MALE Liudolf

Count/duke of eastern Sachsen (Saxony), d. 865×6.

On 27 January 849, a count Liudolf appears in an act of Ludwig the German for Fulda ["... Ludowicus diuina fauente gratia rex Lutolfo Cristano et Hessoni comitibus ceterisque suis fidelibus ..." Codex Fuld., 249 (#556)]. He is called duke of the eastern Saxons by Agius, writing not long after his death ["Pater eius ex illustrissimo Saxonum genere oriundus, dux Orientalium Saxonum fuit; ..." Agius, Vita Hathumodae, c. 2, MGH SS 4: 167]. With his wife Oda, he made a pilgrimage to Rome, returning with relics for an abbey which they founded at Brunshausen, later at Gandersheim (the latter completed after his death), with their daughter Hathumod as first abbess [Dümmler (1887-8), 1: 370ff.]. Liudolf was succeeded by his eldest son Bruno in 865 or 866.

Date of Birth: Say ca. 805.
Place of Birth: Unknown.
His wife Oda was evidently born about 806 [see the page of Oda].

Date of Death: 12 March 865×6.
Place of Death: Unknown.
Place of Burial: Brunshausen, then Gandersheim.
The Annales Xantenses, which usually date events of this period one year too late, date Liudolf's death as 866, in an entry immediately following the notice of the death of St. Ansgar (d. 865) ["Liudolfus comes a septentrione et in Italia Everwinus, gener Ludewici regis, magnifici viri, de hac luce subtracti sunt." Ann. Xant., s.a. 866, 23]. The Annales Alamannici, which generally date events of this period one or two years too early, place his death in 864 ["Ebarhart, Liutolf, Erchanker, Liutfrid, Ruodolf regni principes obierunt." Ann. Alamannici, s.a. 864, MGH SS 1: 50]. Most modern scholars place his death in 866 following Annales Xantenses, but that source actually appears to favor 865 as the correct year, and Dümmler noted that the date of 866 is not that secure [Dümmler (1887-8), 1: 371 n. 3, 3: 565]. See also the page of Eberhard of Friuli, under the comments on his date of death. Liudolf's death appears at 12 March in the necrology of Gandersheim, where he is clearly identified as the founder of that church ["Ludolphus dux Saxoniae fundator ecclesiae nostrae" Althoff (1976), 401], and also in the Weißenburg necrology for the same date ["iiii [id. Mart.] Liutolfus dux." Kalendarium necrologicum Weissenburgense, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 310]. According to the Vita Bernwardi, he was buried at Brunshausen before the completion of Gandersheim ["Defuncti itaque sunt ante consummatum fabricam Gandenesheimensis aecclesiae et dux ac domna Hathumod, sepultique in antiqua aecclesia Brunesteshusen, positaque in regimen domna Gerburgis prima, soror domnae Hathumod, ..." (here, dux is Liudolf) Vita Bernwardi ep., c. 12, MGH SS 4: 763]. He was evidently transferred later to Gandersheim, where Eberhard's Reimchronik von Gandersheim states that he was buried ["in dem munstere to Gandersem lid he begraven / dat he mit vlite hadde begunnen." Eberhard, Reimchronik von Gandersheim, c. 8, lines 491-2, MGH Deut. Chron. 2: 403].

Father: Unknown.
Mother: Unknown.
See the Commentary section.

Spouses: Oda, said to have died in 913 at the age of 107, daughter of Billung and Aeda.
["... Cui [Liudolf] coniux ergo fuerat praenobilis Oda, Edita Francorum clara de stirpe potentum, Filia Billungi, cuiusdam principis almi, Atque bonae famae generosae scilicet Aedae. ..." Hrosvitha, Carmen de primordiis coenobii Gandersheimensis, lines 21-4, MGH SS 4: 306; "Otto ducum praecipuus, de quo velut fertilissimo quodam stemmate, imperatoria illa Ottonum propago, totius Europae terminis non modicum profutura, processit, onus limosae molis abiecit. Domina Oda, mater scilicet ipsius, obiit anno 107. vitae suae. Otto rex et imperator futurus natus est." Annales Quedlinburgensis, s.a. 913, MGH SS 3: 52]

Children:
Six of the children of Liudolf and Oda are named by Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, who mentions Hathumod ["Atque sui natam decreverunt Hathumodam" Hrosvitha, Carmen de primordiis coenobii Gandersheimensis, line 109, MGH SS 4: 308], Liutgard ["Ergo sui natam, Liutgardae nomine dictam, / Nutu clementis regis praestante perennis, / Elegit clarus Francorum rex Ludowicus / Regni consortem sibimet sociamque perennem," ibid., 305-8, p. 311], Gerberga ["Gerbergae tenerum commisit ovile regendum. / Haec fuit illustri cuidam nimiumque potenti / Desponsata viro, Bernhardo nomine dicto;" ibid., 318-20, p. 312; "In ius Gerbergae, nostrae rectricis amandae, / Ipsius illustris reginae namque sororis" ibid., 450-1, p. 314], Bruno ["Brun dux" ibid., 362, p. 312], Otto/Oddo ["Quo mox occiso, iunior frater suus Oddo / Dux factus ..." ibid., 367-8, p. 313], and Christina ["Orbatumque sui dimisit ovile sorori / Christinae procurandum sancteque tuendum" ibid., 484-5, p. 315]. The monk Agius, in his life and obituary of Liudolf's daughter Hathumod, also supplies some significant information about his subject's family, although the amount of detail is disappointing. Agius states that one brother of Hathumod was married to a neptis of kings (which brother is not stated), that a sister (not named, but identifiable as Liutgard) was married to a king who was son of a king, and that others who did not enter the church were also married, but none of these married siblings are named ["... hinc apparet, quod frater eius regum neptem in matrimonio habet, soror regis regi filio, digno digna iugalis coniugi iuncta eat. Ceteris infra patriam, qui non maiori gloria Christi servitio mancipati sunt, secundum natalium dignitatem honestissimas nuptias sortiti sunt." Agius, Vita Hathumodae, c. 2, MGH SS 4: 167]. Later he mentions the names of the sisters Christina and Gerberga ["soror eius Christina" ibid., c. 15, p. 172; "soror eius Gerberga" ibid., c. 16, p. 172]. In his obituary of Hathumod, Agius states that one sister and three brothers died young ["Una soror, terni fratres obiere tenelli, ..." Agius, Obitus Hathumodae, 539-40, MGH SS 4: 186], gives the name of a married sister (but not the name of her husband) ["Enda soror, quae iam fuerat coniuncta marito; / Quod minus ipsa tenet, in sobole illud habet." ibid., 541-2, p. 186], and mentions that five sisters and one brother entered the church ["Hic sacra sanctorum ossa locans, vos quinque sorores / Illic divino dedidit obsequio. / Filiolum quoque coenobio iunxit monachorum, / ..." ibid., 553-5, p. 186]. Thus, assuming that this is all correct, it would appear that Liudolf and Oda had at least fourteen children, six sons and eight daughters. This would include two sons and two daughters in the secular life (dukes Bruno and Otto, Liutgard, and Enda), one son and five daughters in the church (three of whom were the abbesses Hathumod, Gerberga, and Christina), and three sons and a daughter who died young. As noted below, there is good reason to believe that one of the sons was named Thankmar, perhaps one of the sons who died young or the one who went into the church.

MALE Bruno, d. 2 February 880, duke of Sachsen (Saxony).
Bruno was killed by the Vikings in 880 ["In Saxonia cum Nordmannis infeliciter dimiticatum est; ... Brun ducem et fratrem reginae, ... occiderunt." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 880 (p. 94); a count Liutolfus is also listed among the many killed there]. The necrology of Gandersheim gives his date of death as 6 March ["Et Bruno dux fundatoris nostri filii" Nec. Gandersheim, Althoff (1976), 400]. However, Thietmar of Merseburg places the battle on a 2 February ["... duce Brunone - qui a Luthuwigo rege in expeditionem ad Danos missus, cum episcopis duobus Thiaedrico et Marcquardo caeterisque militibus 4. Non. Febr. fluminis inundatione interiit ..." Thietmar, Chron., ii, 15, MGH SS 3: 750], and this appears to be confirmed by the necrologies of two bishops who were slain there [see Dümmler (1887-8), 3: 135 n. 2].

MALE Otto (Oddo) "der Erlauchten", d. 30 November 912, duke of Sachsen (Saxony);
m.
Hedwig, d. 24 December, probably 903.

FEMALE Hathumod, b. ca. 840, d. 29 November 874, aged 34, abbess of Gandersheim.
Hathumod became abbess of Gandersheim at the age of twelve in 852, although construction was not completed until after her death ["... Liudolfus dux cum religiosa contectali sua Oda, ... filiam quoque suam domnam Hathumodam, duodecim annos habentem, praefato episcopo in regimen intromittendam assignaverunt, anno dominicae incarnationis 852. ... Defuncti itaque sunt ante consummatam fabricam Gandenesheimensis aecclesiae et dux ac domna Hathumod, sepultique in antiqua aecclesia Brunesteshusen, positaque in regimen domna Gerburgis prima, soror domnae Hathumod, ..." Vita Bernwardi ep., c. 12, MGH SS 4: 762-3]. A life of Hathumod was written by the monk Agius, who states that Hathumod died on Monday, 29 November 874, aged 34, fitting well with the statement of Vita Bernwardi ["Decessit sancta haec et incomparabilis femina 3. Kalendas Decembris, feria secunda, anno incarnationis dominicae octingentesimo septuagesimo quarto, indictione 7. Vixit in sancto proposito annis 22. Omnes anni vitae eius fuerunt triginta quatuor; ..." Agius, Vita Hathumodae, c. 29, MGH SS 4: 175]. This date is to be preferred over the date of 28 November given in the necrology of Gandersheim ["Ob. Hatemoth prima abbatissa fundatoris filia" Nec. Gandersheim, Althoff (1976), 403].

FEMALE Liutgard, d. 30 November 885;
m. Ludwig III, d. 20 January 882, king of Sachsen.
["Dum haec aguntur, Ludowicus rex morbo gravatus apud Franconofurt moritur XIII. Kal. Febr. sepultusque est iuxta patrem in Lorasham coenobio. Habuit autem Liutgardam reginam in matrimonium copulatum, ex qua filium unicum suscepit, quem nomine suo Hludowicum appellavit." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 882 (p. 118)] Annalista Saxo states that she died 30 November 885 and was buried at Aschaffenburg and the necrological Annals of Fulda place her death in the same year ["Liudgardis regina obiit 2. Kal. Decembris; in Asscafaburh honorifice condita iacet." Ann. Saxo, s.a. 885, MGH SS 6: 586; "Liutgart regina" Ann. nec. Fuld., s.a. 885, MGH SS 13: 186; ES 1: 3 places her death on 25 January 885, source unknown]. The historian Widukind calls her a sister of Bruno and Otto and a daughter of Liudolf, but identifies her husband as the wrong king Ludwig ["Qui cum accepisset uxorem nomine Liudgardam, sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis, non multis post haec vixerat annis. Horum pater erat Liudulfus, ..." Widukind, i, 16 (p. 22)]. See the Commentary section for a falsely attributed second marriage of Liutgard.

FEMALE Enda;
m. NN.
Agius mentions Enda as a married sister of Hathumod ["Enda soror, quae iam fuerat coniuncta marito; / Quod minus ipsa tenet, in sobole illud habet." Agius, Obitus Hathumodae, 541-2, MGH SS 4: 186; the editor suggests the name might be Aeda, like her maternal grandmother] Böttger gives Enda a supposed husband Lothar (d. 880) and makes her an ancestor of the counts of Stade [Böttger (1865), 386 (table), 384 n. 579]. The supposed evidence appears to be the statements of Thietmar and the Saxon annalist that count Heinrich of Stade was a cousin of Otto the Great [Thietmar, ii, 18, MGH SS 3: 753; Ann. Saxo, s.a. 1056, MGH SS 6: 691]. There is no good reason to accept this.

FEMALE Gerberga, d. 5 September 896×7, abbess of Gandersheim, 874-896-7.
Before she went into the church, Gerberga was engaged to a certain Bernhard ["Desponsata viro, Bernhardo nomine dicto" Hrosvitha, Carmen de primordiis coenobii Gandersheimensis, 320, MGH SS 4: 312]. She succeeded her sister Hathumod as abbess of Gandersheim. Hrotsvitha states that her sixth year as abbess fell in the year that duke Bruno was killed (i.e., 880) ["Cuius primatus sexto, ni fallor, in anno / Brun dux, ecclesiam promptus defendere sanctam, / Incursu de saevorum satis Ungariorum" Hrosvitha, Carmen de primordiis coenobii Gandersheimensis, 361-3, MGH SS 4: 312]. According to Vita Bernwardi, she was abbess for 22 years ["Praeerat autem domna Gerburgis congregationi 22 annos, positaque est in nova aecclesia, iuxta domnam Hathumodam." Vita Bernwardi ep., c. 12, MGH SS 4: 763]. The necrology of Gandersheim places her death on 5 September ["Obiit Gerburg abbatissa fundatoris nostri filia" Nec. Gandersheim, Althoff (1976), 403].

FEMALE Christina, d. 1 April 919, abbess of Gandersheim, 896×7-919.
Christina succeeded her sister Gerberga as abbess of Gandersheim, and was the only child to survive her very aged mother Oda ["Sororem autem eius Cristinam domnus Wigbertus in regimen intromisit et consecravit. Domna quoque Oda centisimo septimo aetatis anno, omnibus filiis praemissis, decessit, Cristina tantum superstite, positaque est iuxta filias suas." Vita Bernwardi ep., c. 12, MGH SS 4: 763]. The necrology of Gandersheim places her death on 1 April ["S. Christina abbatissa tertia fundatoris filia" Nec. Gandersheim, Althoff (1976), 401], and Hrosvitha of Gandersheim states that she survived her mother for twice three years ["Plus quam bis ternos post matrem vixerat annos" Hrosvitha, Primordia Gandersheim., 583, MGH SS 4: 316].

MALE NN, a monk.
Agius states that one son was a monk ["Filiolum quoque coenobio iunxit monachorum, / ..." Agius, Obitus Hathumodae, 555, p. 186]. Concerning the Vita Hathumodae by Agius, Pertz argued that nobody but a father or brother would be able to write of mutual love with Hathumod in the manner which we see from that work, and suggested that the son who was a monk was Agius himself [Pertz, MGH SS 4: 165 n. 5, 186 n. 20]. This seems unlikely. As noted in the next item, Wolfgang Metz thought that Thankmar was the son who was a monk.

MALE Thankmar, apparently d. young.
Agius states that one sister and three brothers of Hathumod died young ["Una soror, terni fratres obiere tenelli, ..." Agius, Obitus Hathumodae, 539, MGH SS 4: 186]. A notice in the Corvey traditions states that count Liudolf gave property "pro filio suo Tancmaro" ["Tradidit Ludolphus comes pro filio suo Tancmaro mansum I cum familia in Daelham, et in Adonhusen mansos duos cum familiis." Trad. Corb., 96 (B §435) (A §210)]. Since the name Thankmar also occurs among other descendants of Liudolf, the identification of Ludolphus comes with the Liudolf heading this page seems very likely. The words pro filio suo make it appear that the son in question was deceased, in which case he probably belongs with the sons who died young. However, Wolfgang Metz suggested that he was the son who joined the church, and that it might concern the Thankmar who was abbot of Corvey for eight months in 877 [Metz (1964), 273; "Domnus Thancmarus abbas vix mensibus 8 prefuit; obiit 3. Idus Septembris." Catalogus abbatum et nomina fratrum Corbeiensium, MGH SS 13: 275].

MALE NN, d. young.

MALE NN, d. young.

FEMALE NN, d. young.

FEMALE NN?, in religion?
Agius says that five sisters went into religion, which would leave two such sisters with unknown names ["Hic sacra sanctorum ossa locans, vos quinque sorores / Illic divino dedidit obsequio." Agius, Obitus Hathumodae, 553-4, p. 186]. However, it has also been suggested that this five sisters included the two married sisters Enda and Liutgard [e.g., Krüger (1893), 35], in which case these two sisters would be removed from the list. The status of these two sisters is not entirely clear, but a literal interpretation of Agius would suggest that they be kept on the list.

FEMALE NN?, in religion?



Commentary

Possible ancestors or other relatives:

The following two Saxon leaders were too early to have been the father of duke Liudolf, but the obvious onomastic arguments suggest the possibility that there was some more distant connection. No direct evidence ties either one of them to Liudolf.

Bruno, fl. 775, apparent leader of the Engern (one group of Saxons).
["... venerunt Angrarii ... una cum Brunone et reliquis obtimatibus eorum ..." ARF, s.a. 775 (p. 42) (obtimas = optimas, nobility); Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 53]

Liudolf, fl. ca. 796×7-813, count.
["Liutolf comes de saxonia trad. sco Bon. proprietatem suam cum LXX.VII. mancipiis." Trad. Fuld., 96 (#41.14) (sco Bon. abbreviates sancto Bonifacio); Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 53, citing UB Fulda, 1: 237 (#159), the latter not seen by me]

The following two Saxons are not stated to have been leaders of any sort, but donated property at Gandersheim, which would seem to suggest a connection to Liudolf.

Adolf, fl. ca. 780-802.
["Adolf de Saxonia trad. deo et sco Bon. in pago Flenide et in marcha Gandesheim. XV mansos ..." Trad. Fuld., 96 (#41.17); Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 57, citing UB Fulda, 1: 497 (#505), the latter not seen by me]

Buno (Bruno?), fl. ca. 802-17.
["Ego Buno de Saxonia trado ad scm Bon. predia mea in loco Gandesheim ..." Trad. Fuld., 97 (#41.28); Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 57, citing UB Fulda, 1: 497 (#505), the latter not seen by me]. He is perhaps the same as the Brun who appears in two traditions in the same series [Trad. Fuld., 96 (#41.18-9)].

The parentage of Liudolf

No contemporary or near contemporary source tells the parentage of Liudolf. Nevertheless, numerous attempts have been made to deduce his parentage from the slim sources available. However, from all of this research [see Waitz (1885), 179ff., Hlawitschka (2006), 52-7], no consensus has emerged regarding the identity of Liudolf's father.

Supposed father (possible): Bruno.
Supposed mother (very improbable, existence doubtful): Hasala (or Gisela), daughter of Widukind.
Eberhard's Reimchronil von Gandersheim, the earliest known source to give the name of Liudolf's father, written in 1216 and based in part on earlier lost sources, states that Liudolf's father was named Bruno ["... alse ek wol an der warheid hebbe bekant, / von einen groten heren, de was Brun genant, / wart ein hertoge geborn, /von deme ek sede hirvorn. / Ludolf was ok der sulve here genant; / sin herschop ging over alle Sassenlant; / ..." Eberhard, Reimchronik von Gandersheim, c. 2, lines 141-46, MGH Deut. Chron. 2: 399]. This Bruno, if he existed at all, does not appear in any early records. The Braunschweigische Reimchronik (late thirteenth century) gives the same parentage ["Von Gandersem uns dhe kronica seyt, / we daz von dhisses herren gar gemeyt, / herzogen Widhekindes, kunne / eyn vurste sint dhen lib ghewunne, / dher was Brun genant. / ouch tut se uns me bekant, / daz von dhissem Brune wurte geboren / eyn hoher herre uzirkoren: / Lutolph dher vurste was genant, / herzoge uz Saxenlant. / ..." Braunschweigische Reimchronik, lines 405-14, MGH Deut. Chron. 2: 464]. This source, which states that the prince Bruno won his life from duke Widukind's kin [Waitz (1885), 181], is difficult to interpret, and it was interpreted by Leibniz as indicating that Bruno was married to a daughter of Widukind [ibid.]. This supposed link to Widukind is clearly artificial and cannot be accepted. As for the claim that Bruno was the name of Liudolf's father, the suggestion that Liudolf's eldest son Bruno was named after his paternal grandfather would make onomastic sense. However, these late sources do not inspire confidence, and no chronologically plausible Bruno is known from better records, leading to concerns that this is just a reference to the Bruno of 775, chronologically misplaced. Nevertheless, the more modern attempts to deduce Liudolf's parentage are not really any more convincing than this thirteenth century report that Liudolf's father was named Bruno. However, even if this name were admitted as correct, no personal details could be attached to the individual.

Later genealogies added an Egbert to Liudolf's family. In his earlier work, Eckhart inserted Egbert as a generation between Liudolf and Berno/Bruno, with the latter as the son of a Cobbo. Later, Eckhart instead had an account closer to that of Leibniz, making Liudolf a son of Berno/Bruno and Hasala/Gisela, with Berno as a brother of Egbert, son of another Bruno, and grandson of a Cobbo [Waitz (1885), 181 & n. 2]. Scheidt amplified the Brunos even further, making Liudolf the son of a Bruno, son of another Bruno, son of a third Bruno, with the middle Bruno as the husband of Hasala/Gisela, and Egbert as another son of the eldest Bruno [ibid.]. This version with the three consecutive Brunos has been made current by the notoriously unreliable Royalty for Commoners, a poor reference commonly used by amateur genealogists [RFC2, 69 (line 92)]. No confidence can be attached to these schemes.

Liudolf and count/duke Egbert

This Egbert was apparently the Saxon count of that name who appears in 809 and 811 [ARF s.a. 809 (pp. 129-130), s.a. 811 (p. 134); see the page of Egbert]. He was the husband of St. Ida, and both were buried at Herzfeld. Two basic arguments (with a number of variations) have been put forward for making Liudolf and Egbert close relatives. The first of these involves some passages from the Life of St. Ida, which have been interpreted as implying that Herzfeld passed from Egbert and Ida to Liudolf and his son Otto by hereditary succession. This is discussed in detail on the page of Egbert, where the arguments against this interpretation are given. The other argument involves a record in which a Liudolf is called a brother of a Cobbo ["Tradidit Bardo comes pro remedio anime Liudulfi familias XVIII in pago Bardengo. ... quidquid ipse Ludolfus habuit in pago Bardengo, ... exceptis seorsum denominatis familiis, quas ipse suo germano Cobboni atque suo propinquo Fresgario ad redimendum reliquerat. Omnia Bardo comes tradidit ... hac ei potestate contradita ab uxore Ludolfi atque a suis propinquis. ... ut predicti Ludolfi uxor ea possedeat usque ad obitum suum, ..." Trad. Corb., 76, B §350 (A §126)]. Since Egbert had a son and grandson both named Cobbo, those who would make this Liudolf the same person as Liudolf of Saxony have generally concluded that Liudolf was a son or grandson of Egbert. The principle objection to the identification of Cobbo's brother Liudolf (who was deceased at the time of the entry) as Liudolf of Saxony is that the date of the entry has been estimated in the 840's, whereas Liudolf of Saxony died in 866. Despite attempts to argue otherwise (see below), the reasoning behind this objection seems solid. In addition, Wolfgang Metz pointed out that none of the names Egbert, Ida, Warin, Cobbo, etc., are known to appear among the family of duke Liudolf (although some who press the unlikely claim that Agius was a son of Liudolf would suggest that that name is a form of Egbert) [Metz (1964), 273].

For those who identify Liudolf brother of Cobbo with Liudolf of Saxony, the most frequent scenario has been to place Liudolf as a brother of the younger Cobbo and of Haduwy, abbess of Herford, grandchildren of Egbert and Ida through a daughter and her husband whose names are unknown:

Supposed grandfather (improbable): Egbert, fl. 809, 811, count.
Supposed grandmother (improbable): St. Ida.
Supposed brother (improbable): Cobbo, fl. 889-90?
Supposed sister (improbable): Haduwy, abbess of Herford, 858-887.
[e.g., Hüsing (1880), 17] A variation by Eckhardt would identify the parents of the siblings as follows:

Falsely attributed father: Asic (Adalric), fl. 814-46, count.
Falsely attributed mother: Ida, supposed daughter of count Egbert and St. Ida.
Asic appears as son of a certain Saxon Hiddi in an act of Charlemagne dated 9 May 813 ["... quia Asig, qui et Adalricus, fidelis noster innotuit serenitati nostrae, eo quod pater illius Hiddi, ..."]. Before marrying his second wife Ida (not actually documented as a daughter of Egbert and Ida), he was married to a certain Bilidrud ["Esic comes vineas in Kastinaco; Bilidrud, sua coniux, Budinaveldan; Ida secunda coniux eius, Imminchusan et Helmenskethen." Notitiae fundationis monasterii Corbeiensis, MGH SS 15.2: 1044]. The conjecture that Asic and Ida were the parents of Liudolf was made by Eckhardt [Eckhardt (1970), not seen by me; Eckhardt's arguments were explained in detail in Hlawitschka (1974), 102-7, and outlined briefly in Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 54-6, and my discussion is based on Hlawitschka's accounts]. The basis of Eckhardt's conjecture is a marginal note which appears in the fifteenth century manuscript of the Corvey traditions, which stated that 79 of the traditions had accidently been duplicated, mentioning the tradition of a certain Bardo as one of the points at which the duplication had occurred ["... post traditionem quam Bardo facit vice cujusdam nomine Asic pro filio ejusdem Asici, ..." Trad. Corb., 84 n. 5]. Since that tradition is not apparent among the surviving traditions, Eckhardt, through a complicated series of arguments, suggested that this tradition corresponded with the tradition of Bardo for the soul of Liudolf, mentioned above ["Tradidit Bardo comes pro remedio anime Liudulfi ..." Trad. Corb., 76, B §350 (A §126), see above for more details], and that this Liudolf was the son of Asic mentioned in the marginal note. As a part of this scenario, Eckhardt argued that the position of this tradition had been altered in the process of removing the duplication, and that it really belonged later in the list, so that there was no obstacle to dating it in the 870's, when there would be no problem identifying the Liudolf of the tradition with duke Liudolf of Saxony. The parentage of Asic's wife Ida is not otherwise documented, but the obvious onomastic argument was used to further support the connection to Egbert and St. Ida. In a detailed and convincing rebuttal of Eckhardt's arguments, Hlawitschka showed that Eckhardt's complicated scenario was completely unnecessary. The reason that the tradition "quam Bardo facit vice cujusdam nomine Asic pro filio ejusdem Asici" does not appear is that it is among the traditions which are now lost. Thus, there is no reason for identifying Liudolf with the unnamed son of Asic, nor is there any reason for adjusting the position of the tradition of count Bardo for the soul of Liudolf. In a variation of this theory, Metz regarded Eckhardt's argument that Liudolf was a son of Asic as convincing, but argued for chronological reasons that Liudolf could not be a son of the second marriage to Ida, and was probably a son of the first marriage to Bilidrud [Metz (1971), 143 n. 54]. However, this does not save the argument.

Falsely attributed father: Egbert, fl. 809, 811, count.
Falsely attributed mother: St. Ida.
Hlawitschka attributes this theory to Uslar-Gleichen [Hlawitshcka (2006), 1.2: 52-3, citing Uslar-Gleichen (1902), 29-33, the latter not seen by me]. It is based on the Corvey tradition naming a Liudolf son of Cobbo ["Tradidit Bardo comes pro remedio anime Liudulfi familias XVIII in pago Bardengo. ... quidquid ipse Ludolfus habuit in pago Bardengo, ... exceptis seorsum denominatis familiis, quas ipse suo germano Cobboni ..." Trad. Corb., 76, B §350 (A §126); see above], identifying this Liudolf with duke Liudolf, and identifying Cobbo as the elder man of that name, son of Egbert. In addition to the problems with the first of these identifications already mentioned above, Liudolf seems to be in a later generation than the children of Egbert and Ida.

Conjectured father (evidence lacking): Odo, fl. ca. 825, count (in Derlingau?).
Count Odo is mentioned in a Corvey tradition of about 825 in connection with the pagus of Derlingau ["Tradidit Cumbro in vice Odonis comitis quidquid ille habuit in villa nuncupante Suntstede in pago Derlingo. Testes Cobbo ..." Trad. Corb., 52-3, B §253 (A §29)]. As part of a theory which suggests that Liudolf inherited Herzfeld as a descendant of Bruno in the direct male line, Hömberg would conjecture Odo as the intermediate generation [Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 53-4, citing Hömberg (1950), the latter not seen by me; Metz (1964), 272]. As noted above, there is no reason to accept the connection to Egbert. Onomastically, the theory making Odo the father of Liudolf would be acceptable, as Liudolf's son Otto frequently appears as Oddo in early records (although Otto's name is usually explained as a variation of his mother Oda's name). However, supporting evidence is entirely lacking.

Falsely attributed children:

MALE Agius, author of Vita Hathumodae.
[Pertz, MGH SS 4: 165 n. 5] As, noted above, Agius states that one son went into the church. However, Agius does not identify that son as being himself.

MALE Egbert.
[ES 1: 3] This appears to be a variation of the theory making Agius a son, with the name Agius identified as a form of the name Egbert.

FEMALE Baba, (did not exist)
m. Heinrich of Babenberg, d. 28 May 886, count.
Depoin states that Heinrich married Baba, sister of Otto, duke of Saxony, on the basis that Annalista Saxo calls Heinrich's son Adalbert a nepos of Otto [Depoin (1907), 323 & n. 1; "Hic temporibus Adalbertus magnus heros, cuius pater Heinricus dux, mater Baba dicebatur, idemque sororis filius Heinrici postea regis, nepos vero Ottonis Saxonum ducis, ..." Ann. Saxo, s.a. 902, MGH SS 6: 590; Depoin also cites Agius, Vita Hathumodae, MGH SS 4: 166, which however, has nothing relevant on the page cited]. Here, Annalista Saxo is clearly using the word nepos to mean "grandson", since it calls Baba a sister of king Heinrich I, but Depoin, noting the chronological impossibility, reinterprets nepos to mean "nephew". There is no good reason to accept this. For a discussion of "Baba", see the page of duke Otto of Saxony.

FEMALE Uota, (did not exist)
m. Eberhard, d. 898, duke, apparently in Friesland.
Eberhard, a Saxon, son of a count Meinhard, appears in Regino's chronicle under the year 881, when he was captured and ransomed ["In qua congressione captus est ab adversariis Everhardus Saxo, filius Meginardi comitis, et captivus ductus; quem postea mater Evesa magno pretio dato incolumem recepit." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 881 (p. 117)]. He was killed in 898 ["Per idem tempus Eworhardus dux filius Meginardi a Waltgario Fresone filio Gerulfi, cum venatum pergeret, dolo trucidatur; ducatus, quem tenuerat, Meginhardo fratri ab imperatore committitur." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 898 (p. 146)]. This claimed marriage is typical of many of the poorly documented hypothetical constructions for which Depoin is well known. Depoin attributes a number of children to Eberhard, without adequately documenting them, points out some vague statements attributing royal ancestry to some of Eberhard's supposed progeny, and then identifies Eberhard's wife as the Uota who appears in an act of Otto I [Depoin (1907), 322-8]. This Uota is mentioned in an act of 30 December 952, in which Otto I gives to St. Moriz in Magdeburg some property in Deventer which had been given to him by his amita Uota ["... in loco Dauindre ..., quod nobis nostra amita mulier deo nobisque devota nomine Ûota tradidit" MGH DD O I, 241 (#159)]. This amita of Otto has been generally identified (almost certainly correctly) as a paternal aunt Oda, wife successively of king Zwentibold and count Gerhard [see the page of duke Otto of Saxony for details]. Depoin argues unconvincingly that Uota was a distinct individual one generation further back.

Falsely attributed second marriage of daughter Liutgard: Burkhard, father of Burkhard I, duke of Schwaben (Swabia).
[Decker-Hauff (1955), 272-4] There is no good basis for Decker-Hauff's theory that Liutgard was also the mother of duke Burkhard I of Swabia [against this, see Tellenbach (1956), 177].


Bibliography

Althoff (1976) = Gerd Althoff, "Unerkannte Zeugnisse vom Totengedenken der Liudolfinger", Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 32 (1976): 370-404.

Ann. Fuld. = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Annales Fuldenses (MGH SRG 7, Hannover, 1891).

Ann. Xant. = B. de Simson, ed., Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini (MGH SRG 12, 1909), 1-33.

ARF = Georg Pertz & Friedrich Kurze, Annales Regni Francorum (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1895).

Böttger (1865) = H. Böttger, Die Brunonen, Vorfahren und Nachkommen des Herzogs Ludolf in Sachsen (Hannover, 1865). [very critical comments in Simson JB KdG 1: 509, 228]

Codex Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Codex diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, 1850).

Decker-Hauff (1955) = Hansmartin Decker-Hauff, "Die Ottonen und Schwaben", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 14 (1955), 233-371.

Depoin (1907) = Joseph Depoin, "Wicman II, comte du Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au Xe siècle", in Paul Bergmans, ed., Annales du XXe Congrès (Gand, 1907), 2 vols (Ghent, 1907), 2: 315-351.

Dümmler (1887-8) = Ernst Dümmler, Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches, 3 vols. (2nd. ed., Leipzig, 1887-8).

Eckhardt (1970) = K. A. Eckhardt, Studia Corbeiensia, 2 vols. (Bibliotheca rerum histroicarum, 1970). [I have not seen this work.]

ES = Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln (neue Folge), (Marburg, 1980-present).

Fontes rerum Germ. = Johann Friedrich Boehmer, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, 4 vols. (Stuttgart & Tübingen, 1843-68).

Hlawitschka (1974) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Zur Herkunft der Liudolfinger und zu einigen Corveyer Geschichtsquellen", Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 38 (1974): 92-165.

Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).

Hömberg (1950) = A. K. Hömberg, "Geschichte der Comitate des Werler Grafenhauses", Westfälische Zeitschrift 100 (1950): 119ff. [I have not seen this work.]

Hüsing (1880) = Hüsing, "Genealogie der heiligen Ida", Zeitschrift für vaterländische Geschichte und Alterthumskunde 38 (1880): 1-21.

Krüger (1893) = Emil Krüger, "Ueber die Abstammung Heinrich's I. von den Karolingern", Deutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 9 (1893): 28-61.

Metz (1964) = Wolfgang Metz, "Die Abstammung König Heinrichs I." Historisches Jahrbuch 84 (1964): 271-287.

Metz (1971) = Wolfgang Metz, "Heinrich 'mit dem goldenen Wagen' ", Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte 107 (1971): 136-161.

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series.

MGH Deut. Chron. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Deutsche Chroniken series.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Regino, Chronicon = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis Chronicon cum continuatione Treverensi (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1890).

RFC2 = Roderick Stuart, Royalty for Commoners (2nd ed., Baltimore, 1992).

Tellenbach (1956) = Gerd Tellenbach, "Kritische Studien zur großfränkischen und alemanniscen Adelsgeschichte", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 15 (1956), 169-190.

Trad. Corb. = Paul Wigand, ed., Traditiones Corbeienses (Leipzig, 1843). Citations labelled "B" are the section numbers from Wigand's edition, while those labelled "A" are the section numbers from the edition of J. F. Falke, Codex traditionum Corbeiensium (1752), the latter not seen by me.

Trad. Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Traditiones et antiquitates Fuldenses (Fulda, 1844).

UB Fulda = E. E. Stengel, Urkundenbuch des Klosters Fulda 1 (1956).

Uslar-Gleichen (1902) = Edmund von Uslar-Gleichen, Das Geschlecht Wittekinds des Großen und die Immendinger (Hahn, 1902). [I have not seen this work.]

Waitz (1885) = Georg Waitz, Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reichs under König Heinrich I. (3rd, ed., Leipzig, 1885).

Wedekind (1823-36) = Anton Christian Wedekind, Noten zu einigen Geschichtschreibern des Deutschen Mittelalters, 3 vols. (Hamburg, 1823-36).

Widukind = Georg Waitz & Karl Andreas Kehr, eds., Widukindi monachi Corbeiensis Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum libri tres (4th ed., MGH SRG 55, Hannover & Leipzig, 1904).


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 3 April 2011.

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