In 811, count Hugues of Tours was one of the legates sent to Constantinople by Charlemagne ["Hug comes Toronicus" ARF, s.a. 811 (p. 133)]. In 821, his daughter Ermengarde married the future emperor Lothair I [ARF, s.a. 821 (p. 156), see below]. The obituary of his wife Aba in the necrology of Monza calls Hugues dux of Locate ["O. Dna Aba coniux Dni Ugonis ducis de locate ..." Frisi, 3: 131] Thegan gives him the epithet "the Timid" ["Tunc veniens Hlutharius cecidit ad pedes patris, et post eum socer eius Hug timidus." Thegan, c. 54, MGH SS 2: 602] Longnon gives him the nickname "le Poltron" [Longnon (1878), 246].
Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Date of death: 18 September or 20 October 837.
Annales Bertiniani and Annales Fuldenses record his death in the year 837 ["... et Hugo, socer illius [Hlotharii], defunctus est." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 837, 14; "Plures ex primoribus Italiae defuncti sunt, inter quos pracipui fuerunt Lantbertus et Hugus." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 837, 28]. The date 20 October is given by the necrology of Monza ["XIII. Kal. Nouembr. O. Hugo Dux." Frisi, 3: 136]. A marginal notice in the martyrology of Wandelbert of Prüm places his death at 18 September ["Hugo comes rebus est exutus humanis." MGH Poet. Lat. 2: 594 (line 576 n); Tellenbach (1957), 338 (829)].
Place of death: Unknown.
See the Commentary section.
Ancestor: Adalric/Eticho (Chatalricus,
Caticus, Chadicho, Attico, Etih),
fl. 673-683, duke of Alsace, m. Berswinda.
Adalric (Chatalricus/Caticus) appears in the life of St. Germanus as a duke in Alsace, successor to duke Boniface ["Contigit autem ut moreretur Gundoinus dux et Bonifacius dux, Chatalricus sive Caticus in loco ejus succederet; ..." Vita S. Germani, Trouillat (1854-67), 1: 53 (#29); Pfister (1890), 446]. He appears with king Childeric II on 4 March 673 ["Childericus, rex Franchorum, vir inluster, Chadicho duce, ... sub die quarto quod fecit mensis Marcius, anno xiij regni nostri" Pardessus, Diplomata, 2: 158 (#368)], and he was still living on 9 February 683, when he appears in a diploma with Theoderich III ["Theudericus Rex Francorum, vir inluster, Attico Duci & Adelberto comite, ... Datum sub die nono mensis Februarii, anno decimo regni nostri" Grandidier (1777-8), 1: preuves, xl-xli (#23)]. It is generally agreed that he was the duke Etih who is named by Thegan as an ancestor of count Hugues ["Sequenti anno  habuit [Louis I] placitum suum generale, et ibi Hlutharius, filius suus primogenitus ex regina, suscepit in coniugium filiam Hugi comitis, qui erat de stirpe cuiusdam ducis nomine Etih, qui erat timidus super omnes homines." Thegan, Vita Hludowici Imp., 28, MGH SS 2: 597]. The descendants of Adalric are discussed further below.
Spouse: Ève (Ava, Aba), d. 4×5 September 839.
[Frisi, 2: 7 (#4); 3: 131]
d. 20 March 851;
m. Tours, October 821, Lothair I, d. 28×9 September 855, emperor.
["Medio mense Octobrio conventus generalis apud Theodonis villam magna populi Francorum frequentia celebratur, in quo domnus Hlotharius, primogenitus domni imperatoris Hludowici, Irmingardam Hugonis comitis filiam solemni more duxit uxorem." ARF, s.a. 821, 156; "Ludowicus imperator dedit filio suo Lothario regi ad coniugium Ermingardam filiam Hugonis comitis Turonicorum, ..." Ann. Xant., s.a. 821, 6; "... ibique domnus imperator primogenito filio suo Hlothario Hirmengardam, filiam Hugonis comitis, uxorem cum solempni iunxit apparatu." Astr., Vita Hludowici Imp., c. 34, MGH SS 2: 626]
Liutfrid, d. 865×6, count, duke.
Liutfrid is twice called the avunculus of Lothair II by Hincmar ["... faventibus sibi Liutfrido, avunculo suo, ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 862, 60; "Hlotharius ... Liutfridum, avunculum suum" Ann. Bertin., s.a. 865, 75]. He appears on 25 August 849 as illuster comes and lord of the abbey of Moutiers-Grandval in a diploma of the emperor Lothair I ["... quia Lutfridus, illuster comes, dominusque monasterii, cujus vocabuum est Grandisvallis, quod est situm in ducatu Heliacensi, ..." Trouillat (1852-67), 1: 108 (#56); Mühlbacher #1137 (#1103)]. The Annales Alamannici misplace his death in 864 ["Ebarhart, Liutolf, Erchanker, Liutfrid, Ruodolf regni principes obierunt." Annales Alamannici (continuatio Sangallensis prima), s.a. 864, MGH SS 1: 50], but Liutfrid was still living in 865 [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 865, 75, see above]. Liutfrid was deceased by 19 March 866, when Lothair II confirmed certain possessions of the abbey of Moutiers-Grandval at the request of count Hugues, son of his late avunculus Liutfrid ["... quia Hugo comes, quondam illustris avunculi nostri Lutfridi filius, ..." Trouillat (1852-67), 1: 113 (#61); Mühlbacher #1310 (#1275)]. See also the page of Eberhard of Friuli, who appears to have died in the same year. Liutfrid is caaled dux by a poem of Sedulius Scottus ["Dux Leodfride potens" Sedulius Scottus, Carmina III, viii, MGH Poet. Lat. 3: 237].
Adélaïde, d. 18 August, prob. bef.
m. Conrad/Konrad, count in Argengau, son of count Welf.
Conrad's wife was named Adélaïde ["Chuonradus, princeps famosissimus, ... . Coniunx illi erat Adheleid nomine, ..." Heric, Mirac. S. Germani, MGH SS 13: 401]. The Annales Bertiniana, under the year 864, confirm that she was a maternal aunt (matertera) of Lothair I, therefore a sister of Ermengarde ["... Hlothario ... consilio Hugoni, Chuonradi, Karoli regis avunculi, et materterae suae filio, ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 864 (p. 71)]. Adélaïde almost certainly died before her husband, probably in childbirth at the same time as an infant son named Rudolf [Tellenbach (1957), 337-8 (828-9)].
m. Gérard II "de Roussillon", d. 878×9, count of Paris, count of Vienne.
The parentage of Berthe is based on the foundation charter of Ponthières and Vézelay, which mentions Gérard and his wife Berthe and their parents Leuthard and Grimhilde, and Hugues and Bava, and two other relatives (exact relationship not specified) Leutfrid and Adalard ["Ego Gerardus divinæ pietatis munere apud gloriosam Regalem mansuetudinem Comitis honore sublimatus, ex communi voto & desiderio dilectissimæ Conjugis meæ atque amantissimæ Bertæ, ... Sed & dignam rependentes genitoribus atque parentibus honorificentiam, id est, Leuthardi, & Grimildis, atque gratissimorum Hugonis & Bavæ, ..." Historia Vizeliacensis monasterii, Spicilegium, 2: 499]. Although they are not explicitly identified as such, it is generally accepted that Berthe's parents Hugues and "Bava" were the same individuals as count Hugues of Tours and his wife Ève/Ava.
Hugues, d. bef. 24 January 835, bur.
St. Ambrosius, Milan.
On 24 January 835 and on 8 May 835, the emperor Lothair I donated the courtyard or enclosure of Limonta to the church of St. Ambrosius in Milan for the soul of of the boy Hugues, brother of his wife Ermengarde, who had been buried at St. Ambrosius [24 January: "... Denique dum dilecta conjux nostra, Hinmingardis divinarum sollicita studiosissime nostram sedulo monere procuraret clementiam ut locis Deo dicatis nostra sublimaremus munificentia occasione accepta ex dilecitione fratris sui puerili elegantia delati Ugonis nomine instantius hoc suadere decertavit ut augmentum pietatis nostrae et emulumentum mercedis in loco quo ipse corpore umatus extitit cimiterio scilicet sanci Ambrosii ..." Fumagalli 179 (#42), Böhmer (1833), 54 (#541); 8 May 835 "... quia dilecta coniux nostra Hirmingardis nostram petiit pietatem ut pro emolumento mercedis nostrae et remedium animae fratris sui puerili aetate ab haec luce delatum Hugonis nomine ad concinnanda luminaria in basilica beati confessoris Xpi Ambrosii ubi ipse corpore humatus requiescit." Fumagalli 196 (#45); Böhmer (1833), 54 (#546)].
The descendants of Adalric/Eticho
As noted above, Thegan states that count Hugues of Tours was a descendant of duke Etih, almost certainly to be identified with Adalric or Eticho (Hettich), duke of Alsace. Exactly how Hugues descended from Adalric is uncertain. Most detailed account of the descendants of Adalric are based on a notice that appears in the cartulary of Honau, which is short enough to give in full.
"Notitia eorum qui bonis suis dotaverunt Abbatiam Honaugiensem, quæ multum inservit ad allustrandam Genealogium filiorum Adalrici Ducis Alsatiæ.
Hæc est Genealogia filiorum Adalrici Ducis, vel alio nomine Hettichonis.
Hettich genuit quatuor filios, Adelbertum, Battichonem, Hugonem, Hetichonem, & Sanctam Otiliam.
Adelbertus genuit duos filios, Luitfridum & Ebrohardum, & tres filias, Sanctam Attalam, Eugeniam & Gerlindam. Et predicti construxerunt Monasterium, quod divitur Muorbach, & in multis locis dederunt terram suam ad Monasterium Scotorum Hohenaugia juxta flumen Rheni in honore Sancti Michaelis Archangeli. Filius Luitfridus Dux dedit de suo alodo in multis locis, sicut carte ejus testantur.
Batticho genuit Boronum; Boronus genuit duos filios, Adelbertum & Hugonem; Hugo autem genuit unicumfilium, nomine Adelbertum.
Hugo genuit duos filios, Bodolum & Bleonum. Bodol autem genuit duas filias Ruchuinam & Atalam. Bleon autem genuit unicum filium nomine Hug, qui dedit totum quod habuit in Marca Odradesheim.
Heticho genuit duos filios Hugonem & Albericum. Hug autem genuit unicum filium Haichonem. Albericus autem genuit quatuor filios, Hugbertum, Hebrohardum, Horbertum & Thetibaldum.
Hi omnes dederunt terras suas in variis locis ad ecclesiam Sancti Michaelis, quam construxit Sanctus Benedictus Episcopus & Adelbertus Dux in honorem Sancti Michaelis Archangeli & Sanctorum Petri & Pauli."
[Grandidier (1777), 1: preuves, lxxviii-lxxix (#45); for a transcription of a related text which gives slighly less information, see Pfister (1892), 59-60]
The following table shows the descendants of Adalric as given by this account.
The Notitia is from the Honau cartulary of the sixteenth century, and was probably compiled in the fifteenth century [Vollmer (1957), 152]. The information on the table was generally regarded as reliable until the late nineteenth century, when Christian Pfister pronounced it as a fabrication [Pfister (1892), 59ff.]. The reliability of the information was later reaffirmed by Vollmer [Vollmer (1957)]. Much of the information in the second and third generations is verified by six donations from the Honau cartulary [see Grandidier (1777), 1: preuves, liv-lv (#32), lv-lvi (#33), lix-lx (#35), lx-lxi (#36), lxxi-lxxii (#42), lxxvii-lxviii (#44)], and by the Fulda documents mentioned below under Haicho, but the only sources for the statements that Batticho, Hugo, and Heticho were sons of Adalric are the Notitia and closely related texts. Although suspicion is natural for such a genealogy involving early individuals appearing in such late documents, I incline toward Vollmer's view. The genealogy agrees extremely well with the charter information, some of which was located at places other than Honau where the genealogy was compiled. If the genealogy is a fabrication, it is more skillful than what would be expected of a fifteenth or sixteenth century forger with limited information.
Conjectured father (basis
d. bef. 19 June 785, son of Hugues.
On 19 June 785, a certain Hugues (Huc, Huchus) gave property in Alsace to Fulda in two charters for the soul of his son Haicho ["ego Huc dono pro anima mea seu pro anima filii mei Hahihconi ... XIII. kal. iulias anno XVII. regni domni nostri Karoli regis" Codex Fuld. 50 (#82); "Huchus ... Hahichoni ..." ibid., 50 (#83); Trad. Fuld. 5 (c. 3, #3)]. Acknowledging that there is no secure solution to the manner in which Hugues of Tours descends from Adalric, Vollmer conjectures that Hugues was a son of Haicho [Vollmer (1957), 162, 165, 183]. Although it seems likely that the position of Hugues of Tours in the above table is one or two generations beyond the generation of this Haicho, trying to determine his exact place is little more than guesswork. As the above table shows, there are too many descendants of Adalric, and the name Hugues appears in too many of the branches to even guess to which brach he might belong.
Conjectured father: Liutfrid.
Conjectured brother: Leuthard.
This is based on a false act of Lothair I from 15 October 858, supposedly confirming the donation of a count Leuthard and his brother Hugues to the church at Echery of lands inherited from their father Liutfrid ["... quicquid a Leutardo comite & Hugone fratre concessum est ecclesiæ, quæ dicitur Belmont, ..., & quæ jure hæreditario ad eos per obitum Liutfridi comitis eorum parentis pervenisse dignoscuntur." Grandidier (1777-8), 2: ccxlvii (#129), giving year as 859; RHF 8: 406]. Long accepted as genuine, Christian Pfister proposed that the charter was fabricated by the seventeenth century text-forger Jerome Vignier for the purpose of creating a genealogical link [Pfister (1891), 393, n. 8; Pfister (1892), 85], and this was proven by a detailed argument by Robert Parisot [Parisot (1898), 754-762: Appendice IV - Le faux diplôme de Lothaire II pour Belmont (Échery) du 15 octobre 858]. Longnon identifies Leuthard with the Leuthard who was father of Gérard de Roussillon [Longnon (1878), 246].
Bouquet, Pertz, Rioult de Neuville:
Falsely attributed son:
Bérenger, d. 835, count of Toulouse, before 819-835.
Bérenger was count of Toulouse by 819, when he appears in conflict with Loup Centulle of Gascony ["Simili modo et Lupus Centulli Wasco, qui cum Berengario Tolosae et Warino Arverni comite eodem anno proelio conflixit, ..." ARF, s.a. 819, 150]. He died in 835 ["Eodem anno ipso in itiere obiit Berengarius, dux fidelis et sapiens, quem imperator cum filiis suis luxit multo tempore. Iste est annus vicesimus secundus regni domni Hludowici piissimi imperatoris, ..." Thegan, Vita Hludowici imp., c. 58, MGH SS 2: 603]. Bérenger disputed the mark of Gothie with Bernard, son of Guillaume de Gellone, but the premature death of Bérenger settled that dispute in favor of Bernard ["... Sed et causa Gothorum ibidem ventilata est, quorum alii partibus Bernhardi favebant, alii autem favore ducebantur Beringarii, Huronici quondam comitis filii. Sed Berengario inmatura morte praerepto, apud Bernhardum potestas Septimaniae quam maxima remansit, legatis illuc missis, qui ea quae indigebant correctione in meliorem componerent statum." Vita Hludowici imp., c. 57, MGH SS 2: 642]. Pertz, editor of the edition of Vita Hludowici just cited, following Bouquet, wrongly emended Huronici to H. Turonici, and that explains why Bérenger is incorrectly called a son of count Hugues of Tours in some older secondary sources [e.g., Rioult de Neuville, 238-9; for more on this error, see Merlet (1897), 15-6; Depoin (1899), 47].
Falsely attributed sons:
Eberhard, fl. late 9th century, count
The life of St. Deicol mentions Eberhard as a count in Alsace ["comes quidam bellipotens de Alsatiae partibus nomine Heberardus" Vita S. Deicoli, c. 12, MGH SS 15.2: 677]. The same source states that Eberhard was a relative of Waldrada, second wife of Lothair II, and that his wife's name was Adallinde [ibid., c. 13, p. 679]. Chaume makes Eberhard a son of Hugues of Tours [Chaume (1925), 1: 224 n. 1]. However, even though there is good reason to believe that Eberhard was a descendant of duke Adalric/Eticho, there is no justification for making him a son of Hugues of Tours.
Hugues I, d. after 853, count of
Chaume states that Hugues of Bourges was "suivant toute apparence" a son of Hugues of Tours [Chaume (1925), 1: 235 n. 2; for Hugues of Bourges, see Chaume (1925) 1: 222 n. 3]. However, there has already been identified above a son of Hugues of Tours named Hugues, who was obviously not the same as Hugues of Bourges.
Falsely attributed son:
Robert, count, missus in Tours, May 825.
Mabille conjectured that Robert was a son of Hugues, count of Tours, and father of Robert le Fort [Mabille (1871), liv-lv, who gives the date 822 for the capitulary]. This improbable theory, which never found any major support, is discussed on the page of Robert le Fort.
Ann. Bertin. = G. Waitz, ed., Annales Bertiniani (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1883).
Ann. Fuld. = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Annales Fuldenses (MGH SRG 7, Hannover, 1891).
Ann. Xant. = B. de Simson, ed., Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini (MGH SRG 12, 1909), 1-33.
ARF = Georg Pertz & Friedrich Kurze, Annales Regni Francorum (Annals of the kingdom of the Franks), MGH SRG 6 (Hannover, 1895).
Böhmer (1833) = Johann Friedrich Böhmer, Regesta chronologico-diplomatica Karolorum (Frankfurt am Main, 1833).
Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).
Codex Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Codex diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, 1850).
Depoin (1899) = Joseph Depoin, "Le duc Ébrard de Frioul et les trois comtes Matfrid", Annales de la société archéologique de Bruxelles 13, 1 (1899): 5-20.
Frisi = Anton-Francesco Frisi, Memorie Storiche di Monza e sua corte, 3 vols.(Milan, 1794).
Fumagalli = Angelo Gumagalli, Codice Diplomatico Sant' Ambrosiano (Milan, 1805).
Grandidier (1777-8) = Philippe-André Grandidier, Histoire de l'église et des évêques-princes de Strasbourg, 2 vols. (Strasbourg, 1777-8).
Hlawitschka (1960) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Franken, Alemannen, Bayern und Burgunder in Oberitalien (774-962) (Freiburg, 1960).
Krüger (1890) = Emil Krüger, Der Ursprung des Hauses Lothringen-Habsburg (Vienna, 1890).
Longnon (1878) = Auguste Longnon, "Girard de Roussillon dans l'Histoire", Revue historique 8 (1878), 241-278.
Merlet (1897) = René Merlet, "Les comtes de Chartres de Châteaudun et de Blois aux IXe et Xe siècles", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique d'Eure-et-Loir 12 (1897), 1-84.
MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.
MGH SRG = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum (separate editions).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Pardessus, Diplomata = J. M. Pardessus, ed., Diplomata chartæ, epistolæ, leges aliaque instrumenta ad res Gallo-Francicas spectantia 2 vols. (Paris, 1843-9)
Parisot (1898) = Robert Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (1898, reprinted Geneva, 1975).
Pfister (1890-2) = Christian Pfister, "Le duché mérovingien d'Alsace et la légende de Sainte Odile", Annales de l'Est 4 (1890): 433-465; 5 (1891): 392-447; 6 (1892): 27-119.
Poupardin (1901) = René Poupardin, Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1901).
Rioult de Neuville (1872-3) = Louis Rioult de Neuville, "Robert le Fort. Sa famille et son origine", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du Midi de la France 2 ser. 10 (1872-3): 217-248.
Trad. Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Traditiones et antiquitates Fuldenses (Fulda, 1844).
Spicilegium = Luc d'Achery, Spicilegium sive collectio veterum aliquot scriptorum qui in Galliæ bibliothecis delituerant, 3 vols. in folio (Paris, 1723).
Trouillat (1852-67) = J. Trouillat, Monuments de l'Histoire de l'ancien évêché de Bâle, 5 vols. (Porrentruy, 1852-67).
Vollmer (1957) = Franz Vollmer, "Die Etichonen", in G. Tellenbach, ed., Studien und Vorarbeiten zur Geschichte des großfränkischen und frühdeutschen Adels (Frieburg, 1957).
Wüstenfeld (1863) = Ch. Wüstenfeld, "Ueber die Herzoge von Spoleto aus dem Hause der Guidonen", Forschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte 3 (1863): 383-432.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 16 August 2012.
Minor change added 14 September 2012 (date of death).
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