Hunroch, who appears as count in a charter of Saint-Bertin dated 29 June 839, is presumed to have been count of Ternois, the pagus in which Saint-Bertin lies ["Signum Undrici, comitis." Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 5, 87-8; see also the supposed charter of 20 June 839 ("Signum Unrici, comitis.") ibid., ii, 4, 85-6, which Grierson labels as probably false, Grierson (1938), 243, n. 14]. Hunroch was still living on 21 July 844, when his son Adalard became abbot of Saint-Bertin ["... a patre Hunroco oblatus ..." Folcwine, c. 58; see below under Adalard]. He eventually retired and became a monk at Saint-Bertin, giving the greater part of his possessions (of which only the village of Houlle is given by name) to the abbey, dying on a 13 November in an unknown year ["Huius autem pater Hunrocus, quod supra memoria excidit, in monasterio Sithiu comam capitis deposuit monachicumque habitum, iugo se Christi summittens, adsumpsit, et quia comes erat ditissimus, hereditatis suae maximam partem prefato monasterio est largitus. Ex quibus una est villa Hunela dicta, quam eo tenore contradidit, ut custos ecclesiae, ad quem eam tradidit, annis singulis post eius vitae decessum in eius anniversarium annulae exinde fratribus prepararet obsequium. Qui postea inibi defunctus, coram altare sancti Laurentii, in sinestra parte ingredientium est humatus Idus Novembris, ..." Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 66, MGH SS 13: 620; Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 38 (p. 110)]. Hunroch was mentioned as deceased in a charter of his son Adalard on 5 September 853 ["... ad altare, coram quo corpus genitoris nostri Hunroci requiescit, ..." Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 11 (p. 94)]. Hunroch has given his name to the vague family group which modern scholars call the "Unruochings", whose early genealogy is very uncertain [see Chaume (1940a); Werner (1965), 133-7].
As is frequently the case for this period, it is often difficult to determine whether or not men named Hunroch who appear in various records should be identified with one another. An earlier Hunroch who was probably a distinct individual has sometimes been identified with Hunroch of Ternois. This is discussed in detail in the Commentary section.
Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Date of death: 13 November, 844×852.
As noted above, Hunroch died on a 13 November sometime between 21 July 844 and 5 September 853.
Place of burial: Saint-Bertin.
See the Commentary section for Chaume's conjecture regarding the parents of Hunroch.
Her name was possibly Engeltrude. See the Commentary section.
The sources do not directly verify that the Hunroch who was father of Eberhard of Friuli was the same man as Hunroch of Ternois, father of abbot Adalard of Saint-Bertin. However, the identification is reasonably certain, for reasons which are covered below in the Commentary section, where the questionable appearance of Bérenger of Toulouse in this family group is also discussed.
865×6, duke of Friuli;
m. Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious.
["Hunroci proles ..." Sedulius Scottus, Carmina, ii, 67, Ad Everhardum comitem, MGH Poet. Lat. 3: 221]
Adalard, abbot of Saint-Bertin,
844-864; abbot of Saint-Amand.
Adalard became abbot of Saint-Bertin on 21 July 844 ["Post Hugonem autem abbatem supra memoratum abbas efficitur Adalardus in hoc coenobio Sithiu, sancto Petro et sancto Bertino a patre Hunroco oblatus; sed post canonicus est effectus. Suscepit autem abbatiam anno prefato 12. Kal. Augusti." Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 58, MGH SS 13: 618; Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 9 (pp. 92-3)]. In November 853, he appears as a missus in the Capitulary of Servais ["Immo episcopus, Adalardus abba, Waltcaudus, Odelricus missi in Noviomiso, Vermendiso, Adertiso, Curtrisco, Flandra, comitatibus Engilramni et in comitatibus Waltcaudi." MGH Leg. 1: 426]. In 858, Adalard entered into rebellion against Charles the Bald, and in 859 he was deprived of his abbacy, which was given on 24 March 859 to Hugues "the Abbot", cousin of Charles ["Igitur post haec anno dominicae nativitatis 859 et prefati regis Karoli 20 prefatus abbas Adalardus apud eundem regem incusatus, anno regiminis sui 16. abbatia ab eo est abstracta atque Hugoni iuniori est data 9. Kal. Aprilis, [6. feria ante pasca], qui erat canonicus et filius Chonradi et avunculus Karoli supra memorati regis." Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 64, MGH SS 13: 619; Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 36 (p. 107)]. On 25 July 861, he regained the abbacy of Saint-Bertin, and he died on 3 February 864 and was buried at Saint-Amand ["Igitur his expletis, anno dominicae nativitatis 861. abbatia iam dicto Hugoni ablata, iterum Adalardo est reddita 8. Kal. Augusti, anno regni prefati regis Karoli 21; sed non hanc nisi triennio post haec rexit. Anno namque 4. apud Sancti Amandi monasterium egrotans, exivit hominem 3. Nonas Februarii, qui erat annus dominicae nativitatis 864, sepultusque est in eodem monasterio in cripta, intrantibus in latere sinistro." Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 66, MGH SS 13: 620; Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 38 (pp. 109-110); "Adalardus abbas Sithiu obiit, ..." Ann. Bland., s.a. 864, 12; ""Obiit Adalardus abbas sancti Amandi." Ann. Elnonenses, s.a. 864, 146]. At an uncertain date, he had also become abbot of Saint-Amand [Grierson (1938), 245 & n. 27]. He was apparently not count of Ternois, as has sometimes been claimed [see ibid., 245-6]. His nephew Raoul, son of Eberhard, later became abbot of Saint Bertin.
Supposed son (disputed):
Bérenger, d. 835, count of Toulouse, before 819-835.
Bérenger was count of Toulouse by 819, when he appears in conflict with Loup Centulle of Gascony ["Simili modo et Lupus Centulli Wasco, qui cum Berengario Tolosae et Warino Arverni comite eodem anno proelio conflixit, ..." ARF, s.a. 819, 150]. He died in 835 ["Eodem anno ipso in itiere obiit Berengarius, dux fidelis et sapiens, quem imperator cum filiis suis luxit multo tempore. Iste est annus vicesimus secundus regni domni Hludowici piissimi imperatoris, ..." Thegan, Vita Hludowici imp., c. 58, MGH SS 2: 603]. Bérenger disputed the mark of Gothie with Bernard, son of Guillaume de Gellone, but the premature death of Bérenger settled that dispute in favor of Bernard ["... Sed et causa Gothorum ibidem ventilata est, quorum alii partibus Bernhardi favebant, alii autem favore ducebantur Beringarii, Huronici quondam comitis filii. Sed Berengario inmatura morte praerepto, apud Bernhardum potestas Septimaniae quam maxima remansit, legatis illuc missis, qui ea quae indigebant correctione in meliorem componerent statum." Vita Hludowici imp., c. 57, MGH SS 2: 642]. Pertz, editor of the edition of Vita Hludowici just cited, following Bouquet, wrongly emended Huronici to H. Turonici, and that explains why Bérenger is incorrectly called a son of count Hugues of Tours in some older secondary sources [for more on this error, see Merlet (1897), 15-6; Depoin (1899), 47]. Huronicus, father of Bérenger of Toulouse, has been identified as Hunroch, count of Ternois by many authors [e.g., Favre (1896), 156; Depoin (1899), 46; Werner (1965), 134; Settipani (2004), 193, n. 1]. This identification is discussed further below.
relative, sometimes identified with Hunroch of Ternois (probably
Hunroch, fl. 802-814, count.
A count Hunroch (Unrochus comes) appears in the records from 802 to 814. In January or February 802, this Hunroch received the guard of one of the Saxon hostages sent to Alamannia ["Adaslgaudum filium Suigaut habuit Unrocus comis." MGH Leg. 1: 90]. He was a missus of the emperor in 806 ["... illo comiti Hadalhardus, Fulradus, Unrocus seu Hrocculfus, missi domni imperatoris ..." MGH Leg. 1: 137], and was one of the Frankish leaders who participated in the peace treaty between the Franks and the Danes in 811 ["Unrocus comes", ARF, s.a. 811, 134]. Unruochus appears in the list of counts who were witnesses to the testament of Charlemagne [Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, c. 33, MGH SS 2: 463]. Some have identified this Hunroch as the father of Eberhard of Friuli [e.g., Dümmler (1871), 17; Favre (1896), 156].
Probable relative, nepos
of the earlier Hunroch:
Albgar, fl. 817, missus in Dalmatia.
In 817, Albgar, nepos of Hunroch, appears as a missus in Dalmatia ["... missusque ad hoc cum Cadolane et praedicto legato in Dalmatiam Albgarius, Unrochi nepos." ARF, s.a. 817, 145]. He was perhaps the son of an Audachar [Chaume (1940a), 69-70; Werner (1965), 134]. Hlawitschka suggests that his mother was a sister of Hunroch [Hlawitschka (1960), sketch of Alpcar].
The possible identification of Hunroch with other men of that name
It is possible to distinguish a man or men named Hunroch (or variant) in four different records (or groups of records) who have appeared as different individuals in at least some scholarly source. For ease of reference, it will be useful to assign temporary numbers to these four at least arguably distinct Hunrochs:
While I know of no scholar who has suggested that there were four different individuals here, these four Hunrochs have been identified and/or distinguished in several different ways, as a few examples will show. (These authors do not state the problem in terms of identifying the Hunrochs, but the way in which they are identifying the Hunrochs can be deduced from the relationships they state, and helps to show more clearly the differences between the opinions of these authors.) Dümmler makes Eberhard and Bérenger the sons of Hunroch #3, with Adalard as a close relative, perhaps a nephew, so he is identifying Hunroch #2, Hunroch #3, and Hunroch #4 as the same person, with Hunroch #1 as a distinct individual [Dümmler (1861), 172-3; Dümmler (1871), 17]. Favre makes Bérenger, Adalard, and Eberhard all sons of Hunroch #3, so he is identifying all four Hunrochs as the same individual [Favre (1896), 156]. Hofmeister first mentions a scenario similar to the one offered by Dümmler, but then leans toward Mühlbacher's alternative theory that Eberhard was a son of Bérenger of Toulouse [Hofmeister (1907), 316-7]. Chaume identifies Hunroch #1 and Hunroch #2 as one individual and Hunroch #3 and Hunroch #4 as another distinct individual [Chaume (1940a)]. Settipani identifies Hunroch #1, Hunroch #2, and Hunroch #4 as the same, but it is not clear if he is also identifying Hunroch #3 with the others [Settipani (2004), 193, n. 1].
Concerning Hunroch #2, we should mention the theory of Mühlbacher, which would make Eberhard a son of Bérenger of Toulouse [Mühlbacher, #962 (931) a]. This is also accepted as a possible alternative by Hofmeister, who states that when Sedulius Scottus referred to Eberhard as "Hunroci proles" [MGH Poet. Lat. 3: 221], this could refer no less to a grandson than a son. While it is true that proles can also refer to a descendant as well as a child, the natural interpretation in this setting is that Sedulius was giving us the name of Eberhard's father. Indeed, there are several good reasons to believe that Eberhard of Friuli was a son of Hunroch of Ternois, i.e. that Hunroch #1 and Hunroch #2 should be identified as the same person:
This evidence give us a very strong case that Eberhard and Adalard were brothers. On the other hand, the most basic chronological estimates would lead us to believe that Hunroch #3 and Hunroch #4 were in an earlier generation that Hunroch of Ternois. However, such chronological estimates can also be very misleading, and the number of authors who have made Eberhard and Bérenger brothers (effectively identifying Hunroch #2 and Hunroch #4) is significant [e.g., Dümmler (1871), 17; Favre (1896), 156; Depoin (1899), 46; Werner (1965), 134; Settipani (2004), 193, n. 1]. Although not supported directly, this identification has the onomastic argument that Eberhard had a son named Bérenger (i.e., Berengario I, king of Italy). However, Chaume has pointed out a major problem with that identification. At the time of his death, Bérenger of Toulouse is called Huronici quondam comitis filius [Vita Hludowici imp., c. 57, MGH SS 2: 642, see above], indicating that his father did not survive him, while Hunroch of Ternois is known to have been still alive later than Bérenger's death in 835 [Chaume (1948a), 54]. Also, note that the floruit of Bérenger of Toulouse was significantly earlier than his supposed brothers Eberhard of Friuli and Adalard of Saint-Bertin, and even somewhat earlier than his supposed father Hunroch of Ternois. Thus, Chaume argues, the Hunroch who was father of Bérenger of Toulouse was an older member of the same family, and distinct from Hunroch of Ternois. It is unclear whether later authors who have made Bérenger of Toulouse a son of Hunroch of Ternois have rejected Chaume's argument for some unstated reason or whether they have overlooked it [Werner (1965), 134; Settipani (2004), 193, n. 1]. However, Chaume's objection is significant, and it seems unlikely that Hunroch #4 was the same person as Hunroch of Ternois.
With regard to Hunroch #3, we note that there is a significant gap between the last known appearance of this Hunroch in 814 and the first known appearance of Hunroch of Ternois in 839. Thus, given Chaume's indication that there was an earlier Hunroch who died before 835, it seems more likely that we are dealing with two different individuals here, and that Hunroch #3 was also distinct from Hunroch of Ternois. The identification of Hunroch #3 and Hunroch #4 is plausible enough, but relies heavily on the assumption that Huronicus represents the name Hunroch.
In summary, Hunroch #1 and Hunroch #2 were the same man, probably distinct from Hunroch #3 and Hunroch #4, who may have been the same individual. While I am largely in agreement with Chaume with regard to the identification of these individuals named Hunroch, my agreement with Chaume does not extend to most of his further conjectures about the family of Hunroch discussed below, which I believe tend to push the evidence too far.
Conjectured connections of Hunroch of
A number of conjectures regarding further supposed relatives of Hunroch have been advanced, most notably by Maurice Chaume [Chaume (1925), Chaume (1940a), Chaume (1940b)].
Supposed father (evidence
fl. 8 July 801, d. before 28 October 834.
Conjectured mother (basis for conjecture unclear): NN, daughter of Isembard, count of Thurgovie.
[Depoin (1899), 46; Chaume (1940a), 55-6, 73; Chaume (1940b), table] This claim is based on the identification of Hunroch with a certain "Heinric filius quondam Berngeri" who appears in a charter dated 28 October 834 [Chaume (1940a), 56, n. 32, citing Chartularium Werthinense, #32 and Beyer, Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch, vol. 1, #47 (neither seen by me)]. Chaume identifies this Bérenger with a Bérenger who appears with his sister Huna in a donation of 8 July 801 to Lorsch ["... ego Bereger ... Huna soror mea ..."Codex Lauresh. 2: 136 (#1171)]. I remain unconvinced by the supposed identity of the names Hunroch and Heinrich/Henry. The conjectured mother of Hunroch appears (with "dotted" lines) on one of Chaume's charts [Chaume (1940b), table], and it is unclear on what evidence it is based.
Supposed wife: Engletrude,
conjectured daughter of Bego, count of Paris,
and widow of Udalrich, count of Argengau.
Supposed stepson (very doubtful): Udalrich, marquis of Gothie, 854-858.
The claim that Hunroch's wife was named Engeltrude and that she was also married to Udalrich was given by Chaume on two separate occasions, without clearly setting out his supporting evidence. In 1925, he was placing Hunroch as the first husband of Engletrude and Udalrich as the second [Chaume (1925), 176, n. 2, 205, n. 4, 542-3, 550], while by 1940 he had changed his mind, and was giving Engeltrude the same two marriages, but in the other order, with the supposed first husband Udalrich living on 12 March 816, but deceased soon after [Chaume (1940a), 53; Chaume (1940b), 128-9, table]. In a table given in a brief note published in 2004, Settipani accepted the name and parentage of Hunroch's wife, with an indication that details would appear in a future publication [Settipani (2004), 193, n. 1].
The supposed other marriage of the wife of Hunroch is evidently based mainly on the testament of Hunroch's son Eberhard of Friuli, in which Eberhard mentions his nepos Adalroch as one of his vassals ["... coram fidelibus nostris qui interfuerunt, quorum nomina sunt hec: Adalroch, nepos noster, ..." Cart. Cysoing, 1-5 (#1); see the page of Eberhard]. This Adalroch is identified by Chaume as an Udalrich, son of Udalrich (Odalric, Ouri), marquis of Gothie, 854-858, and member of a dynasty of Udalrichs descending from Udalrich, brother of Hildegard, wife of Charlemagne [see Chaume (1925), 551 (table 12)]. Since Chaume generally interprets the term nepos as meaning "nephew" in the strict sense, he explains the above relationship by making Eberhard a uterine brother of Udalrich of Gothie. However, Chaume's argument has several flaws. The identification of Eberhard's nepos Adalroch (not otherwise identified) as a son of Udalrich of Gothie is far from certain, and there is no guarantee that nepos should be interpreted as strictly as "nephew". Also, the assumption that Hunroch did not marry his wife until after 816 does not fit well chronologically with the fact that his son Eberhard was a legate of Lothair I in May 836 [see the page of Eberhard]. Thus, the theory that Hunroch's wife had another marriage to a count Udalrich seems doubtful.
I have not found a citation which justifies the name of Hunroch's wife. It may be an onomastic conjecture, based on the fact that the eldest daughter of Hunroch's son Eberhard was named Engeltrude. The conjectured relationship between the counts of Paris and the family of Hunroch has been suggested because of the presence of the names Eberhard, Adalard, and Engeltrude (and perhaps also Bérenger and Gérard) in both families. A connection between the two families was suggested by Lot, who did not try to specify a specific link [Lot (1908), 192, n. 4], and Chaume conjectured that Hunroch's wife was a daughter of count Bego of Paris [Chaume (1940b), 128-9]. While a relationship between the families of Hunroch and the counts of Paris seems likely, it is difficult to be confident about the exact nature of the link.
Gérard, count of Ternois, 853.
The comitatus of Gérard is mentioned in the Capitulary of Servais in 853 [MGH Leg. 1: 426], and Gérard is also mentioned in the Life of St. Winnoc [Vita Winnoci, c. 11-2, MGH SS 15: 776]. The region over which he was count is not explicitly stated, but appears to have been Ternois [Grierson (1938), 255, n. 86]. The conjecture of Chaume that Gérard was a son of Hunroch was partly based on the appearance of the name Gérard in the family of the counts of Paris to which Hunroch's wife is conjectured to have belonged (see above) [Chaume (1940b), 128 & table; Settipani (2004), 193, n. 1; see the above conjecture on Engeltrude]. The conjecture is possible, but very thinly based.
NN, m. Suppo (III), d.
877×9, margrave of Spoleto.
In a charter of Hunroch's grandson Berengario I dated 12 May 890, Suppo's son Hunroch is called a relative of Berengario "Unroch consanguineus noster filius quondam Supponis incliti marcionis" Dipl. Bereng. I, 34 (#8, 12 May 890)]. This, along with the obvious onomastic argument with the name Hunroch, is the reason for Hlawitschka's conjecture that Suppo's wife was a daughter of Hunroch of Ternois [Hlawitschka (1960), sketches of Suppo (III) and Unroch (II), and Excurs: "Zur Genealogie der Supponiden" (pp. 299-309)]. The conjecture is a reasonable one.
Conjectured brother (evidence
missus in 825, count [of Boulogne?], 846.
Bérenger appears as a missus for Louis the Pious in 825 in the dioceses of Noyon, Amiens, Térouanne, and Cambrai ["Super quatuor vero episcopatus qui ad eandem diocesim pertinent, id est Noviomacensem, Ambianensem, Tarvanensem, et Camaracensem, Ragnarius episcopus et Berengarius comes." MGH SS Leg. 1: 246]. He was perhaps the same as the Bérenger who, in 846, was granted property in pagus Mempiscus by Charles the Bald [Vanderkindere (1902), 1: 37, n. 1 citing Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy, 1: 77 (which I did not have the opportunity to check)]. The conjecture that Bérenger was a brother of Hunroch is based on a string of hypotheses of the type for which Chaume is well known. It is based in part on a legendary story from Gesta comitum Barcinonensium (of which the relevant part was composed shortly after 1160), which states that count Guifred of Barcelona impregnated a daughter (unnamed) of the count of Flanders (also unnamed) and later married her [see RHF 9: 68]. Chaume conjectures that this legend was instead referring to Ermesinde, mother of Guifred [Chaume (1940b), 125-6]. In other arguments, he also conjectures that Ermesinde was a sister of marquis Onfroi of Gothie [ibid., 117-8] and that Onfroi was a close relative of Hunroch of Ternois [ibid., 126]. He then identifies Bérenger of Boulogne as the Flemish count who was Ermesinde's supposed father, making Bérenger a brother of Hunroch [ibid., 129, 135-6, table].
Conjectured sister (evidence
m. Aubry IV, count of Blois mosellan (Bidgau, pagus
Chaume's conjecture is based entirely on onomastics. The name Huna is rare, and another individual of that name appears in 801 as the sister of a Bérenger whom Chaume conjectures as the father of Hunroch (see above). Also, Huna had (among others) children named Henri (Heinricus) and Eric (Heriricus), both of which Chaume regards as "Unruoching" names (with Henri being considered the same name as Hunroch) [Chaume (1940a), 71, 73; Chaume (1940b), 123-4, table].
Ann. Bland. = Annales Blandinenses, Grierson (1937), 1-73.
Ann. Elnonenses = Annales Elnonenses, Grierson (1937), 132-175.
ARF = Georg Pertz & Friedrich Kurze, Annales Regni Francorum (Annals of the kingdom of the Franks), MGH SRG 6 (Hannover, 1895), a collective name commonly given to two closely related sets of annals, Annales Laurissenses Maiores and the so-called Einhardi Annales (Annals of Einhard), in parallel on alternate pages until the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 (s.a. 801).
Cart. S.-Bertin = M. Guérard, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Collection des cartulaires de France, 3, Paris, 1840).
Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy = Jos. Halkin & C.-G. Roland, Recueil de chartes de l'abbaye de Stavelot-Malmedy, 2 vols. (Académie Royale de Belgique, Commission Royale d'Historie 36, Brussels, 1909).
Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).
Chaume (1940a) = Maurice Chaume, "Bérenger, comte de Toulouse", Annales du Midi 52 (1940): 50-73.
Chaume (1940b) = Maurice Chaume, "Onfroi, marquis de Gothie, ses origines et ses attaches familiales", Annales du Midi 52 (1940): 113-136 + table.
Codex Lauresh. = Codex principis olim Laureshamensis abbatiae diplomaticus, 3 vols., (Mannheim, 1768-70). I have only had access to volumes 1 and 2. I have not seen Glöckner's modern edition [K. Glöckner, ed., Codex Laureshamensis, 3 vols., (Darmstadt, 1929-36)].
Depoin (1899) = Joseph Depoin, "Le duc Ébrard de Frioul et les trois comtes Matfrid", Annales de la société archéologique de Bruxelles 13, 1 (1899): 5-20.
Dipl. Bereng. I = Luigi Schiaparelli, ed., I diplomi di Berengario I (Fonti per la storia d'Italia, 35, Rome, 1903).
Dümmler (1861) = Ernst Dümmler, "Fünf Gedichte des Sedulius Scottus an den Markgrafen Eberhard von Friaul", Jahrbuch für vaterländische Geschichte 1 (1861): 167-188.
Dümmler (1871) = Ernst Dümmler, Gesta Berengarii Imperatoris (Halle, 1871).
Favre (1896) = Édouard Favre, "La famille d'Évrard marquis de Frioul dans le royaume franc de l'ouest", in Études d'histoire du Moyen Age dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), 155-162.
Grierson (1937) = Philip Grierson, ed., Les Annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand (Brussels, 1937). [Annales Blandinenses, Annales Elmarenses, Annales Formoselenses, Annales Elnonenses]
Grierson (1938) = Philip Grierson, "La maison d'Evrard de Frioul et les origines du comté de Flandre", Revue du Nord 24 (1938): 241-266.
Hlawitschka (1960) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Franken, Alemannen, Bayern und Burgunder in Oberitalien (774-962) (Freiburg, 1960).
Hofmeister (1907) = Adolf Hofmeister, "Markgrafen und Markgrafschaften im Italischen Königreich in der Zeit von Karl dem Grossen bis auf Otto den Grossen (774-962)", Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 7 (1907): 215-435.
Lot (1908) = Ferdinand Lot, "Note sur le sénéchal Alard" (Mélanges carolingiens, V), Le Moyen Age 21 (1908): 185-209.
Merlet (1897) = René Merlet, "Les comtes de Chartres de Châteaudun et de Blois aux IXe et Xe siècles", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique d'Eure-et-Loir 12 (1897), 1-84.
MGH Leg. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges series.
MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.
Settipani (2004) = Christian Settipani, La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien (Prosopographia et Genealogica 5, 2004).
Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).
Werner (1965) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Bedeutende Adelsfamilien im Reich Karls des Großen", Karl der Große, 1 (Düsseldorf, 1965): 83-142.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 20 September 2008.
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