Viscountess of Châteaudun.
Between 1005 and 1023, viscountess Hildegarde of Châteaudun mentions her son archbishop Hugues, with witnesses including Geoffroy, nepos of archbishop Hugues, and Helgaud, son of the archbishop ["... ego Hildegardis, vicecomitissa Castridunis, do sanctissimo Petro Carnotensis coenobii alodum meum de Bello Monte, ..., assentiente et annuente filio meo Hugone, archiepiscopo Turonorum' ... auctoritateque filii mei archipræsulis Hugonis anathematizatus permeneat. Hugo archipræsul. Gaufridi, nepotis ejus. ..., Helgaudi, filii archiepiscopi" Cart. S.-Père de Chartres, 1: 117-8 (#6)]. She has generally been identified, probably correctly, with the viscountess Hildegarde who in 980 witnessed a donation to Saint-Florent de Saumur by her sister Gerberge, wife of Gelduin de Saumur ["Ego Girbirga ... voluntate senioris mei Gelduini ... in hereditate senioris mei Berengerii quam michi in dotalicium ipse donavit ... Signum Girbergane ..., S. Gelduini senioris eius, S. Hyldrici, S. Hildegardis vicecomitissae sororis eius ..." Settipani (1997), 259 & n. 236, citing Cart. St-Florent (not seen by me)].
Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Date of death: 14 April, 1005 or later.
Place of death: Unknown.
The obituary of the cathedral church of Chartres gives her date of death as 14 April ["XVIII kal. mai. Obiit Hildegardis, vicecomitissa de Castellodunis, pro cujus anima dedit Sancte Marie filius ejus, Hugo, Turonensis episcopus, alodum suum qui vocatur Viverus." Obit. Sens, 2: 10]. The year of Hildegard's death is unknown. Attempts to get a good estimate of the date are hindered by the uncertain date of the charter which mentions Hildegarde. As edited by Guérard, the charter includes no dating clause, but an estimate of ca. 1020 is given, but on what basis is unclear [Cart. S.-Père de Chartres, 1: 117-8 (#6)]. The presence of archbishop Hugues as a witness narrows down the date to 1005×23 [see below on the dates of Hugues]. The presence of his nepos Geoffroy and son Helgaud does not narrow the date any further, and to my knowledge, no other witness of the charter can be dated to enough accuracy to narrow the date any further. Romanet places the charter in 1005×23, but supposes that it is closer to the earlier date [Romanet (1890-1902), 37]. Several sources state that the charter was dated to the ninth year of king Robert II [24 October 1004 - 23 October 1005], but without citing a primary source [Maan (1667), 77; Bordas (1850), 108; Cuissard (1894-6), 35]. If correct, this would place the charter in 1005, 23 October or before (since Hugues appears to have become archbishop on 1 January 1005, as noted below). In any case, even if this latter date is wrong, it can still be stated with confidence that Hildegarde was alive in 1005.
For conjectured origins, see the Commentary section.
Probable spouse: Geoffroy (I),
fl. 967?-985, viscount of Châteaudun.
See the Commentary section.
Hugues, d. 10 June 1023, viscount of
Châteaudun, 985×9-1003×4; archbishop of Tours, 1005?-23.
In 989, Hugues, viscount of Châteaudun, witnesses a charter of Robert, viscount of Blois ["S. Hugonis, vicecomitis Castredunensis, ... S. Alonis de Cayone castro, ..." Lex (1892), 125 (Pièces justificatives #3)]. On 12 February 996, viscount Hugues appears as a witness with his brother Alo and an Albert who might be his brother-in-law ["Signum Hugoni vicecomitis. Signum Alonis fratris ejus. Signum Alberti." Lot (1903), 426; cf. Lex (1892), 131 (Pièces justificatives #6), which has Hugues and Alo, but not Albert]. Between 996 and 1001, a Hugues appears in a document as both dean of Saint-Maurice de Tours and viscount of Châteaudun, witnessing with a brother Adelaud (presumably the same person as Alo) ["... ego Hugo, Sancti Mauricii decanus, favente Dei gratia, et vicecomes Castridunensis, ... S. Hugoni decani. S. Adelaudi, fratrem ejus" Lex (1892), 132-3 (Pièces justificatives #7)]. Around 1000, viscount Hugues, son of viscount Geoffroy is mentioned ["Hugonis vicecomitis qui in honorem patri sui Gausfredi scilicet vicecomitis" Settipani (1997), 260 & n. 239, citing Coll. Tour.-Anj., #308 (not seen by me)]. In October 1003, viscount Hugues witnesses an act in which the brothers Helgaud and Hugues receive property in Dunois ["... quidam homines, his nominibus vocitati, Helgaudus et frater suus Hugo, ... Actum Dunis Castro. S. Theobaldi comitis. S. Hugonis vicecomitis." Cart. S.-Père de Chartres, 2: 399-400 (#1); Settipani would identify this Helgaud and Hugues as sons of viscount Hugues, but the charter itself makes no such identification]. Hugues apparently resigned as viscount in 1003×4, and was chosen as archbishop of Tours, probably in January 1005 [see below]. Hugues died in 1023 and was succeeded by his nepos Arnoul ["MXXIII. Obiit Hugo archiepiscopus Turonensium IV idus junii. Cui successit Arnulfus nepos VII kalendas decembris." Ann. Vendôme, s.a. 1023, Halphen (1903), 60; "MXXIII. Obiit Hugo archiepiscopus IV kalendas junii; cui successit Arnulphus nepos eius." Ann. S.-Florent, s.a. 1023, Halphen (1903), 118; "MXXIII. Obiit Hugo archiepiscopus Turonensium, IV idus maii, cui successit Arnulfus nepos ejus." Chron. S. Maxentii Pictavensis, Marchegay & Mabille (1869), 388]. Most sources give 10 June as the date [e.g., Ann. Vendôme (above); obituary of the cathedral church of Chartres: "IIII id. jun. Obiit Hugo, Turonorum archiepiscopus, qui dedit nobit alodum suum de Vivariis." Obit. Sens, 2: 14; obituary of Hôtel-Dieu de Châteaudun: "IIII idus jun. Obiit Hugo, Turonorum archiepiscopus, ..." Obit. Sens, 2: 419; the obituary of abbey of Saint-Père-en-Vallée gives 3 May: "V nonas [mai.] ... Hugo archiepiscopus Turonensis." Obit. Sens, 2: 188].
The date when Hugues became archbishop of Tours is difficult to determine. As noted above, Hugues died on 10 June 1023. Some place his selection as archbishop as early as 1003, but the source for this date is unclear [Mabille, in Cart. Marmoutier Dunois, 4 n. 6; Keats-Rohan (1997), 202; Settipani (1997), 260]. Others place his accession as late as 1007 [e.g., Pfister (1885), 67, citing Gallia Christiana 14: 56 (not checked by me)]. The great chronicle of Tours dates the episcopate of Hugues from the 7th year of Heinrich II and 12th year of Robert II (1008×9) until the 16th year of Heinrch II and 21st year of Robert II (1017×8) [Rec. Chron. Touraine, 118-9], and the abbreviated chronicle of Tours dates it 1004-18 [Rec. Chron. Touraine, 187]. Obviously, no reliance can be placed on these two sources. The reign lengths given in the episcopal lists are likely to be more reliable. The chronicle of the archbishops of Tours gives Hugues a reign of 10 years, 5 months, 9 days, with a variant reading of 18 years, 2 months, 8 days ["Hugo annis X, mensibus V, diebus IX" var. "annis XVIII, mensibus II, diebus VIII" Rec. Chron. Touraine, 215]. The brief history of Saint-Julien de Tours gives the length as 18 years, 5 months, 9 days ["Hugo annis XVIII, mensibus V, diebus IX" Rec. Chron. Touraine, 227]. Another episcopal catalogue gives 18 years, 5 months, 9 days with a vacancy of 1 month and 18 days between Hugues and his predecessor Archambaud, who appears to have died 17×8 November of an unknown year [Halphen (1906), 84 n. 4, citing Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, 2: 289 (not seen by me)]. The figure of 10 years is obviously corrupt, for Hugues appears already as archbishop on 27 September 1007 in a charter of Robert II ["Signum domini Hugonis Archiepiscopi. ... Actum Bolonia foreste, V Kal. Oct., anno ab Incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi DCCCCVII, Indict. V." RHF 10: 590 (#18); Pfister (1885), lxx (#34)]. On the other hand, Hugues was apparently not yet archbishop in October 1003, when he appears only as viscount [see above]. If we calculate 18 years, 5 months, and 9 days back from 10 June 1023, we get 1 January 1005 for the inauguration of Hugues as archbishop, and another 1 month and 18 days gives 14 November 1004 as the calculated death date for the predecessor of Hugues, only a three or four day discrepancy. Thus, the episcopate of Hugues is likely to have started in early January of 1005.
Alo (Adelaud) de Chinon, fl. 989-1009×12;
In 989, Alo de Chinon witnesses a charter of Robert, viscount of Blois ["S. Alonis de Cayone castro" Lex (1892), 125 (Pièces justificatives #3)]. On 12 February 996, Alo signs as a brother of viscount Hugues ["Signum Hugoni vicecomitis. Signum Alonis fratris ejus. Signum Alberti." Lot (1903), 426]. Between 996 and 1001, Adelaud (apparently the same person as Alo) witnesses with his brother Hugues, dean of Saint-Maurice de Tours and viscount of Châteaudun [Lex (1892), 132-3 (Pièces justificatives #7), see above]. In June of a year between 1009 and 1012, a charter of Hubert de Saumur, a vassal of Alo, mentions Alo, his wife Senegunde, and his sons Alo and Bernier ["... ego, in Dei nomine, Hucbertus, miles, de castro Salmuro, ... Habebam enim vicariam de seniore meo Alono Cainone castro, ... Filii vero ejus, Alonus et Bernerius ... Senegundis vero, femina Alonis, ... S. Alonis. S. Senegundis. ... S. Alonis. S. Bernerii, fratris ejus ..." Lex (1892), 136-140 (Pièces justificatives #10)]. It is unknown whether Hugues and Alo shared one or both parents, and it has been suggested by some that Hugues and Alo were only maternal half-siblings [e.g., Cuissard (1894-6), 120 (table)].
NN, m. Albert,
d. 14 January 1036, abbot of Micy.
In a charter of 1023×8, Albert calls archbishop Arnoul his son, clearly suggesting a genealogical connection with archbishop Hugues ["Ego Abbas Albertus Abbatia Sanctorum Stephani Prothomartyris & Christi confessoris Maximini. ... dedi pro remedio animæ meæ filijque mei Arnulphi Turonensis Archiepiscopi, & parentum meorum, ..." Bry (1620), 51]. A charter of 1030×1 makes Albert the son of another Albert and a Hildeburge, and gives him two uncles (patrui) Anno, abbot of Jumièges (and of Saint-Mesmin de Micy) and Azenar ["... quidam fidelis noster nomine Albertus, ... Tradidit autem quasdem res sui beneficii sancto Petro Gimegiensi, faventibus nobis, videlicet pro redemptione anime sue et patrui sui illius loci abbatis, nomine Annae, et patris sui Alberti, et patrui sui Azerini, et matris sue Hildeburgis, et uxoris sue, et sobolis feminini generis." Cart. Jumièges, 52 (#15)]. Thus, Albert was not a brother of archbishop Hugues, so that if we assume the most common meaning of nepos ("nephew"), it is probable that Albert's wife was a sister of Hugues. See the page of Hildeburge de Bellême for more on Albert.
Probable daughter or daughter-in-law (and son-in-law or son):
prob. m. Fulcois, count [of Mortagne?].
As the parents of Hildegarde's probable grandson Geoffroy (II), viscount of Châteaudun, one of this couple would probably be a child of Hildegarde and the other her son-in-law or daughter-in-law.
The husband(s?) of Hildegarde
The husband of Hildegard is not identified in the early sources. Since she is explicitly called viscountess of Châteaudun in the 1005×23 charter in which she mentions her son archbishop Hugues, she was married to a viscount of Châteaudun, but which one? Most early modern sources identify her as the wife of a viscount Hugues:
Supposed husband: Hugues (I), viscount of Châteaudun.
(existence as a person distinct from archbishop Hugues of Tours is improbable)
Doyen and Bordas make viscount Hugues I the the second husband of Hildegarde and the stepfather of archbishop Hugues [Doyen (1786), 1: 239; Bordas (1850), 107-8]. Romanet, Cuissard, and Saint-Phalle have viscount Hugues I up to in or before 989, and then viscount Hugues II, later archbishop [Romanet (1890-1902), 30 (table), 37-9, 44-5 (table); Cuissard (1894-6), 33, 120 (table); Saint-Phalle (2000), 245 (table 6)].
This interpretation of the sources is understandable. The short chronicle of Bonneval mentions viscount Geoffroy and his wife Ermengarde and his/their son Hugues ["Deinde extitit quidam vicecomes Castrodunensis, Gaufridus nomine, qui, pro redemptione anime sue et uxoris, Hermengardis nomine, ... Similiter filius suus, nomine Hugo, ..." Petite Chron. Bonneval, 33]. Here, the ambiguity of suus allows the natural interpretation that Hugues was a son of both Geoffroy and Ermengarde, which in turn would seem to imply that there was a viscount of Châteaudun named Hugues in the last half of the tenth century who was distinct from archbishop Hugues, making this supposed viscount Hugues an obvious candidate as the husband of Hildegarde.
On the other hand, even though we do not have direct proof that the records of a viscount Hugues between 989 and 1003 all refer to the same man, we also have no good reason to believe that they refer to more than one person. Indeed, there is good reason for identifying this viscount Hugues of Châteaudun with archbishop Hugues of Tours. The viscount Hugues of Châteaudun who appears between 996 and 1001 was also dean of Saint-Maurice de Tours ["... ego Hugo, Sancti Mauricii decanus, favente Dei gratia, et vicecomes Castridunensis, ..." Lex (1892), 132-3 (Pièces justificatives #7)], clearly suggesting that he was the same man as the later archbishop. Also, the fact that the archbishop had a son [see, e.g., Hildegard's charter above] indicates that he may have had a secular career before joining the church. Furthermore, we know that the Hugues who was viscount about the year 1000 was the son of a viscount Geoffroy ["Hugonis vicecomitis qui in honorem patri sui Gausfredi scilicet vicecomitis" Settipani (1997), 260 & n. 239, citing Coll. Tour.-Anj., #308 (not seen by me)].
In addition, the probable appearance of Hildegard as viscountess in 980 (assuming that this was the same person) would argue strongly against Hildegard's husband being a viscount Hugues, for we find viscount Geoffroy witnessing charters both before and after that date, suggesting that he was her husband. She would be unlikely to use the title of viscountess until after her husband had acquired that title, and in 980, the succession of a viscount Hugues to the title was apparently several years in the future.
Thus, the sources other than the short chronicle of Bonneval would appear to give a consistent picture of a viscount Geoffroy (bef. 967 - aft. 985), his wife Hildegarde, and their son the viscount and archbishop Hugues. Against this, we have the account of that chronicle with viscount Geoffroy and his wife Ermengarde and son Hugues. Murs states that Hildegarde may have been the same as Ermengarde [Murs (1856), 120], and the same suggestion is made by Settipani [Settipani (1997), 261 & n. 252]. In fact, the most likely explanation of the entry in the short chronicle of Bonneval (a late text with many faults) is that Hildegarde's name was accidently mistranscribed as Hermengardis at some point in the transmission. Other possible, but much less likely, explanations would be that Ermengarde was an earlier wife of Geoffroy or that there was more than one Geoffroy involved.
husband (uncertain): Arnaud de la Ferté.
According to a number of sources, Hildegard was married first to a certain Arnaud de la Ferté, and then to viscount Hugues of Châteaudun [Doyen (1786), 1: 239; Bordas (1850), 107-8; Romanet (1890-1902), 38 n. 6, 44-5 (table); Cuissard (1894-6), 34, 120 (table)]. According to some of these sources, it was by this alleged first marriage that Hildegarde had Hugues, archbishop of Tours [Doyen (1786), 1: 239; Bordas (1850), 107-8]. Cuissard makes Arnaud the father of Alo and the wife of Albert, abbot of Micy [Cuissard (1894-6), 120 (table)]. Without knowing the evidence on which this is based, it is hard to judge the likelihood of this supposed earlier marriage, but in the absence of confirming evidence, it seems best to doubt it.
Hildegard and her probable grandson Geoffroy - who was the intervening generation?
In addition to archbishop Hugues, Alo de Chinon, and the wife of abbot Albert, Hildegarde appears to have had another child, gender uncertain, a parent of Geoffroy (II), viscount of Châteaudun, who was assassinated in about 1038 or 1039, ancestor of the counts of Perche. Unfortunately, the uncertain and indirect nature of the evidence leaves plenty of opportunities for the scholar to stumble. As shown by the 1005×23 charter of Hildegarde, her son, archbishop Hugues of Tours, had a nepos, Geoffroy, who appears to have been the same person as Geoffroy (II), viscount of Châteaudun (d. 1038×9). The most obvious interpretation of the word nepos (usually "nephew") would then make Hildegarde a grandmother of Geoffroy, and the natural question is then to determine the identity of the intervening generation.
Geoffroy's mother was named Melisende, but there have been different theories about the identity of his father. Some have supposed that Geoffroy was the son of another viscount Geoffroy who was a son of Hildegarde. However, the most likely possibility is that the father of Geoffroy was the count Fulcois who is called the avus ("grandfather") of Geoffroy's son Rotrou in one document. Even if this is accepted, it is not clear whether it was Fulcoin or Melisende who was a child of Hildegarde. Thus, we have the three candidates listed below for the intervening generation. The details are discussed on the pages of Geoffroy (II) and Melisende. Obviously, at most one of the following three options could be true.
Melisende, living 1031×2;
prob. m. Fulcois, count [of Mortagne?].
See the pages of Melisende and Geoffroy (II) for other conjectured husbands.
Fulcois, count [of Mortagne?];
prob. m. Melisende, living 1031×2.
Supposed son (existence
as a person distinct from Geoffroy son of Melisende is
Geoffroy, viscount of Châteaudun;
said to have m. Melisende, living 1031×2.
The viscount of Châteaudun was named Geoffroy between 1003×4 and ca. 1038×9. In the unlikely event that there were two viscounts of that name during this period, the elder of them would have presumably been Melisende's husband, in which case Fulcois would fit into the family in some other way.
The origin of Hildegarde
No early source gives the parentage of Hildegard. However, a number of conjectures have appeared regarding her origin.
Conjectured father (possible): Hervé (I), fl. 941-55, count of
A Hervé appears in the entourage of Hugues le Grand in several acts from 941 to 946. He appears in November 941 ["Sig. Hervei." Cart. S.-Benoît-sur-Loire, 1: 122 (#47)], 26 December 943 ["Signum Ervei vasalli dominici" Mabille (1871), cviii (Pièces justificatives #9)], 19 June 946 ["Signum Herivei" Cart. Notre-Dame de Chartres, 1: 77 (#7)], and in an act of uncertain date ["S. Hervei." RHF 9: 724]. It is probably the same Hervé who appears as count of Mortagne on 25 June 955 ["S. Hervei, comitis Mauritaniæ. ... Data est VII kalendas Julii, anno primo regni regis Chlotharii." Cart. S.-Père de Chartres, 1: 199 (#73), which incorrectly dates it to 954]. As count of Mortagne, Hervé is a plausible ancestor of the later counts of Mortagne, who adopted the title of count of the Perche. However, as is discussed on the page of Hildegard's probable grandson viscount Geoffroy (II) of Châteaudun, the line of descent of the counts of Mortagne is uncertain prior to Geoffroy's son Rotrou. If Rotrou's avus Fulcois was a count of Mortagne (as seems likely) and if Fulcois was also the father of Geoffroy (also likely), then Fulcois would probably be related to Hervé, perhaps only by marriage. Among several possibilities, one would be that Hildegard was a daughter of Hervé [Settipani (2000), 258].
Conjectured brother (dubious): Hervé II, fl. 974 - ca. 980, count
A Hervé appears with Hugues Capet on 8 September 975 ["S. Ervæi." Cart. S.-Benoît-sur-Loire, 1: 152 (#61)]. Between 978 and 983, he witnesses a charter of Saint-Julien de Tours as count ["Signum Arvei comitis." Cart. S.-Julien de Tours, 77 (#27)]. Estournet cites a charter of Saint-Julien de Tours in 980 in which Hervé appears [Estournet (1928), 118 & n. 4, citing Bibl. nat., ms. latin 5443, p. 40], but does not make it clear that he is cited specifically as count of Mortagne in this or any record. Settipani states that Hervé I is certainly ("certainement") the father of Hervé II, but in fact this appears to be nothing more than an onomastically based conjecture without any documentary support [Settipani (2000), 257-8].
Conjectured relative (onomastically
based - no direct evidence): Adelaud de Loches, ninth century.
According to the Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Adelaud was the grandfather of Roscille, wife of Foulques I, count of Anjou ["Warnerius iste, cujus filiam Fulco duxit, filius Adelaudi fuit illius scilicet cui Karolus Calvus Lochas dedit." Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Halphen-Poupardin (1913), 33]. The connection to Hildegard is suggested by Keats-Rohan ["Geoffrey I's wife Hildegarde was apparently a member of the much-discussed family of Adelard of Loches." Keats-Rohan (1997), 202]. Keats-Rohan points out that Hildegarde's sister Gerberge married two Loire-based men, and that two sons of Hildegarde had careers in the Touraine, but does not otherwise justfy the statement. It appears to be based largely on the onomastic observation that Hildegard's son Alo is called Adelaud in one record [see Werner (1958), 278].
I, d. after 26 March 931,
count of Maine.
[Keats-Rohan (1997), 194, with an unidentified intermediate generation; Settipani (2000), 258, with Hervé (I) as the intermediate generation (see above)] While not out of the question, the basis for this conjecture seems slender.
Supposed father (improbable): Thibaud I "le Tricheur",
count of Blois and Chartres.
Supposed mother (improbable): Liègarde de Vermandois.
[Romanet (1890-1902), 44-5 (table), no source cited] There is no good reason to accept this information.
Bordas (1850) = l'Abbe Bordas, Histoire du Comté de Dunois de ses comtes et de sa capitale (Châteaudun, 1850).
Bry (1620) = Gilles Bry, Histoire des pays et comté dv Perche et dvché d'Alençon (Paris, 1620).
Cart. Jumièges = J.-J. Vernier, ed., Chartes de l'abbaye de Jumièges (v. 825 à 1204), 2 vols. (Rouen & Paris, 1916).
Cart. Marmoutier Dunois = Émile Mabille, Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Dunois (Châteaudun, 1874).
Cart. Notre-Dame de Chartres = E. de Lépinois & Lucien Merlet, Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Chartres, 3 vols. (Chartres, 1862-5).
Cart. S.-Benoît-sur-Loire = Maurice Prou & Alexandre Vidier, Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire (Paris, 1907).
Cart. S.-Père de Chartres = Benjamin Guérard, Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres, 2 vols. (Paris, 1840).
Cuissard (1894-6) = Charles Cuissard, "Chronologie des Vicomtes de Châteaudun (960-1395)", Bulletins de la Société dunoise 8 (1894-6): 25-120.
Doyen (1786) = Doyen, Histoire de la ville de Chartres, du pays chartrain, et de al Beauce, 2 vols. (Paris, 1786).
Halphen (1903) = Louis Halphen, ed., Recueil d'annales angevines et vendômoises (Paris, 1903).
Halphen (1906) = Louis Halphen, Le comté d'Anjou au XIe siècle (Paris, 1906).
Halphen-Poupardin (1913) = Louis Halphen & René Poupardin, Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou et des seigneurs d'Amboise (Paris, 1913).
Keats-Rohan (1997) = K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, "'Un vassal sans histoire'?: Count Hugh II (c. 940/955 - 992) and the origins of Angevin overlordship in Maine", in K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ed., Family Trees and the Roots of Politics (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1997): 189-210.
Lex (1892) = Léonce Lex, Eudes, comte de Blois, de Tours, de Chartres, de Troyes et de Meaux (995-1037) et Thibaud, son frère (995-1004) (Troyes, 1892).
Lot (1903) = Ferdinand Lot, Études sur le règne de Hugues Capet et la fin du Xe siècle (Paris, 1903).
Maan (1667) = Jean Maan, Sancta et Metropolitana Ecclesia Tvronensis (Tours, 1667).
Mabille (1871) = Émile Mabille, Introduction au Chroniques des Comtes d'Anjou (Société de l'Histoire de France, vol. 155, Paris, 1871).
Marchegay & Mabille (1869) = Paul Marchegay & Émile Mabille, eds., Chroniques des églises d'Anjou (Société de l'Histoire de France, Paris, 1869).
Murs (1856) = M. O. des Murs, Histoire des comtes du Perche de la famille des Rotrou, de 943 à 1231 (Nogent-le-Rotrou, 1856).
Obit. Sens = Obituaires de la Province de Sens (2 vols. in 3, Paris, 1902-6).
Petite Chron. Bonneval = René Merlet, "Petite chronique de l'abbaye de Bonneval de 857 à 1050 environ", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique d'Eure-et-Loir 10 (1896): 14-38.
Pfister (1885) = Christian Pfister, Étude sur le règne de Robert le Pieux (996-1031) (Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études, 64, Paris, 1885).
Rec. Chron. Touraine = André Salmon, ed., Recueil de Chroniques de Touraine (Tours, 1854).
RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.
Romanet (1890-1902) = Vicomte de Romanet, Géographie du Perche et chronologie de ses comtes (Documents sur la province du Perche, ser. 2, no. 1, Mortagne, 1890-1902).
Saint-Phalle (2000) = Edouard de Saint-Phalle, "Les comtes de Gâtinais aux Xe et XIe siècles", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 230-246.
Settipani (1997) = Christian Settipani, "Les comtes d'Anjou et leur alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", in K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ed., Family Trees and the Roots of Politics (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1997): 211-267.
Settipani (2000) = Christian Settipani, "Les vicomtes de Châteaudun et leur alliés", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 247-261.
Werner (1958) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Untersuchungen zur Frühzeit des französischen Fürstentums (9.-10. Jahrhundert)", parts I-III, Die Welt als Geschichte 18 (1958): 256-289.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 24 January 2011.
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