MALE Regnier I

Count (Hesbaye?, Masau?)
Lay-abbot of Echternach, 897-915.
Lay-abbot of Stavelot-Malmedy.
Lay-abbot of Saint-Servais.
Lay-abbot of Saint-Maximin.
"Dux", 898, 905.
"Missus Dominicus", 911.
Marquis, 915.

Regnier I may be the Rainerus who was mentioned in the Capitulary of Quierzy (11 June 877), along with several others (including a Giselbert) ["Si versus Mosam perrexerit, sint cum eo Franco episcopus, Iohannes episcopus, Arnulfus comes, Gislebertus, Letardus, Matfridus, Widricus, Gotbertus, Adalbertus, Ingelgerus, Rainerus, una cum praedictis." MGH Leg. 1: 539]. According to Folcuin, writing a century later, Regnier joined with Franco, bishop of Liège, to fight the Normans, until their king, Godefrid, was converted (882) and later killed (885) ["Tali ergo modo turbata ecclesiae pace, et firmamento regni posito in formidine, Franco praedictus episcopus, coactus iusta, quantum ad saeculares, et vere necessaria bella suscipere, accito sibi Reginerio quodam, quem Longum-collum vocant, viro strennuo et in bellicis rebus exercitato, hii frequenter in acie confligentes, perraro victi, multoties extitere victores. Nec cessatum est donec peste attrito rege eorum Godefrido ad fidem Christi converso et baptisato, nec multo post interfecto, pax ecclesiae redditur." Folcuin, Gesta abbatum Lobiensium, c. 17, MGH SS 4: 62]. In 895, along with count Baldwin of Flanders and Baldwin's brother Raoul, Regnier changed sides from king Charles the Simple to Zwentibold, king of Lorraine ["Balduinus vero comes et Rodulfus frater eius, necnon et Ragnerus, non bono consilio accepto, Karolum reliquerunt, et se ad Zuendebolchum contulerunt." Ann. Vedast., s.a. 895]. In 898, Zwentibold deprived Regnier of all of his lands in the kingdom of Lorraine, and gave him fourteen days to leave the kingdom ["Eodem anno Zuendibolch Reginarium ducem sibi fidissimum et unicum consiliarium, nescio cuius instinctu, a se reppulit et honoribus, hereditatibus, quas in suo regno habebat, interdictis eum extra regnum infra XIIII dies secedere iubet." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 898, 145]. Regnier returned to Charles and promised his loyalty, persuading him to invade Zwentibold's kingdom ["Rainerus/Ragnerus vero comes venit ad Karolum regem; et fidem ei promittens, suasit illi atque suis fidelibus invadere regnum Zuendebolchi." Ann. Vedast., s.a. 898].

The most detailed information about Regnier's geographical sphere of activity comes from the lay-abbacies which he held. He was lay-abbot of Echternach, apparently from 897 (third year of Zwentibold) to 915 (twenty-first year of Charles the Simple, or his fourth year as king of Lorraine) ["Reinerus 19 annis presidens huic loco, anno incarnationis Domini 915, indict. 3, anno 21 regnante Karolo, filio Ludovici Balbi ex Adeleida regina, contulit huic loco Berge et Rudmachra, Waderloi et Thremethe cum aecclesiis et ceteris omnibus suis appenditiis." Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium (Catalogue 1), MGH SS 13: 739; "Rainerus iunior comes et abbas praefuit huic loco 19 annis, id est a 3.anno [Zuen]diboldi regis usque ad 4. annum Karoli regis, filii Ludovici Balbi, qui est annus incarnationis Domini 915." ibid. (Catalogue 2), 741]. He was also lay-abbot of Stavelot-Malmedy [Series abbatum Stabulensium, MGH SS 13: 293; Bernard (1957), 5 ff.], Saint-Servais [Dümmler (1862-88), 3: 468 & n. 1; Parisot (1898), 544; RHF 9: 541-2, 546] and Saint-Maximin and perhaps also of Chèvremont [Parisot (1898), 603; Knetsch (1917), 12-3]. No record tells us the region or regions over which Regnier was count. Although he is often called count of Hainaut and Hesbaye, there is no authority for this earlier than the unreliable Dudo, who calls him "duke" of those places ["... Raginerum Longi-Colli, Hasbacensem et Hainaucensem ducem, ..." Dudo, ii, 9 (p. 150)]. The presence of a count Sigard of Hainaut in 908 and 920 suggests that Regnier was not count there at the time of his death [see Dhondt (1945), 125-7]. Brabant suggested that Regnier was count of the western part of Hainaut and Sigard of the eastern [Brabant (1881), 28 (#31)], while Vanderkindere suggested that Regnier was count of Hainaut until his disgrace of 898, and that Sigard became count at that time [Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 65-6, 78]. In a discussion of the area ruled by Regnier as count, Parisot suggested that he was perhaps count of Hesbaye and Masau [Parisot (1898), 562-3].

Regnier's supposed status as duke of Lorraine has also been widely discussed. The basis for his assumption of that title is not strong. One problem is chronology, for the two early places where Regnier is described as dux occur at times when it would be hard to argue that he was then duke of Lorraine. Regnier is called dux in the 898 entry of Regino of Prüm (see above), but he was probably not duke of Lorraine at that time, because Lorraine was then a kingdom under the direct rule of Zwentibold [Parisot (1898), 543]. He signs a charter as dux on 21 July 905 [Parisot (1898), 563; Wampach (1935), 154, n. 5], but the duke of Lorraine at that time was Gebhard, who is called duke of Lorraine in an act of 24 June 903 ["Kebehart dux regni quod a multis Hlotharii dicitur" MGH DD LdK 126 (#20)] and probably held that title until his death in 910. In 911 Regnier appears as "comes et missus dominicus necnon et abba Stabulensis atque Malmundariensis monasteriorum" [Wampach (1935), 154, n. 5; Parisot (1898), 601]. In a charter of king Charles "the Simple" in the period 908×915, he appears as "comes et demarcus" alongside duke Robert (later king Robert I) ["... comes Reynerus et demarcus et Rotbertus comes et demarcus ..." Wampach (1935), 165-6 (#144); see the page of Wigeric for a full transcript]. In another charter of Charles, on 25 August 915, he appears alongside Robert as "marchio" ["Raginerus Marchio strenuus" RHF 9: 523]. These titles of missus dominicus, demarcus, and marchio suggest that Regnier had some sort of special status in Lorraine between 910 and 915, but they do not prove that he was duke of Lorraine [see Parisot (1898), 563, 601-3].

Regnier is sometimes given the nickname "Langhals" (Collo-longus, Longicollus) ["Hac etiam tempestate Ragenerus, vir consularis et nobilis cognomento Collo-longus, cuius etiam obitus multam rei publicae in Belgica intulit labem, communi corporis valitudine tactus et oppressus, finem vitae apud Marsnam palatium accepit." Richer, i, 34, MGH SS 3: 579; Folcuin, Gesta abbatum Lobiensium, c. 17, MGH SS 4: 62 (see above); Dudo, ii, 9 (p. 150, see above)]. However, since the writers who give him that nickname all wrote after his grandson Regnier III, who is also recorded using that nickname, it is possible that Regnier I was mistakenly given that nickname in confusion with his grandson [Parisot (1898), 610-1].

Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth:

Date of death: 25 August 915 × 19 January 916, probably by November 915.
Regnier was still living on 25 August 915, when he appeared in a charter of Charles "the Simple" (see above). He was certainly deceased by 19 January 916, when he was not present at the assembly at Heristal, but his sons Giselbert and the younger Regnier were (the order they were listed making it clear that it was not the father who was present) [Parisot (1898), 617; Wampach (1935), 170 (#146)]. If the Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium is correct in having his tenure as lay-abbot end in the fourth year of Charles the Simple (as king of Lorraine - see above), then Regnier was deceased by November of that year [see Brabant (1881), 66 (#81), n. 1; Parisot (1898), 609-610].
Place of death: Meersen palace.
["... finem vitae apud Marsnam palatium accepit." Richer, i, 34, MGH SS 3: 579 (see above); however, Richer is not a contemporary source]

Father: Uncertain.
Mother: Uncertain.

See the Commentary section below for a discussion of Regnier's parentage.

Spouse: Alberada, who survived her husband.
A 968 charter of Giselbert's widow Gerberge mentions Giselbert and his parents Regnier and Alberada ["Gerberga divina dispensante clementia humulis Francorum Regina ... et remedio senioris nostri piæ memoriæ Giselberti, suique parentum patris scilicet matris, Rageneri et Albradæ; ..." RHF 9: 666]. Sigehard's Miraculi S. Maximini indicates that Giselbert's mother survived Regnier ["Ipse etenim cum inhumane prorsus familiam sancti tractaret, et a matre iuvenis ducis - nam pater iam obierat - proinde saepius obiurgaretur, ..." Ex Sigehardi Miraculis S. Maximini, c. 16, MGH SS 4: 233].

See the Commentary section for supposed earlier spouse or spouses. While no direct evidence confirms the existence of an earlier wife, there appears to be chronological room for one (especially if the identification of the Regnier of 877 with Regnier I is correct).

Giselbert is directly documented as a son of Alberada, and thus Regnier, evidently younger than Giselbert, was probably by Alberada as well.

MALE Giselbert, d. 2 October 939, duke of Lorraine, m. 929, Gerberga, daughter of Heinrich I, king of Germany.
[Richer, i, 34, MGH SS 3: 579;
Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium, MGH SS 13: 739, 741]

MALE Regnier II, fl. 916-931, count of Hainaut, m. before 924, NN.
Regnier was present at Heristal on 19 January 916 [Parisot (1898), 617; Wampach (1935), 170 (#146)]. He is mentioned by Flodoard as a brother of Giselbert in the year 924, at which time he already had a son, who was given as a hostage to his brother-in-law Bérenger ["Interea Giselbertum Berengarius, qui sororem ipsius uxorem habebat, comprehendit, quemque, oblatis obsidibus sibi pro eo filiis Ragenarii, fratris ipsius Gisleberti, dimisit. Idem vero Gislebertus dimissus, terram Berengarii Ragenariique, fratris sui, et Isaac comitis depraedationsibus plurimus vastat." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 924, 21-2]. Regnier II is called count of Hainaut by the life of abbot Gerard of Brogne ["... Raginero Hainoensi comite ..." Vita Gerardi abbatis Broniensis, MGH SS 15: 666]

FEMALE NN, m. before 924, Bérenger, fl. 907-924, count in pagus Lomacensis.
Bérenger was mentioned as count in pagus Lomacensis in two acts of Ludwig "das Kind" on 26 October 907 and 18 January 908 [Parisot (1898), 562, n. 5]. He was present at Heristal on 19 January 916 [Parisot (1898), 617; Wampach (1935), 170 (#146)]. He married Giselbert's sister before 924, when he captured Giselbert, releasing him when he got Giselbert's nephew, a son of Regnier, as a hostage. Freed, Giselbert then ravaged not only Bérenger's lands, but those of his brother Regnier and count Issac [Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 924, 21-2 (see above)]. Late sources have frequently given this daughter the uncommon name Symphorienne, the source of which is unknown. Depoin would give her the name Berthe, based on a late manuscript in which a Berengarius, comes Lossensis is given a wife with that name [Depoin (1911), 12].

Probable brother or other close relative: Albert, fl. ca. 932, count.
Count Albert appears in a document of 3 October, in or about 932, in which he mentioned his relative duke Giselbert ("dux Gislebertus consanguineus meus", "Adii celsitudinem ducis Gisleberti scilicet cognati mei ..."), mentioned that he had had a brother named Raginerus ("ante annos plurimos"), and indicated that he was of advanced age ("... considerans etatis mee canitiem malui, post mei decursus tempora ..." [Knetsch (1917), 12; Bernard (1957), 15 & n. 76]. All of this is consistent with him being a brother of Regnier I, but it is also possible that he was related in some other way. Brabant suggests that he was a son of the older Regnier, lay abbot of Echternach until 870 [Brabant (1881), 11-2 (#10)]. Vanderkindere suggests that Albert was perhaps identical with a certain Otbert who appears with his wife Helletrude in a donation to Stavelot in 907 [Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 234].


Possible father: Giselbert, fl. 840-863, count of Masau and Darnau.
Giselbert first appears in the year 840, when he defected from Charles "the Bald" to support Lothair [Nithard ii, 2, MGH SS 2: 656]. After the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye in 841, Giselbert, called count of Masau ["Gislebertus comes Mansuariorum" Nithard iii, 2, MGH SS 2: 663], changed sides again and went back over to Charles. In 846, Giselbert carried off a daughter of Lothair and married her ["Gisalbertus vassallus Karli filiam Hlutharii imperatoris rapuit et in Aquitaniam profectus in coniugem accepit. Hludowicus occidentem profectus mense Martio cum Karlo placitum habuit; in quo uterque eorum publice contestatus est suae non fuisse voluntatis, quod Gisalbertus filiae Hlutharii iungeretur, ut his auditis Hlutharius facilius placari potuisset." Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 846, MGH SRG 36], a marriage that appears to have been recognized in 848, when Giselbert and the emperor were reconciled ["Circa Kalendas autem Octobris general placitum habuit apud Mogontiacum, ... pro Gisalberhto, qui eodem anno ad fidem eius venerat, reconciliationis gratia direxit." Annales Fuldenses, s.a. 848, MGH SRG 37-8]. Count Giselbert of Darnau appears in a document of count Ansfrid on 5 October 863 ["... in pago Darnau, in marca vel villa Sodoia, quae sita est super fluvium Geldiun, in comitatu Giselberti; ..." Chronicon Laureshamense, MGH SS 21: 370]. He may have been the Giselbert who was mentioned in the Capitulary of Quierzy (11 June 877) ["Si versus Mosam perrexerit, sint cum eo Franco episcopus, Iohannes episcopus, Arnulfus comes, Gislebertus, Letardus, Matfridus, Widricus, Gotbertus, Adalbertus, Ingelgerus, Rainerus, una cum praedictis." MGH Leg 1: 539], and he was possibly also the count Giselbert at whose request the emperor Charles "the Fat" granted to a certain Théodon (a vassal of Giselbert) property at Oneux in Condroz and the usage of the forest of Hulsina on 6 September 885 [see Parisot (1898), 480, n. 1; Vanderkindere (1902), 1: 265, n. 5]. It should be noted that it is difficult to be certain that all of these references to a Giselbert refer to the same individual. Ernst accepted that the count of Masau and the count of Darnau were the same person, but considered the Giselbert who married Lothair's daughter to be a different person [Ernst (1857). 306-9]. Chaume's very conjectural pedigree would split these records among three different Giselberts in three consecutive generations, first the count of Masau, then his supposed son the count of Darnau (husband of Lothair's daughter), who in turn is made to be the father of the Giselbert of 877 and 885 (and called count of Condroz) [Chaume (1925), 1: 549 (table XI)]. However, most scholars would identify at least the count of Masau, the son-in-law of Lothair, and the count of Darnau as the same individual.
Possible mother:
NN, daughter of emperor Lothair I.
She is frequently called "Ermengarde" in the secondary sources, but it is not clear what basis there is for giving her this name, as her name is not given in Annales Fuldenses, the only known early source to mention her. Depoin and Chaume identify her with Lothair's known daughter Helletrude, who was married to a count Bérenger, and they suggest that Giselbert was another husband of that daughter [Depoin (1908-10), 15: 72-3; Chaume (1925), 549 (table XI)].

This suggested father-son relationship between Giselbert and Regnier (along with the grandfather-grandson relationship between Lothair and Regnier) has appeared on numerous occasions, sometimes stated with some sort of qualification, sometimes given as established fact [e.g., Parisot (1898), 540; Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 197, 265; Knetsch (1917), 11-12; Sproemberg (1941), 8; Bernard (1957), 1, 20; Brandenburg (1964), 85-6; Werner (1967), 449-450; Hlawitschka (1968), 176, n. 161]. There is no direct evidence to support this affiliation. There are three main reasons for suggesting this connection:

Although this scenario is plausible enough, it is difficult to accept with the high degree of confidence which seems to be generally implied. In addition to the lack of direct evidence, the following considerations might cause one to hesitate.

Probable relative (and an alternate candidate for his father): Regnier, [d. 8 October 876?]; count; lay-abbot of Echternach, 864-870.
This count Regnier was lay-abbot of Echternach from 864 to 870 ["Raginerus comes et abbas successit Hattoni, rexitque hunc locum 7 annis, id est a 10. anno Lotharii regis usque 16 annum regni eiusdem, qui est annus incarnationis Domini 870, indict. 3." Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium (Catalogue 1), MGH SS 13: 739; "Reinerus comes et abbas prefuit [huic loco . .] annis, id est a . . anno Lotharii regis usque as . . annum regni eiusdem, qui est incarnationis Domini . . . ." ibid. (Catalogue 2), 741]. He was possibly the same person as the Regnier who was killed at the Battle of Andernach on 8 October 876 ["Fuerunt autem in ipsa congressione occisi Raganarius et Hieronimus comites et multii alii; ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 876, 133]. The Regnier who was lay-abbot from 897 to 915 is called "junior" in one version of the lists, which clearly indicates that we should not attempt to identify the two Regniers. However, it seems likely that the two were closely related [see also Brabant (1881), 11-2 (#9-#10); Parisot (1898), 542, n. 8]. The reasons for considering this person as an alternate candidate for the father of Regnier I are simple. He had the same name, was also lay-abbot of Echternach, and lived about a generation earlier. While that does not necessarily mean that Regnier I was the son of this person, the evidence for Giselbert being the father of Regnier I is not strong enough to rule out this alternate scenario.

Scenarios which split Regnier into two

What both of the following scenarios have in common is the suggestion that the appearances which are usually identified with Regnier I should in fact be divided into two separate individuals. The chronological point at which they are split is different, so they have been listed as two different scenarios. In both cases the "individuals" thus obtained are regarded as (or conjectured to be) father and son, although in neither cases is evidence for this relationship actually supplied.

Supposed father: Regnier "I", fl. 898.
In his account of the early counts of Hainaut, Anselme starts with count Giselbert and his wife "Ermengarde", their son Raynier I (fl. 898) and his wife Ermengarde, and their son Raynier II (d. 917) and his wife Albrade, followed by their sons duke Giselbert and Raynier III (usually called Regnier II), and so forth [Anselme, 2: 770-1]. Thus, Anselme separates the present Regnier into two individuals, whom he numbers I and II, which each succeeding Raynier/Regnier numbered one higher than usual.

Supposed father: Regnier, fl. 877, 886.
Supposed brother: Sigard, fl. 908, 920, count of Hainaut and Luihgau.
Chaume identifies the Regnier appearing in records of 877 and 886 as the father of Regnier I, who in turn is made to be a son of count Giselbert of Darnau (by "Helletrudis", daughter of Lothair I), a supposed son of Giselbert, count of Masau [Chaume (1925), 1: 549]. As indicated above, the latter two Giselberts are usually identified as the same person. Chaume thus uses four generations (Giselbert - Giselbert - Regnier - Regnier I) for individuals that others place in only two generations (Giselbert - Regnier I). The placement of Sigehard as a relative is pure conjecture.

Possible son or grandson: Liechard, son of a count Regnier.
The source for Liechard is an act of emperor Otto I at Maastricht dated 24 January 966, which includes a long list of previous donations, of which one of them was a donation of Liechard, son of a previous count Regnier ["... quidquid Regenarius comes pro se coniugeque filiisque eius ...; similiter quidquid predicti Regennarii filius nomine Liechardus tradidit in pago Hasbaniensi in villa que dicitur Gingolonham: ..." MGH DD OI, 432 (#318)]. It seems unclear whether Liechard's father was Regnier I or Regnier II [see Bernard (1957), 11-13].

Supposed earlier wife (existence uncertain): Hersende, d. before 887.
Hersende is known only from a suspect charter [see Parisot (1898), 611]. Depoin makes her an illegitimate daughter of Charles "le Chauve" by his second wife Richilde, born before their marriage [Depoin (1905-8), 64, 82], and Chaume makes her a daughter of Charles [Chaume (1925), 1: 549 (table XI)]. The conjectured relationship to Charles comes from the words "imperatoris Karoli hæres et successor" which refer to Regnier in the charter [Depoin (1905-8), 64]. Even if Hersende existed, the suggestion that she was a daughter of Charles is extremely improbable.

Conjectured earlier wife (possible, but unproven): Ermentrude, daughter of Louis II le Begue, king of France.
Conjectured daughter (possible, but unproven):
FEMALE Cunégonde, m (1) Wigeric, d. 916×9, count in Bidgau; m. (2) Ricuin, d. 923, count of Verdun.
There are a number of pieces of evidence which suggest that there was some sort of connection between the family of Regnier and Giselbert and the descendants of Cunégonde, and one way of explaining this evidence would be if Cunégonde were a daughter of Regnier by Ermentrude (whose relationship to Cunégonde is well-documented, but whose husband is undocumented). This evidence is discussed in detail on Cunégonde's page.

Conjectured brother (unproved, status uncertain): Ricuin, d. 923, count of Verdun.
According to Evrard, Clouet conjectured that Regnier I was a brother of Ricuin of Verdun [Evrard (1981), 154, citing Louis Clouet, Historie de Verdun et du pays vedunois (Verdun, 1867-70), 1: 300, which I have not seen]. Anslem, who divides Regnier into two individuals, father and son, would make them father and brother of Ricuin, respectively [Anselme, 2: 770-1]. This conjecture is clearly incompatible with the conjecture in the previous item. See the pages of Cunégonde and Ricuin for more discussion.

Falsely attributed children:

MALE Raoul, fl. 915-944, count of Masau and Hesbaye.
[Chaume (1925), 1: 549 (table XI)] Here, Chaume has apparently identified a count Raoul who appears in charters of Charles "the Simple" dated 7 July 915 and 8 September 920, and at the assembly at Heristal on 19 January 916 [Parisot (1898), 617 & n. 1] with a Raoul brother of Regnier who appears in Flodoard's annals in 944 ["Hugo dux colloquium Herimanni petit, qui missus erat obsidere castella Ragnarii ac Rodulfi fratrum, Ludowici regis fidelium; qui resistendi Herimanno praesidium non habentes, veniam, datis muneribus multis, ab Othone rege deposcunt." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 944, 92]. These were not the same individual. The latter was in fact Raoul, son of Regnier II and brother of Regnier III [see Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 133-7], and there is no good reason to believe that the former was a son of Regnier I. The mistaken attribution of Regnier II's son Raoul as a son of Regnier I is also a part of the faulty logic which has also attributed bishop Baldéric of Utrecht as a son of Regnier I (see the next paragraph).

MALE Baldéric, d. 977, bishop of Utrecht, 918-977.
This error is made by Hirsch [Hirsch (1862-75), 1: 344, n. 1], and by Daris [Daris, Histoire, 1: 316 (not seen by me); Daris, Notices, 13: 6-22 (not seen by me)]. The basis of the claim is a charter of Baldéric dated 24 June 943, one copy of which appears to name a certain Regnier as Baldéric's father. This was combined with a statement of Rather, who had been expelled as bishop of Liège and replaced by Baldéric I, who stated that that the boy (puer) who replaced him was a nephew of counts Regnier and Raoul, and also son of a brother of Baldéric of Utrecht ["... vi publica comitum Regeneri atque Ruoduolti - nepos ipsorum, qui et filius fratris exstiterat Baldrici, talia ut quid contigerint ne difficile sit coniectari, eiusdem nominis puer quidam ..." Rather, Phrenesis, MGH SS 4: 262, n. 11]. With this Regnier and Raoul being incorrectly placed as sons of Regnier I, the placement of Baldéric of Utrecht as a son of Regnier I appeared to follow. Against this, we have the statement of the life of bishop Radbod of Utrecht that Baldéric was a son of a certain count Ricfrid ["Presul enim Baldricus, tunc temporis egregiae indolis adolescens ac Ricfridi comitis filius, ..." Vita Radbodi episcopi Traiectensis, c. 8, MGH SS 15: 571a], which is confirmed by Ricfrid's epitaph [ibid., n. 1]. The solution to the apparent contradiction was found by Vanderkindere [Vanderkindere (1900)]. In the 943 charter, Baldéric of Utrecht gives property to an unnamed recipient and to the recipient's sons Baldéric and Raoul, and also donated 12 manses "pro ablutione peccaminum genitoris vestri Raineri comitis et insuper Nevelungi senioris vestri" [Vanderkindere (1900), 38]. The twelfth century copy of the charter has "genitoris nostri" in place of "genitoris vestri" (thus leading to the mistaken attribution of Baldéric as son of a Regnier), but there seems to be no reason to doubt that the latter reading given in the eleventh century copy is correct. As pointed out by Vanderkindere, the recipient of the charter was a woman, wife of Nevelong and a daughter of Regnier II of Hainaut. Nevelong is known from Ricfrid's epitaph to have been a son of Ricfrid. Thus, the evidence of the charter fits well with the other evidence. Bishop Baldéric I of Liège was a maternal nephew of counts Regnier III and Raoul and a paternal nephew of Baldéric of Utrecht, and Baldéric of Utrecht was not a brother of counts Regnier and Raoul, nor a member of the dynasty of Hainaut. [Unknown to Vanderkindere at the time he wrote his 1900 work, Daris had already corrected some of his errors regarding Baldéric in volume 16 of his work published in 1897 (not seen by me), including the realization that the recipient of the 943 charter was a woman. See also Monchamp (1900)]

MALE Baldéric I, d. 20 April 959, bishop of Liège, 956-9.
Hirsch and Brabant both attribute this error to Butkens [Hirsch (1862-75), 1: 344; Brabant (1881), 67 (#83)]. As indicated in the previous item, Baldéric I of Liège was a daughter of count Nevelong (a brother of Baldéric of Utrecht) by a daughter (name unknown) of count Regnier II of Hainaut. Werner, evidently confusing Baldéric of Liège with Baldéric of Utrecht, erroneously makes the former a son of count Ricfrid [Werner (1967), 465, n. 24].

MALE Lambert, count of Hesbaye (existence unlikely).
Brabant and Parisot attribute this error to Butkens [Brabant (1881), 67 (#83); Parisot 611, n. 5]. The name Lambert did not appear in this family for another two generations.

MALE Albert, fl. ca. 932, count.
Parisot cites Wittich & Duvivier as making this claim [Parisot (1898), 611, n. 5]. Since Albert was already of advanced age in 932 (see above), it is not reasonable to place him as a son of Regnier. Also, if Albert were in fact a brother of Giselbert, he would not have called him a consanguineus and cognatus.


Ann. Bertin. = G. Waitz, ed., Annales Bertiniani (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1883).

Ann. Vedast. = B. de Simson, ed., Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini (MGH SRG 12, 1909), 41-82.

Anselme = Père Anselme, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, 9 vols. (Paris, 1726-33).

Bernard (1957) = Claire Bernard, "Etude sur le domaine ardennais de la famille des Regnier", Le Moyen Age 63 (1957): 1-21.

Brabant (1881) = Firmin Brabant, "Étude sur Regnier I au Long Col et la Lotharingie à son époque", Mémoires couronnes et autres mémoires publiée par l'Académie Royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique 31 (1881). [Since page numbers are often cut off in the easily available Google Books version of this work, I have also cited Brabant's section numbers.]

Brandenburg (1964) = Erich Brandenburg, Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen (Frankfurt, 1964).

Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).

Daris, Histoire = Joseph Daris, Histoire du diocèse et de la principauté de Liège. (I have not seen this work)

Daris, Notices = Joseph Daris, Notices historiques sur les églises du diocèse de Liège, 17(+?) vols. (I have not seen this work)

Depoin (1905-8) = Joseph Depoin, Études sur le Luxembourg à l'époque carolingienne. I. Le domaine de Mersch et ses possesseurs (2nd ed., Luxembourg, 1908 [1st ed. 1905]).

Depoin (1908-10) = Joseph Depoin, "Études sur le Luxembourg à l'époque carolingienne. II. Le roman de s. Meingaud", Ons Hemecht 14 (1908): 220-4, 313-318, 377-381, 417-424, 454-461; 15 (1909): 69-76, 110-4, 132-136, 174-8, 219-222, 260-265, 298-306, 321-328, 378-385; 16 (1910): 4-10, 41-6, 84-9, 125-131, 162-8, 202-8, 244-9, 284-295.

Depoin (1911) = Joseph Depoin, Lambert a-la-Barbe comte de Louvain et les origines de sa dynastie (Paris, 1911).

Dhondt (1945) = Jan Dhondt, "Note critique sur les comtes de Hainaut au dixième siècle", Annales du cercle archéologique de Mons 59 (1945): 123-144.

Dudo = Jules Lair, ed., Dudonis Sancti Quintini De moribus et actis primorum Normanniæ ducum (Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie, 23, Caen, 1865); see also Eric Christiansen, ed. & trans., Dudo of St. Quentin, History of the Normans (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998). Page numbers refer to Lair's edition.

Dümmler (1862-88) = Ernst Dümmler, Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches (Leipzig, 1862-88).

Ernst (1857) = S. P. Ernst, "Mémoire historique et critique sur les comtes de Hainaut de la première race", Compte rendu des séances de la Commission Royale d'Histoire 2 ser., 9 (1857): 393-513.

Evrard (1981) = Jean-Pol Evrard, "Les comtes de Verdun aux Xe et XIe siècles", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 95 (1981): 153-182.

Hirsch (1862-75) = Siegfried Hirsch, Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich II, 3 vols. (Berlin, 1862-4; Leipzig, 1875).

Hlawitschka (1968) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Lotharingen und das Reich an der Schwelle der deutschen Geschichte (Schriften der MGH 21, Stuttgart, 1968).

Knetsch (1917) = C. Knetsch, Das Haus Brabant (Darmstadt, 1917).

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series (LdK = Ludwig das Kind; OI = Otto I).

MGH Leg. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges series.

MGH SRG = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum (separate editions).

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Monchamp (1900) = Bibliographical notice of Daris, Notices, vols. 16 & 17, Bulletin de la classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques et de la classe des beaux-arts (1900), 63-6.

Parisot (1898) = Robert Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (1898, reprinted Geneva, 1975).

Regino, Chronicon = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis Chronicon cum continuatione Treverensi (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1890).

RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.

Sproemberg (1941) = Heinrich Sproemberg, "Die lothringische Politik Ottos des Großen", Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 11 (1941): 1-101.

Vanderkindere (1900) = Léon Vanderkindere, "A propos d'une charte de Baldéric d'Utrecht", Bulletin de la classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques et de la classe des beaux-arts (1900), 37-53.

Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).

Wampach (1935) = Camillus Wampach, Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit, I (Luxemburg, 1935).

Werner (1967) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)", Karl der Große 4 (1967): 403-483.

Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 24 April 2008.

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