends long and wide. This same fortification is situated in the pagus of Methingow in the comitatus of count Godefridus, beyond the coast of the river Alzette. And so, this exchange has been made by this decree, so that each party, viz., of the abbot and of the count, should possess from that which has been agreed in free perpetuity and have suitable power to hold, bequeath, sell, or whatever [each party] wishes to do from now, without the contadiction of any man. For this, whether an exchange or even a surrendur, was enacted publicly in the city of Trèves in the monastery of our famous patron, on the day of the palms [Palm Sunday] on the fifteenth of the kalends of May, with abbot Wikerus assisting, as well as Hilderadus, advocate of the same monastery, and very many other witnesses, monks, canons, and laity. The mark [or sign] of the lord archbishop Bruno, who has ordered this exchange to be legally enacted. The mark of Henricus, archbishop of Trèves, who by by his counsel was present through all of this matter. ... etc. ... Names of laymen: The mark of Fridericus, duke of Lorraine, with whose consent and praise this work was entirely completed. ... etc. The drawing up of this charter was enacted in the year of the incarnation of the Lord 963, in the sixth indiction, in the second year of the reign of king Otto and the holding of the imperial principate of his father.
[Wampach (1935), 231-6 (#173); see also Grob (1900), 91-4 for a parallel Latin-German edition of this document] I did not consider it necessary to "translate" the entire witness list.

On 17 September 964, count Sygifridus gave to the church of Saint-Pierre at Trèves lands in Saargau and Bidgau, retaining the said lands for his life and the life of his wife Hadewig and their son Henry ["... ego et coniunx mea Hadewig filiusque noster Henricus ..." Wampach (1935), 237-40 (#174)]. In the third year of emperor Otto I [2 February 965 - 1 February 966], he and his wife Hedwig (Hathawiga) donated Monnerich (Munderchinga) in Methingow (Mithegow) to the monastery of Echternach [Wampach (1935), 240-1 (#176)]. In an act at Stavelot on 13 February 968, Hosinga (Essingen?, Hosingen?) in the comitatus of Bastogne is mentioned as neighboring count Sigifridus [Wampach (1935), 247 (#179)]. On 3 November 970, Siefred, also called Sicco, is mentioned as a missus of the emperor ["... Siefredus qui et Sicco vocatur, missus domni imperatoris, ..." MGH DD O I 544(#400); Wampach (1935), 248 (#180)]. At Magdeburg on 15 March 973, with the encouragement of count Sigefroid, the monastery of Echternach was reformed, and Ravager was named as abbot. [MGH DD O I, 580-1 (#427); Wampach (1953), 253 (#182)]. In 981, Sigefroid signed a donation of archbishop Egbert of Trèves as advocate of Saint-Maximin ["S. Sigefridi comitis et rerum s. Maximini advocati." Wampach (1935), 264 (#189)].

Probably in 982 or 983, not long before his death [31 August 983, Lattin (1961), 143], bishop Wigfrid of Verdun attacked the castle of Luxemburg, an event revealed by a letter of Gerbert, who used the event as a warning to others ["Mementote sortis Guifridi Verdunensis episcopi, ob pervasionem castri Luciliburgi." Gerbert, Letters, 95 (#102)], Wigfrid having become captive as a result. The capture of Wigfrid was attributed by Hugues de Flavigny to a count Sigifridus ["Hic quadam die urbem egressus, venit ad villam fratrum quae Wandersala dicitur, ubi a comite Sigifrido captus et absolutum, de pecunia quam pro emendatione suscepit ita aecclesiam sanctae Mariae coronis ornavit, ut si manu primam tangeres, omnes usque ad novissimam moverentur." Hugues de Flavigny, Chronicon, s.a. 983, MGH SS 8: 367], but attributed to a count Sigebertus by the history of the bishops of Verdun ["Quadam die de civitate sua causa poscente egrediens domnus episcopus, venit in villam fratrum, quae dicitur Wandersalis. Ubi nocte irruente cum detineretur, et sui omnes membra sopori dedissent, protinus a comite Sigeberto insequutus est, et sicut maior casus nescientibus ingeritur, a militibus eius circumseptus capitur. Suis autem ad arma convolantibus, ilico nepos eius Richerus interficitur, et episcopus in captionem ducitur." Gesta episcoporum Virdunensium, c. 3, MGH SS 4: 46.]. Aubri de Troisfontaines, evidently misinterpreting the Gesta, would make Sigebert count of Verdun before Godefroid "the Captive" ["... et ante eundem Godefridum fuit comes Virdunensis quidam, qui dictus est Sigerbertus." Aubri, Chron., s.a. 984, MGH SS 23: 772]. Despite the disagreement regarding the name of Wigfrid's captor, Gerbert's letter tilts the evidence clearly in favor of Sigefroid of Luxemburg, and this event provides further evidence that Sigebert and Sigefroid were the same person [see above].

On 27 September 982, Sigefroid appears as count in Moselgau [Wampach (1935), 266 (#191)]. In an imperial muster, probably for the year 983 (or, less likely, 981), Sigefroid appears under the hypochoristic form of Sicco, where he is called "imperatorius frater" [see the Commentary section below] and was to lead 20 knights ["Domnus Sicco, imperatorius f(rater), d(ucat) XX." Uhlirz (1902), Excurs VIII, "Das Aufgebot des Kaisers vom Jahre 981", 247-253 (at p. 247); of the years 981 and 983 which have been suggested, the evident absence of leaders who were killed in Otto's disastrous Italian campaign of 982 makes the later date more probable].

In 985, along with Thierry, duke of Upper Lorraine, Godefroid, count of Verdun, and the brothers Bardo and Gozlin, Sigefroid was among those captured when the forces of king Lothair of France captured Verdun ["... Belgicae dux Theodoricus, necnon et vir nobilis ac strenuus Godefridus, Sigefridus quoque vir illustris, Bardo etiam et Gozilo fratres clarissimi et nominatissimi, aliique principes nonnulli, ..." Richer, Historia, iii, c. 103, MGH SS 3: 629; Thierry and Godefroid were Sigefroid's nephews, and Bardo and Gozlin were nephews of Godefroid]. More details are revealed in the letters of Gerbert of Aurillac (later pope Sylvester II), who was in contact with the younger Sigefroid, son of Sigefroid ["... per dilectissimumsibi filius Sigefridi" Gerbert, Letters, 39-40 (#41, 15 February 985); letter addressed to "Sigiffrido comitis filio" ibid., 48 (#51, 6 April 985); the dates are from Lattin (1961), 93, 97 (letters #53 and #58 in her list)]. On 6 April 985, Gerbert wrote to empress Theophanu about his meeting on 31 March with the two captive counts, Godefroid and his patruus Sigefroid ["... Nam II kal. apr. captos comites allocutus, Godefridum, patruumque ejus Sigefridum, inter hostium ..." Gerbert, Letters, (#52); Lattin (1961), 98 (#59)]. Sigefroid was still captive on 17 May 985 [Gerbert, Letters, 57 (#58); Lattin (1961), 106 (#65)], but had been returned by 28 June 985 ["Sigefridus comes ad sua rediit, ..." Gerbert, Letters, 58 (#59), Lattin (1961), 108 (#67); Godefroid remained captive for a bit longer].

On 5 November 987, count Sigifridus and his wife Hathawych were present at the consecration of the church in the castle of Luxemburg [Wampach (1935), 282-4 (#201); see also MGH SS 15 (pt. 2): 1282-3]. On 3 April 992, with the consent of Sigefroid, Otto III granted abbot Ravanger of Echternach the right to strike coins [Wampach 285 (#203)], and in the same year, Sigefroid confirmed previous alms to Echternach [Wampach 285 (#204); see the Commentary section below under the identification of the two Sigefroids]. In 993, between 24 September and Christmas, count Sigifridus and his wife Hadewihc, for the health of their souls and the souls of their children, both living and dead, donated to Saint-Maximin at Trèves a manse in Mersch (Marics), in comitatus Ardenensi, then in the rule of their son Heinricus, with the condition that they hold it for thier own lives [Wampach (1935), 286-9 (#206)]. Sigefroid was still alive in October 997, when he was mentioned in two acts of the emperor Otto III, one on 14 October, in which he was called advocate of Echternach ["... comes Sigifridus supradicti monasterii advocatus, ..." MGH DD O III, 677 (#259); Wampach (1935), 296 (#209)], and one on 26 October [MGH DD O III, 678 (#261); Wampach (1935), 296-7 (#210)].

Sigefroid is called dux in two early, but not contemporary, sources. One of these is the catalogue of abbots of Echternach [MGH SS 13: 739; MGH SS 23: 32; see above], and the other is by Rodulfus Glaber, where he is called a Saxon duke ["Potitoque decenter imperio accepit in regno suo [i.e., Heinrich II] conjugem filiam scilicet Siefredi Saxonum ducis, ex qua etiam cernens non posse suscipere liberos non eam propter hoc dimisit, sed omne patrimonium quod liberis debebatur Christi ecclesie contulit." Rodulfus Glaber, iii, 1 (p. 51)]

Date of Birth: Say 915×920.
If he was a son of Wigeric, as seems likely, then a birth late in his father's life (or posthumouly) would seem likely.
Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: Still living 26 October 997, d. 27×28 October, probably ca. 998.
As noted above, Sigefroid was still alive on 26 October 997. The necrology of Ranshofen and the Ranshofen codex give 28 October as his date of death ["5. Kal. Novembris Sigefridus Kunuz comes, pater Chunigundis imperatrice, obiit." MGH SS 4: 791; Wampach (1935), 297 (#211); Depoin (1904), 308], and the Notae necrologicae Confungenses add c[irca] 998 as the year ["V. Kal. Nov. Sigefridus Kunuz comes, pater Chunigundis imperatricis obiit c. 998" ibid.]. The necrology of Gorze gives 27 October ["VI. [kal. Nov.] Seifridus comes" Nec. Gorze 88], and the Kalendarium necrologicum canonicorum Babenbergensium also adds the approximate year ca. 998 ["VI. Kal. Nov. Sifrid comes pater sancte Kunegundis c. 998" Wampach (1935), 297 (#211)]. Although the date 998 is probably close, there is no good reason to regard it as exact. [Wampach, who would make Sigefroid a grandfather rather than father of the empress Cunégonde, would place his death on 15 August 985×7, and assign the above death date to Sigefroid "II". Wampach (1935), 284 (#202)] Sigefroid's epitaph reads as follows: "Ob culmen generis quondam non infimus orbis / Coeno sordidior nunc malefacta queror. / Nempe sub istius lapidis fundamine trusus / Perpetior casum omnibus ingenitum. / Ergo rogo similem passuros conditionem / Corde gemendo deum sollicitare pium, / Ut mihi parcendo tribuens veniam Sigifrido / Pacis Ierulsalem transferat in requiem." [MGH Poetae Latinae 5: 316]
Place of Death: Unknown.

Probable father: Wigeric, living 19 January 916, count in Bidgau.
He was a son of Cunégonde and of one of her husbands, probably by Wigeric, or, much less likely, by Ricuin, d. 923, count of Verdun. See the page of Cunégonde for a detailed discussion.

Mother: Cunégonde/Kunigund, granddaughter of Louis II, king of France.

Spouse: m. probably ca. 955, Hedwig, d. 13 December, after 993.
An act of Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, dated 31 October 958 or 959, shows that Sigefroid was married with at least two children at that time (wife and children unnamed) ["... et comes cum consensu uxoris et filiorum et amicorum suorum ..." (where "comes" is the "Sigfridus comes" mentioned earlier) Wampach (1935), 214-5 (#167)]. Since there is no good reason to believe that Sigefroid had any wife other than Hedwig (see below), they are likely to have been married by 955 or soon after if they had at least two children in 959. See Hedwig's page.

Children:
The Ranshofen Codex contains a necrology of a number of close relatives of the empress Cunégonde, wife of emperor Heinrich II, and mentions (with relationships stated), besides Cunégonde and her husband, her father Sigefridus Kunuz comes, her mother Hedewich comitissa, her brothers Heinricus dux, Theodericus Mettensis episocopus, Giselbertus, her sisters Ermindrut abbatissa, Liukart comitissa, and others [MGH SS 4: 791]. Other children of Sigefroid can be added to the list from sources cited individually below. Since Hedwig is explicitly cited in 964 as the mother of Henri/Heinrich, evidently the eldest, [Wampach (1935), 237-40 (#174), see above] and of the empress Kunigundis, and she was still living in 993, she appears to have been the mother of all of Sigefroid's known children.

MALE Henri/Heinrich (Hezelo), d. 27 (or 28) February 1026 [see Wampach (1935), 328-330 (#235)]; advocate of Saint-Maximin and Echternach; count in Bidgau; count of Ardennes; duke of Bavaria, 1004-9, 1017-1026; m. Hizila or Maria [see Wampach 329 (#235)].
Evidently the eldest son of Sigefroid, Heinrich first appears on 17 September 964 with his parents [Wampach (1935), 237-40 (#174), see above]. On 12 July 981, he appears as count in Bidgau ["in pago Bedense in comitatu Heinrici in villa Vvihc nominata" MGH DD O II 286(#252); Wampach (1935), 263 (#188)]. He has been identified as count Hezelo (a hypochoristic form of Henry), who was to lead 40 kinights in the 983 muster list of emperor Otto III ["Hezil c(omes) d(ucat) XXXX", Uhlirz (1902), 247; Wampach (1935), 265 (#190)]. He appears as count of Ardennes in 993 and 993×6 [Wampach (1935), 286-9 (#206) see above; 295 (#208)]. In 996, he appears as advocate of Saint-Maximin in a donation of Bertha, widow of Volkmar ["et comitem Henricum, monasterii nostri advocatum ..." Wampach (1935), 292 (#207)]. On 21 March 1004, he was made duke of Bavaria by his brother-in-law the emperor Heinrich II [Wampach (1935), 308 (#218); "... rex ... Inde per Thuringiae orientalisque fines Franciae transiens, ad Ratisbonam venit; ibique habito regali placito, militi suimet generoque Heinrico 12. Kalendas Aprilis cum omnium laude presentium, cumque hasta signifera ducatum dedit" (1004) Thietmar, Chronicon, vi, 3, MGH SS 3: 811; some other sources give 1002: "Item Chunigunde imperatricis frater Hainricus successit in Bawarie ducatu." Auctorum Garstense, s.a. 1002, MGH SS 9: 567; "Heinricus frater Chunigundis imperatrice fit dux Bawariae" Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses, s.a. 1002, MGH SS 9: 772; "Heinricus Baioarie dux successit in imperium, pro quo ducatum suscepit frather Chounigundis imperatricis Heinricus." Annales Ratisponenses, s.a. 1002, MGH SS 17: 584]. He lost his duchy when he rebelled in 1009 [Wampach (1935), 315 (#223); Thietmar vi, 28, MGH SS 3: 817], but was regranted Bavaria in 1017 [Wampach 315-6 (#224); cites Thietmar vii, 42, MGH SS 3: 855].

MALE Sigefroid, living 985, d. 15 August, year unknown (but probably before 993).
(Sometimes falsely called Sigefroid II of Luxemburg, and falsely called the father of the siblings listed here)
The letters of Gerbert show that when the elder Sigefroid was captured (along with several relatives) in 985, his son, the younger Sigefroid, negotiated for his release [Gerbert, Letters, 39-40 (#41, 15 February 985), 48 (#51, 6 April 985), see above; Wampach #197 (pp. 275-277)]. There were numerous earlier attempts to add a generation by making Wigeric and Kunigundis the parents of a Sigefroid I, father of a Sigefroid II, father of the empress Kunigundis and her siblings, with the references to count Sigefroid split between the supposed Sigefroid I and Sigefroid II of Luxemburg [see, e.g., Wampach, passim]. The primary reason for this attempt was to deal with the long chronology which is produced by having only one Sigefroid in the line between the empress Kunigund and the elder Kunigund, but it is now widely accepted that the "official" genealogy of the empress [see, e.g., MGH SS 2: 314] is correctly given [see Uhlirz (1956)]. The younger Sigefroid did exist, but he was not the ancestor of the later counts of Luxemburg. For the suggestion of Armin Wolf that Sigefroid was identical with the Siegfried count of Northeim who died in 1004 [Wolf (1997, 1999)], see the convincing refutation by Eduard Hlawitschka [Hlawitschka (1999)]. It is known that Sigefroid and Hedwig had at least one deceased child by 993, when they donated to Saint-Maximin for the health of their souls and the souls of their children, both living and dead, and Sigefroid is not known to be alive on that date.

FEMALE Liutgarde, d. 13 May, after 1005, m. 980, Arnulf, count of Holland.
Liutgarde is known to have been alive in 1005 by a statement of Thietmar, and she died on 13 May of an unknown year after that ["Liudgardae sororis regine" Thietmar, Chronicon, vi, 10, MGH SS 3: 810; "3. Idus Maii Liukart comitissa, soror Chunigundis imperatrice, obiit.", MGH SS 4: 791; "Arnulfus comes Liudgardam coniugem suam legaliter coram rege Ottone desponsavit, testamentque dotale inde scribi fecit indict. 8." Annales Egmundani, s.a. 980, MGH SS 16: 445]

MALE Frédéric, d. 1019, advocate of Stavelot-Malmedy, 1004, perhaps count in Hessengau; m. NN, daughter of Heribert, count in Kinziggau.
Called a brother of empress Kunigundis in a notice of his death in the Annales of Quedlinburg ["Hoc ipso anno Fridericus, frater Cunigundae imperatricis, defunctus est", Annales Quedlinburgenses, s.a. 1019, MHG SS 3: 84].

FEMALE NN, m. Thietmar, who d. 29 March, year unknown.
They were parents of an abbess named Oda/Uota, as indicated by the following two entries from the Ranshofen Codex: 4. Kal. Aprilis Dietmarus, pater abbatisse Uotae obiit; 13. Kal. Octobris abbatissa Uota, filia sororis Chunigundis imperarice, obiit. [MGH SS 4: 791]. For the conjecture that this daughter was named Hedwig/Hazacha, and the possible identification of Thietmar, see Geldner (1973), 46ff.

MALE Giselbert, d. 18 May 1004, count of Wallerfangen, in Moselgau, 996.
["15. Kal. Iunii Gisilbertus, frater Chunigundis imperatricis, obiit.", MGH SS 4: 791; Thietmar vi, 5, MGH SS 3: 406; Wampach #219 (pp. 308-9)]

MALE Thierry/Dietrich II (Theodoricus), d. 30 April or 2 May 1046 ["6. Nonas Maii Theodericus Metensis episcopus, frater Chunigundis imperiatrice, obiit.", MGH SS 4: 791; "Obiit 2. Kalen. Maii", Gesta Episcopum Mettensium, MGH SS 10: 543], bishop of Metz, 1005-1046.
He succeeded his cousin Adalbero II (son of duke Frédéric I of Upper Lorraine) in 1005, and was succeeded by his nephew Adalbero III (son of his brother Frédéric) in 1046.

FEMALE Cunégonde/Kunigund, d. 3 March 1033 [Wampach #243 (pp. 339)], m. Heinrich II, d. 1024, duke of Bavaria, Emperor, 1002-1024.
The Ranshofen Codex mentions her husband, parents, several siblings, and some other relatives [MGH SS 4: 791], and she is abundantly documented in other records.

FEMALE Ève (Abenza), d. 19 April [Parisse (1981), 28, citing the necrology of Saint-Bénigne], after 1040; m. Gérard, living 1020, count in Alsace.
Their son Sigifridus is called "nepos autem imperatricis nostrae" (i.e., nepos of the empress Kunigundis), by Thietmar [Thietmari Chron. vii, 45, MGH SS 3: 856]. Ève is evidently the Abenza, sister of the empress, who appears in an act of emperor Heinrich II in 1040 ["... quod nos Abenzæ pro reconciliatione et proclamatione illorum prediorum, quæ ipsa repetebat et quæ ei contingebat ex parte suæsororis, contectalis scilicet Heinrici imperatoris, ..." Wampach (1935), 374 (#257)]. [For Gérard, see also Chatelain (1898-1901), 13: 295-6]

FEMALE Ermentrude, abbess, d. 3 May, year unknown.
["... 6. Nonas Maii Theodericus Metensis episcopus, frater Chunigundis imperiatrice, obiit; 6. Nonas Maii Ermindrut abbatissa, soror eius, obiit", MGH SS 4: 791]

MALE Adalbero, archbishop of Trèves, 1008-1015; living 10 November 1036, when he was provost of St. Paulin (Trèves), lord of Rüttgen, Sierck, Saarburg, and Bernkastel.
["Sed Adalbero clericus, reginae Cunigundis germanus, quibusdam faventibus ad archpraesulatum quasi ex regio promisso sibi debitum adnisus, Treverense palatium praesidiis occupat, et cum fratribus suis, Theoderico Metense episcopo et Heinrico Baioariae duce Fridericoque comite, adnitente etiam cum aliis multis Gerhardo item comite, contra regem rebellavit." Herimanni Aug. Chronicon, MGH SS 5: 119.] Elevated as archbishop of Trèves in 1008 ["Aethelbero, frater reginae et immaturus iuvenis", Thietmar vi, 35; "Atalpero clericus, reginae frater", Annales Quedlinburgensis, s.a. 1008, MGH SS 3: 79; see Wampach #221-2 (pp. 310-5)], he maintined his position by force until 1015. In a document of 10 November 1036, he referred to himself as "Adalbero Dei gratia prepositus sancti Paulini Treverensis, dominus de Ruscheio, de Serico, de Sarburch et de Berincastel ..." [Wampach #249 (pp. 354-362); see also ibid., 364-8 (#251-2) for two false charter of Adalbero supposedly dated 1037 (for which, see also Sigefroid's supposed sister Judith, below); "Eo Pontificante, praefuit in monasterio sancti Paulini praepositus nomine Adelbero, de Lucelenburch ortus, vir potens et dives, habens castella haec: Sarburch, Berencastel et Rutiche, ..." Gesta Treverorum, c. 30, MGH SS 8: 171].



Commentary

The common confusion between Sigefroid the elder and Sigefroid the younger.

As discussed above, the evidence for the existence of a father and son named Sigefroid in this family is confined mainly to the letters of Gerbert, with some confirmation from the 983 muster of Otto II. This has left open what has seemed to some to be an attractive possibility, i.e., the suggestion that there were two counts of Luxemburg named Sigefroid, with some even making the second one the father of the empress Cunégonde [Parisot (1905), Wampach (1935), Vannerus (1947)]. This attraction was in turn due to what was perceived as a chronological problem involving Sigefroid, in which he seemed to be a generation younger than some of his apparent siblings. This "problem", more apparent than real, was that Sigefroid appears to have had children into his sixties, and to have survived until his eighties, both perfectly reasonable possibilities which, although less common in that age, happened from time to time, and the addition of an extra generation appeared to mitigate the perceived chronological problem despite introducing other problems (such as directly contradicting the eleventh century genealogical tables giving the empress Cunégonde's ancestry), as is discussed in more detail in the long discussion on the page of Sigefroid's mother Cunégonde. Any scenario along these lines would inevitably involve assigning some of the later events involving a count Sigefroid to the supposed Sigefroid II of Luxemburg. The most detailed attempt along these lines is by Wampach, who would place the death of the elder Sigefroid in 985×7, and assign the later events (and some of the earlier ones) to Sigefroid "II" [Wampach (1935), 284 (#202)].

The fact that there was indeed a single count Sigefroid with a nearly fifty year career documented from 949×950 to 997 or later was convincingly demonstrated in 1956 by Mathilde Uhlirz. Her principal source was a confirmation by count Sigefroid, dated 992, in which he indicated that he had previously been lay abbot of Echternach for many years (per multos annos): "Hec ego Sigefridus licet indignus, honore tamen comitis sublimatus, considerans, dum ex regia datione abbaciam sancti Willibrordi pro beneficio suscepissem eamque per multos annos potestative direxissem pro salute anime mee cogitavi aliquid illis tribuere, unde victus possent habere. / Denique tunc cum consilio fratrum ac totius familie petivi clementiam dominantissimi regis Ottonis, humiliter petens, ut mihi liceret de eadem abbacia quidquam dono perpetuo eis largiri. Quod sua misericordia ita consensit fieri. / Postea itaque vocavi supradictos pauperes, qui vulgo miselli nuncupantur, et tradidi eis unam vineam citra Suram iuxta monasterium s(ancti) Willibrordi in elemosinam Dei omnipotentis et s(ancti) Petri principis apostolorum et omnium sanctorum. Subsequenti item tempore cum meo instinctu et rogatu prefatus imperator Otto pro restauratione monastice vite abbatem Ravangerum eidem ecclesie s(ancti) Willibrordi prefecisset, ipsi venerabilis abbas una mecum memoratis fratribus de parte ecclesie molendinum unum ... dono perpetuo tradidit ..." [Uhlirz (1956), 42-3; see also Wampach 285 (#204); both cite Wampach's Grundherrschaft Echternachs I, 2, #178 (not seen by me)]. The chronology is further confirmed by the reference to Otto as king (... regis Ottonis ...) and then later the same Otto as emperor, clearly indicating that the earlier event was while Otto was still king, thus before 962. Thus, the Sigefroid who was lay abbot of Echternach from 949×950 to 973 was the same person as the Sigefroid who enacted the confirmation of 992. Since attempting to make this the younger Sigefroid would result in a improbable tight chronology which is far less likely than the long chronology which it was supposed to improve upon, but is perfectly consistent with a man born around the end of Wigeric's life, most of these records (with the couple of exceptions mentioned above under Sigefroid the younger) refer to the elder Sigefroid.

Falsely attributed sister or daughter:

FEMALE Judith, living 1033, m. Adalbert, duke of Lorraine.
The basis of this claim is a false charter of Adalbero, provost of St. Paulin (see above), dated 1037, in which Adalbero allegedly names Adalbert and Judith as his avunculus and amita ["In cuius rei testimonium et perpetuam firmitatem presens scriptum sigillo nostro necnon Adelberti avunculi nostri marchionis et ducis Lothoringie et Iuditte amicte nostre, uxoris sue sigillis muniri fecimus." Wampach (1935), 368 (#252)]. Some of those who argue that the empress Kunigund's father Sigefroid was a grandson of the elder Kunigund would make this Judith a daughter of the elder Sigefroid and sister of the younger Sigefroid [e.g., Wampach 284 (#202)]. See Cunégonde's page.

Alternate candidate for father (possible but unlikely):

Ricuin, d. 15 November 923, count of Verdun.
As one of the husband's of Sigefroid's mother, Ricuin was often attributed as the father of Sigefroid, especially in the earlier literature [see Renn (1941), 12ff.]. See Cunégonde's page for the detailed discussion.

Falsely attributed father:

Adelard/Adalhard.
See Cunégonde's page.

Falsely attributed father:

Giselbert, d. 939, duke of Lorraine.
See Cunégonde's page.

Falsely attributed father:

Frédéric, d. 23 October 942, abbot of Saint-Hubert in Ardennes, brother of Wigeric.
This parentage was suggested by Donald Jackman [Jackman (2000?)]. It is based on the assumption that the eleventh century genealogy naming Sigefroid as a son of Cunégonde is a fabrication, and on an interpretation of the words frater and patruus as applying to more distant relationships in Sigefroid's case, thus either setting aside or reinterpreting three of the most important pieces of evidence for Sigefroid's parentage. There is no good reason to accept this unconvincing scenario.

Falsely attributed parents:

Eberhard of Hamaland.
Amaldrada.
This was one of the main points of Brière (1962), developing a hypothesis of Depoin (1907). This scenario was conclusively refuted by Parisot [Parisot (1907-8), 58: 101-4; Parisot (1909); neither was cited by Brière; see Wigeric's page for more details.]

Unsolved problem:

Why was Sigefroid called Sicco, imperatorius f[rate]r?

The name Sicco, a hypochoristic form of Sigefroid, poses no problem, but the reason that Sigefroid was called imperatorius frater is unclear [Uhlirz (1954); Uhlirz (1956), 39]. There have been attempts to make Sigefroid's wife Hedwig a daughter of duke Giselbert of Lorraine by his wife Gerberga, sister of Otto the Great, which would explain the Saxon possessions of some members of Sigefroid's family, and would also explain the presence of names such as Heinrich, Giselbert, Dietrich, and Liutgardis in Sigefroid's family. However, this relationship can be excluded because it would make Sigefroid's daughter Cunégonde a second cousin of her husband, the emperor Heinrich II, who was famous for opposing such consanguineous marriages. Some other conjectured connections with the Ottonians that would be otherwise plausible can be set aside for the same reason [see Hedwig's page]. Uhlirz (1954) suggested that it is due to a relationship of Wigerich to Otto the Great. However, this interesting reference remains unexplained.


Bibliography

Brière (1962) = Pierre Brière, "Les origines de la première Maison de Luxembourg", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 79 (1962): 9-22.

Chatelain (1898-1901) = V. Chatelain, "Le Comté de Metz et la vouerie épiscopale du VIIIe au XIIIe siècle", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 10 (1898): 71-119; 13 (1901): 245-311.

Depoin (1904) = Joseph Depoin, "Sifroi Kunuz, comte de Mosellane, tige de la Maison de Luxembourg", Ons Hemecht 10 (1904): 307-315, 349-358, 422-431, 507-516.

Depoin (1907) = Joseph Depoin, "Wicman II, comte du Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au Xe siècle", in Paul Bergmans, ed., Annales du XXe Congrès (Gand, 1907), 2 vols (Ghent, 1907), 2: 315-351.

Geldner (1973) = Ferdinand Geldner, Tatsachen und Probleme der Vor- und Frühgeschichte des Hochstifts Bamberg (Meisenbach, 1973).

Gerbert, Letters = Julien Havet, ed., Lettres de Gerbert (983-997) (Paris, 1889). [In Latin. For English translation, see Lattin (1961).]

Grob (1900) = Jakob Grob, "Eustach von Wiltheims historische Werke", Ons Hémecht 6 (1900), 31-42, 89-96, 270-277, 320-327, [plus later installments not relevant here].

Hlawitschka (1961) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Zur Lebensgeschichte Erzbischof Odelrichs von Reims", Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 109 (1961): 1-20.

Hlawitschka (1999) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Stammten die Grafen von Northeim aus dem Hause Luxemburg?" Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 63 (1999): 276-289.

Jackman (2000?) = Donald Jackman, Onomastic origins of the early Luxemburgs, online at http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/d/c/dcj121/prosop/onoma/luxem.htm.

Lattin (1961) = Harriet Pratt Lattin, trans., The Letters of Gerbert (Records of Civilization - Sources and Studies, 60, New York, 1961). [English translation. For Latin edition, see Gerbert, Letters.]

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series.

MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Nec. Gorze = Michel Parisse, Le Nécrologe de Gorze (Nancy, 1971). [Also edited by Charles Aimond, "Le Nécrologe de Gorze", Bulletin mensuel de la Société d'archéologie lorraine 63 (1914): 76-85]

Parisot (1905) = "Sigefroy le premier des comtes de Luxembourg - était-il fils de Wigeric?" Annales de l'Est et du Nord 1 (1905): 76-83.

Parisot (1907-8) = Robert Parisot, "Les Origines de la Haute-Lorraine et sa première maison ducale (959-1033)", Mémoires de la Société d'Archéologie Lorraine et du Musée historique Lorrain 57 (1907): 151-428; 58 (1908): 5-265.

Parisot (1909) = Robert Parisot, review of Depoin, Wicmann II, comte du Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au dixième siècle, in Annales de l'Est et du Nord 5 (1909): 457-460.

Parisse (1981) = Michel Parisse, "Généalogie de la Maison d'Ardenne", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 95 (1981): 9-41.

Renn (1941) = Heinz Renn, Das erste Luxemburger Grafenhaus (963-1136) (Rheinisches Archiv 39, Bonn, 1941).

Rodulfus Glaber = Maurice Prou, ed., Raoul Glaber - les cinq livres de ses histoires (900-1044) (Paris, 1886).

Twellenkamp (1991) = Markus Twellenkamp, "Das Haus der Luxemburger", in Weinfurter & Kluger, eds., Die Salier und das Reich 1: 475-502.

Uhlirz (1902) = Karl Uhlirz, Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reiches unter Otto II. und Otto III., 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1902).

Uhlirz (1954) = Mathilde Uhlirz, "Domnus Sicco, imperatorius f(rate)r d(ucat) XX", Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 10 (1954): 166-9.

Uhlirz (1956) = Mathilde Uhlirz, "Die ersten Grafen von Luxemburg", Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 12 (1956), 36-51.

Vannerus (1947) = J. Vannerus, "La première dynastie Luxembourgeoise", Revue belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 25 (1947): 801-858.

Wampach (1935) = Camillus Wampach, Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit, I (Luxemburg, 1935).

Wolf (1997) = Armin Wolf, "Die Herkunft der Grafen von Northeim aus dem Hause Luxemburg und der Mord am Königskandidaten Ekkehard von Meissen 1002", Niedersächsisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte 69 (1997): 427-440. [Not seen by me, but essentially the same in content as Wolf (1999)]

Wolf (1999) = Armin Wolf, "Luxemburg - Sachsen - Baiern: Neues zur Genealogie des ersten Hauses Luxemburg", in Jean-Claude Muller, ed., Émigration & Immigration au cours de l'Histoire (Association Luxembourgeoise de Généalogie et d'Héraldique, 1999), 41-58. [See p. 53, which indicates that this paper and Wolf (1997) have essentially the same content.]


I would like to thank Peter Stewart for his comments on the internet newsgroup/mailing list soc.genealogy.medieval/GEN-MEDIEVAL in response to many of my postings there on this subject, and for sharing copies of many sources with me. I also thank Chris Phillips for sharing copies.



Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 5 April 2007.

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