After having originally inherited only money at the death of his father in 1087, Henry seized the throne of England on the death of his brother William II in 1100. In 1106, he won Normandy from his other brother Robert (who was held in captivity by until his death in 1134) after defeating him in the Battle of Tinchebrai. The nickname of "Beauclerc" by which he is commonly known is not contemporary [see DNB].
Date of Birth: 1068.
["Anno ab incarnatione Domini MLXVIIIº, ... priusquam annus perficeretur, filium nomine Henricum peperit." OV iv, 4 (2: 181-2); "Henricus, junior filius Willelmi magni, natus est in Anglia anno tertio postquam pater eam adierat" Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum, c. 390 (2: 467); see Chibnall's comments at OV (Chibnall ed.) vol. 5, p. 295, n. 3]
Place of Birth: Perhaps at Selby.
[Monast. Angl., 3: 485, a late source]
Date of Death: 2 December 1135.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 33 (v. 2, pp. 256-7); Chr. Rob. Tor., s.a. 1135; Ex Obituario Gemmeticensi, RHF 23: 422]
Place of Death: Lyon-la-Forêt (Saint-Denis).
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 33 (v. 2, pp. 256-7); R. Dic. i, 247]
William I "the
Conqueror", d. 1087, duke
of Normandy, king of England.
[e.g., OV iii, 6 (2: 93); iv, 5 (2: 188-9); vii, 2 (3: 159) (Chibnall ed.: 2: 104-5, 224-5; 3: 114-7); Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum, c. 274 (2: 332)]
Matilda of Flanders, daughter of Baldwin V, count of Flanders.
[e.g., OV iii, 6 (2: 93); iv, 5 (2: 188-9); vii, 2 (3: 159) (Chibnall ed.: 2: 104-5, 224-5; 3: 114-7)]
(1) m. at Westminster, 11
November 1100, Matilda of Scotland, d. 1 May 1118,
daughter of Malcolm
III, king of Scotland.
["And siðþan sona heræfter se cyng genam Mahalde him to wife Malcolmes cynges dohter of Scotlande. & Margareta þære goda cwæne Eadwardes cynges magan. & of þan rihtan Ængla landes kyne kynne. & on sce. Martines mæsse dæg heo wearð him mid mycelan weorðscipe forgifen on Westmynstre. & se arce bisc. Ansealm hi him be wæddade. & siððan to cwene gehalgode." ASC(E) s.a. 1100 (p. 236) (Translation "And then soon after this the king took as his wife Maud, daughter of King Malcolm of Scotland and the good queen Margaret, King Edward's relative, of the rightful royal family of England. And on the Feast of St. Martin [11 Nov.] she was given to him in Westminster with great honour, and the archbishop Anselm married her to him and afterwards consecrated her queen." ASC(Eng), 236); "Interim rex Anglorum Heinricus majores natu Angliæ congregavit Lundoniæ, et regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam, Mahtildem nomine, in conjugem accepit, quam Dorubernensis archiepiscopus Anselmus, Dominica, die festivitatis S. Martini, reginam consecravit et coronavit." John Worc., s.a. 1100 (2: 47-8); similarly in Sim. Durh., Historia Regum, c. 182 (2: 232); "Hinc paucis diebus interpositis, Mathildis filia Malchomi nobilissimi regis Scottorum et Margaritæ, quæ scitiur exorta de semine regum Anglorum, nupsit præfato Henrico regi Anglorum." Eadmer, Hist. Nov., 121; "... die sancti Martini accepit Mathildem filiam Malcolmi regis Scottorum ..." Wm. Malmes, Gesta Regum, c. 393 (2: 470); "... rex ... duxit eodem anno  uenerabilem Matildem, filiam Malcomi regis Scocie et Margarite. ... eadem Matildis in festiuitate sancti Martini apud Westmonasterium Henrico regi nobilissimo desponsata ..." GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 10 (2: 216-7); "Alanus enim Rufus, Britannorum comes, Mathildem, quæ prius dicta est Edith, in conjugem sibi a rege Rufo requisivit; sed morte præventus, non obtinuit. Deinde Guillelmus de Guarenna, Suthregiæ comes, Mathildem expetiit; sed divinitus reservata, celebrius alteri nupsit. Henricus vero, adepto Anglorum regno, præfatam virginem desponsavit; ex qua Guillelmum Adelinum, et Mathildem imperatricem genuit." OV viii, 22 (3: 399-400); ibid., x, 15 (4: 95)]
(2) m. 1121 [Rog. Hov. i, 214 (at the purification of St. Mary)] Adeliza,
daughter of Godfrey, count of Louvain.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 246-9)]
Children by Matilda of
Orderic Vitalis states that the two children of this marriage, Matilda and William, were twins ["Præfatus princeps [Henry I], quarto mense ex quo coepit regnare, ... generosam virginem, nomine Mathildem, regali more sibi desponsavit, ex qua geminam prolem: Mathildem et Guillelmum, generavit." OV x, 15 (4: 95); also see the quote from OV viii, 22 (3: 399-400) above]. So does William of Newburgh ["Idem autem rex ex Matilda religiosa regina geminam in sexu dispari suscepit sobolem. Et filiam materni nominis iam nubilem Henrico imperatori Romano petenti despondit, filium vero aviti nominis, ..." Wm. Newburgh, MGH SS 27: 227]. Because of this, Rössler concluded that Matilda and William were twins [Rössler (1897), 419]. However, William of Malmesbury implies that they were born of different pregnancies ["Hæc igitur duobus partubus, altero alterius sexus, contenta, in posterum et parere et partuire destitit." Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum, c. 418 (2: 494)], and Robert de Torigny states that William was born after Matilda ["Genuit enim ex secunda Matilde regina Anglorum, uxore sua, filium unum nomine Willelmum et filiam unam matrem sicut nomine ita honestate representatem. ... Willelmus, filius Henrici regis, qui post sororem Matildem imperatricem natus est, ..." GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 11 (2: 216-9)]. Also, Gervase of Canterbury gives approximate birthdates for Matilda and William, making Matilda older (but he mistakenly makes Henry's illegitimate son Richard a son of Henry's wife Matilda) ["Secundo anno regni concepit regina et peperit filiam, quæ de nomine matris Matildis appellata est. Tertio regni anno peperit masculum quem vocavit Willelmum. Alium quoque habuit filium Ricardum, et cessavit parere." Gerv. Cant., 1: 91-2]. According to Chibnall, the expression geminam prolem could be applied to two children who were not twins [Chibnall (1991), 9]. Thus, since the estimated birthdates of Matilda and William are a year apart [see the page of Matilda for her estimated birthdate], it seems evident that they were not twins.
ca. 8 February 1102, d. 10 September 1167, claimant to the throne
m. (1) 1114, Heinrich (Henry) V, d. 22 May 1125, Emperor;
m. (2) 1127, Geoffrey V, d. 7 September 1151, count of Anjou.
William "the Aetheling", b.
1103, before 23 November, drowned in the White Ship, 25 November
m. June 1119, Mathilde, daughter of Foulques V, count of Anjou
William of Malmesbury quotes a letter of pope Paschal II to king Henry I, dated 23 November 1103, which congratulated him on the birth of his son William ["Filium autem tuum, quem ex spectabili et gloriosa conjuge suscepisti, quem, ut auduvimus, egregii patris Willelmi nomine nominasti, tanta tecum imminentia confovebimus, ut qui te vel illum læserit Romanam ecclesiam videatur læsisse. Datum Lateranis, nono kalendas Decembris." Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum, c. 414 (2: 491)]. Since the pope would be unlikely to wait for nearly a year to send this message, this indicates a birth in 1103. William married Mathilde, a daughter of Foulques V of Anjou, in 1119 ["... & þær wearð him forgifen & to wife bewedded þæs eorles dohter of Angeow" ASC(E) s.a. 1119; "Willelmus filius Regis Henrici et Mahtildis reginæ accepit uxorem filiam comitis Andegavensium." Sim. Durh., Historia Regum, c. 198, s.a. 1119 (2: 257-8); "Mense junio Guillelmus Adelinus filiam comitis apud Luxovium desponsavit ..." OV xii, 15 (4: 347) ("comitis" refers to Foulques V); "Filiam quoque Fulconis comitis Andegavensis vix nubilem ipse etiam impubis despondit et accepit, dato sibi a socero comitatu Cenomannico pro munere sponsalito: ..." Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum, c. 419 (2: 495); for the name of William's wife, see OV xii, 25 (4: 416), giving his wife's name as Mathilde, and also ibid., x, 7 (4: 36), mentioning Mathilde as one of the daughters of Foulques V]. William drowned, with many others, in the disaster of the White Ship in 25 November 1120 ["... filius regis cum omnibus qui secum erant interiit, vi. kal. Decembris, feria v., noctis initio, apud Barbafflot." Sim. Durh., Historia Regum, c. 199, s.a. 1120 (2: 259); ASC(E) s.a. 1120; OV xii, 25 (4: 410ff); Wm. Malmes, Gesta Regum, c. 419 (2: 496-7); John Worc. (continuation), s.a. 1120 (2: 74); GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 11 (2: 216-9); Hen. Hunt. vii, 32 (p. 242); Eadmer, Hist. Nov., 288-9; Chron. Hyde, in Lib. Monast. Hyde, 321].
Known mothers of
illegitimate children of Henry I:
The following women are known to have been mother of at least one illegitimate child of Henry I. See White, Thompson (2003), and the individual children below for more details.
NN, evidently a relative of Philip
Gai and Nigel son of William.
Mother of Robert, earl of Gloucester.
Ansfride, widow of Anskill.
Mother of Richard, d. 1120. Conjectured by White (without solid evidence) to be mother of Fulk and of Juliana, wife of Eustace de Pacy (de Breteuil).
Sibyl [Corbet?], who later m. Herbert
Mother of Reginald de Dunstanville, earl of Cornwall.
Generally named as Sibyl Corbet, the first name from a lawsuit of her grandson in the early 13th century, the surname because earl Reginald referred to an Alice Corbet as his maternal aunt. Thompson suggests that Robert Corbet was only Sibyl's stepfather, and that Sibyl's father was an earlier Reginald de Dunstanville [Thompson (2003), 143-5]. Although Thompson's scenario is conjectural, based on circumstantial evidence, her comments do serve to emphasize that the name of Sibyl Corbet that has often been assigned to Reginald's mother is based only on indirect evidence. Four other children appeared on White's list of her children (William, Gundred, Rohese, Sibyl), but her son William and daughter Rohese were probably not by Henry, Gundred was a daughter of neither her nor Henry, and the case making Sibyl, Queen of Scotland a daughter of Sibyl is a weak onomastic argument. See below for more details.
Edith, possibly daughter of
Forn [Monast. Angl., 6: 251], later wife of
Robert de Oilli.
She was not same as the Edith who was mother of Matilda, wife of Rotrou of Perche.
Mother of Robert "filius Regis", d. 1172, and possibly also of Adeliza.
Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr,
wife of Gerald of Windsor.
Mother of Henry, d. 1157.
Mother of Matilda, who m. Rotrou, count of Perche, she was not the same person as Edith, wife of Robert de Oilli, above.
Isabel de Beaumont, daughter
of Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; she later m. Gilbert de
Clare, earl of Pembroke.
Mother of Isabel.
This account of the bastards of Henry I is a revised version of a posting to soc.genealogy.medieval on the same subject, and is primarily based on the similar accounts of Geoffrey White in CP and Kathleen Thompson [Thompson (2003)]. I have checked the references in those cases where I had easy access to the primary sources, and have offered my tentative opinions as to which of the alleged bastards do or do not belong on the list. I have made no attempt to provide a complete list of citations (see White and Thompson for a start on this), but only to outline those sources which are sufficient to document each case. I have not always agreed with White and/or Thompson, and the assignments here should be in some cases considered tentative.
Robert "filius Regis" or
"de Caen", d. 1147, earl of Gloucester, m. Maud
(or Mabel or Sibyl) [White 106], daughter
of Robert Fitz Hamon. lord of Glamorgan.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9), and many other sources] He is called the eldest by Robert de Torigny. His mother was evidently a relative of Philip Gai and of Nigel son of William, both of whom appear in the sources as relatives of Robert. [Thompson (2003), 142-3], and there does not appear to be any reason to regard him as a son of Sibyl Corbet.
Richard, d. with (half) brother William
in the White Ship, 25 November 1120 [see
above under William].
["Ricardus autem, huius comitis uno de patre frater, cum fratre suo Willelmo in sepedicto naufragio periit." GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9)]
Son of Ansfrid [Chr. Mon. Abington ii, 37, 122-3]
Rainald (Reginald) de Dunstanville, d.
1175, earl of Cornwall.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9); White 108, note (a), cites a charter in which Earl Rainald refers to his maternal aunt Alice Corbet.]
Son of a woman [Sibyl in later sources] who later married Herbert Fitz Herbert [see Thompson (2003), 143-5].
Robert "filius Regis", d.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9)]
Son of Eda/Edith, later wife of Robert de Oilli [Sim. of Durh. ii, 310; Monast. Angl., 6: 251; White 109, citing the cartulary of Oseney Abbey.]
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9)]
Thompson speculates that his mother may have been an unnamed sister of Walter de Gand whom Henry took as a mistress according to thirteenth century evidence, but the only "evidence" is onomastic (Walter's father being named Gilbert), a weak argument.
William de Tracy, d. soon after 1135.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1)]
Henry "filius Regis", d.
[Girald. Camb. i, 58-9]
Son of Nest ferch Tewdwr, wife of Gerald of Windsor. The B manuscript of Annales Cambriae, in the account of his death, calls him son of Gerald, stating that some would wish him to be a son of Henry I [AC (s.a. 1157: "... Henricus filius Geraldi occisus est, velut alii volunt, filius Henrici regis ..."], suggesting that the author of the annal did not believe the connection to Henry, but this is the only known indication of doubt in the early sources. The Welsh vernacular annals call him a son of Henry I with no indication of doubt. Since Giraldus was a relative, his word has greater weight, and it seems highly probable that he was Henry's son.
Fulk "filius Regis".
[Chr. Mon. Abington ii, 122-3]
White  would make him a son of Ansfrid, based on the fact that he appears in the same document as her and her son Richard (d. 1120, above). Thompson considers it unlikely that he was Ansfrid's son, since the source does not explicitly say that Fulk was her son.
Matilda (Maud), d. in the White Ship,
25 November 1120, m. 1103, Rotrou, count of
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1)]
Her mother was Edith [White 112, citing Pipe Roll 31 Hen. I, p. 155]
Matilda (Maud), m. Conan III,
duke of Bretagne (Brittany).
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1)]
Juliane, m. 1103, Eustace de
Pacy, lord of Bréteuil and Pacy.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1);White 114 states that it is "not unlikely" that her mother was Ansfrid, but the evidence offered for this is weak.]
NN [probably Mabel],
m. William Gouet III, lord of Montmirail.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1), which does not give her name; Thompson (2003), 148 mentions charter evidence giving her name; As pointed out by Chris Phillips in a posting to soc.genealogy.medieval on 28 November 2003, an alternate possibility is that William was married twice, once to a daughter of Henry and once to a woman named Mabel]
Constance or Matilda,
m. Roscelin de Beaumont.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1, name not given); Chr. Rob. Tor., s.a. 1168 ("Mathild[is]"); For Constance as the name, see under the "Tony" account in CP 12:768 (with thanks to Rosie Bevan for this reference, passed on to the soc.genealogy.medieval newsgroup by Chris Phillips)]
[Alice], m. Mathieu de
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1, name not given)]
The primary source for her name is unclear from the accounts of White and Thompson.
[GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1), which does not give her name; White states that charter evidence proves her name to be Isabel, and refers back to vol. 10, Appendix H, p. 102, where the charter evidence is briefly discussed. (Thanks to Chris Phillips for correcting this oversight on my part)] Her mother was Isabel, sister of Waleran, count of Meulan [GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 250-1)], and daughter of Robert de Beaumont, count of Meulan and earl of Leicester, who m. Gilbert de Clare, earl of Pembroke.
Sybil, d. 12 or 13 July 1122 [Sim. of Durh. ii, 265; Chroncle
of Melrose, in ESSH 2, 165 (13 July)], m. Alexander
I, king of Scotland.
White attributes her as a daughter of Sibyl Corbet, but as Thompson points out, without sufficient evidence.
Matilda (Maud), abbess of
[White 118, citing "Chron. Valassense, ed. Somménhill, p. 20"]
Was confused with Henry's daughter by Isabel de Beaumont [White 118]
[Thompson (2003), 150, citing a charter from Eynsham Cartulary, I, no. 64, in which she appears as "Adeliza filia Reg'".] "Reg'" could be an abbreviation of either "Regis" ("of the King") or "Reginaldi", and Thompson points out that no Reginald appears in the charter. As was pointed out in postings of 15 November 2003 to the soc.genealogy.medieval newsgroup by John P. Ravilious and Rosie Bevan, the charter in question involved several Oilli relatives, and the following charter also involving the Oilli's was witnessed by the king's illegitimate son Robert (whose mother Eda/Edith married Robert de Oilli) suggesting not only that Adeliza was in fact the king's daughter, but that Eda/Edith would make a good candidate for her mother.
NN (probable daughter), m. Fergus,
lord of Galloway.
There are a number of contemporary sources in which a child or grandchild of Fergus of Galloway is called a relative of a Plantagenet king of England, without spelling out the exact relationship [see, e.g., Anderson (1908), 257-8, who quotes Benedict of St. Peterborough; Rog. Hov. i, 423], and these references form the basis of attempts to determine the origin of the wife of Fergus of Galloway (who is called Elizabeth in some late secondary sources, but there seems to be no contemporary authority for her name). One interesting, but unlikely, explanation for this relationship has been the occasional statements that Fergus was married to a daughter of King William Rufus, which can be traced back to a nineteenth century source [Cumming (1857), 49], but the most common (and evidently simplest) explanation would be that Fergus was married to an otherwise unknown illegitimate daughter of Henry I. Not only would that be the closest feasible relationship between the two dynasties, but the obvious alternate suggestion that the wife of Fergus was a member of the Scottish royal family (from which Henry II was also descended) has the drawback that the relationship would be more distant, and that no sources have been produced stating that the Galwegian rulers were close kin to the Scottish kings. Thus, the suggestion that Fergus was married to an illegitimate daughter of Henry I remains the most likely explanation of the known evidence.
NN (perhaps the same person as one of the above daughters), promised to William de Warenne.
[Letters of St. Anselm, iv, 84, in PL clix, 243]
The marriage never took place because of Anselm's objections on the grounds of consanguinity. Whether or not she was one of the daughters already listed above is unknown.
NN (perhaps the same person as one of the above daughters), potential wife of Hughes de
[Thompson, citing Ivo of Chartres, Epistola cclxi, RHF, XV, 167]
Whether or not she was one of the daughters already listed above is unknown.
In addition to the children listed above, various other children (and another mistress) have been attributed to Henry I, with varying degrees of probability.
Supposed children by Matilda of Scotland:
Euphemia. (existence doubtful)
Alison Weir lists this daughter with the comment that "She was perhaps the child born in late July or early August, 1101 at Winchester, who died young." [Weir (1989), 47] No evidence is provided that Henry and Matilda had a daughter named Euphemia.
Richard, d. 25 November 1120 (in fact illegitimate).
Richard was an illegitimate son of Henry I (see above), who is wrongly reported as a son of Matilda by Gervase of Canterbury ["Alium quoque habuit filium Ricardum, et cessavit parere. ... Navis enim infausta quæ regis gestabat filios Willelmum et Ricardum, ... submersa est, periitque in scopulis Barbefluvii; ..." Gerv. Cant., 1: 92; see the page of Henry I]. Alison Weir makes Richard a son of Henry and Matilda, and states that "both Robert of Gloucester and the Saxon Chronicle state that Queen Matilda's son Richard drowned in the White Ship." [Weir (1989), 47] However, in their accounts of the drowning of the brothers William and Richard, both the Metrical Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle merely call the brothers sons of the king, and neither of the sources mentions Matilda in the relevant passage [Rob. Glou. 9033 (2: 645); ASC(E) s.a. 1120]. Robert de Torigny, in his additions to GND, clearly makes the brother Richard who died in the shipwreck an illegitimate son of Henry ["Ricardus autem, huius comitis uno de patre frater, cum fratre suo Willelmo in sepedicto naufragio periit." GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9)].
son (but more likely a mistake or duplication): William,
[White 110-1 discusses the likelihood that the William who was a brother of Queen Sybil of Scotland was the same person as William, brother of Rainald de Dunstanville (Red Book of the Exc., Rolls Series, 253, 262); Finberg (1948), 365].
White's account is based on the assumption that indiviuals described as siblings of bastards of Henry I were probably children of Henry by the same mother (rather than just being siblings with the same mother), and also assumes that the William mentioned as a brother of Reginald was the same as William, brother of Sibyl. As Thompson points out, there are chronological problems with identifying the two, and in addition to the possibility that the individual(s) in question was/were sibling(s) only through the mother, there is the additional possibility that the queen's brother may have been William de Tracy, already listed as a son of Henry.
Supposed illegitimate daughters (unlikely):
Emma, m. Guy IV de
[Angot (1942), 292-4]
This case depends on an epitaph calling her a daughter of the king (of whom Henry I seems the only plausible choice for chronological reasons): EMMA ANGLORUM REGIS FILIA DOMINAQUE LAVALLENSIS. The case is complicated by the fact that Guy IV's son Guy V was married to another Emma, daughter of earl Reginald of Cornwall, and thus granddaughter of Henry I, suggesting that the claimed parentage of Emma is a result of confusion. See also the outline by Chris Phillips at http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/cp/p_henryisillegitimate.shtml.
Rohese, m. Henry de la Pomerai.
[White 119, citing a charter in which Rainald de Dunstanville calls her his sister]
She was mentioned as a sister of earl Reginald of Cornwall, and White assumed that they had the same father, but I believe that Thompson is correct in stating that it is more likely that Rohese was a daughter of Reginald's mother by Herbert fitz Herbert, since no known record calls her a daughter of the king.
Falseley attributed daughters:
Gundred and her brother Reginald de Dunstanville are mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1130 [see White 108, 119]. She was included by White on the assumptions that her brother was the same as the earl of Cornwall and that they were siblings by the same father. However, Thompson pointed out that the future earl was still described as a young man in the late 1130's [GND (Rob. Tor.) viii, 29 (v. 2, pp. 248-9)], and was therefore not the same man as the Reginald on the 1130 Pipe Roll. (Thompson's conjecture would place the Reginald and Gundred of 1130 as siblings of earl Reginald's mother.)
Sibyl of Falaise.
Described only as a "neptis" (acc. "neptem") of Henry, Thompson is correct in stating that she does not belong the list [Thompson (2003), 150].
NN, sister of Walter
Mistress of Henry I according to unidentified thirteenth century evidence, conjectured (without good evidence) by Thompson to have been mother of: Gilbert [Thompson (2003), 146].
AC = Annales Cambriae.
Anderson (1908) = Alan Orr Anderson, Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500 to 1286 (London, 1908, reprinted Stamford, 1991).
Angot (1942) = Angot, Généalogies féodales mayennaises du xi au xiii siècle (Laval, 1942).
ASC = Charles Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles parallel, based on the earlier edition by John Earle, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1892-9). ASC(A) indicates the "A" manuscript of the chronicle, and similarly for the other manuscripts.
Chibnall (1991) = Marjorie Chibnall, The Empress Matilda (Oxford, UK & Cambridge, MA, USA, 1991)
Chr. Mon. Abington = Joseph Stevenson, ed., Chronicon Monasterii de Abington, 2 vols. (Roll Series 2, London, 1858).
Chr. Rob. Tor. = L. C. Bethemann, ed., Roberti de Monte Chronica (a continuation by Robert de Torigny of the chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux), MGH SS 6, 476-535.
CP = The Complete Peerage.
Cumming (1857) = J. G. Cumming, "A Brief Notice of Manx Civil and Ecclesiastical History", Archaeologia Cambrensis 3rd ser. 3 (1857), 45-54.
DNB = Dictionary of National Biography.
Eadmer = Martin Rule, ed., Eadmeri Historia Novorum in Anglia, et opuscula duo, de Vita Sancti Anselmi et quibusdam miraculis ejus (Rolls Series 81, London, 1884).
ESSH = Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records]
Finberg (1948) = H. P. R. Finberg, "Some Early Tavistock Charters", English Historical Review 62 (1948), 352-377.
Girald. Camb. = Brewer, Dimcok, Warner, eds., Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, 8 vols. (Rolls Series 21, 1861-91).
GND = Guillaume de Jumièges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum, as edited in Elisabeth van Houts, ed. & trans., The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, 2 vols., (Oxford, 1992). Citation is by book and chapter of Guillaume's work, with the volume and page number of the edition by van Houts in parentheses. Unless otherwise stated, references are to Guillaume's work, and not to later additions by such authors as Orderic Vitalis and Robert de Torigny.
GND (Rob. Tor.) = Additions to GND by Robert de Torigny.
Hen. Hunt. = Thomas Arnold, ed., Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum. The History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon (Rolls Series 74, London, 1879).
John Worc. = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis, 2 vols., (London, 1848-9). (The work formerly attributed to Florence of Worcester is now generally attributed to John of Worcester.)
Lib. Monast. Hyde = Edward Edwards, ed., Liber Monasterii de Hyda: a Chronicle and Chartulary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, 455-1023 (Rolls Series 45, London, 1866).
Monast. Angl. = William Dugdale, ed. (new ed. by Caley, Ellis, Bandniel), Monasticon Anglicanum (London, 1817-30).
OV = Augustus le Prevost, ed. Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ, 5 vols. (Paris, 1838-55); also available in Marjorie Chibnall, ed. & trans., The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, 6 vols. (Oxford, 1969-80). As I do not have easy access to all volumes of Chibnall's edition, citations here are given from Prevost's edition unless otherwsie stated.
PL = P. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus, series Latina, 221 vols. (Paris, 1844-1859).
R. Dic. = William Stubbs, ed., Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundonensis Opera Historica - The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto Dean of London, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 68, London 1876).
RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.
Rob. Glou. = William Aldis Wright, ed., The Metrical Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 86, London, 1887).
Rog. Hov. = William Stubbs, ed., Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, 5 vols. (Rolls Series 51, 1868). For an English translation, see Henry T. Riley, trans., The Annals of Roger de Hoveden, 2 vols. (London, 1853). Citations are from the edition of Stubbs.
Rössler (1897) = Oskar Rössler, Kaiserin Mathilde, Mutter Heinrichs von Anjou, und das Zeitalter der Anarchie in England (Historische Studien 7, Berlin, 1897).
Sim. Durh. = Thomas Arnold, ed., Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 75, 1882-5).
SP = Scot's Peerage
Thompson (2003) = Kathleen Thompson, "Affairs of State: the illegitimate children of Henry I", Journal of Medieval History 29 (2003): 129-151.
Weir (1989) = Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families - The Complete Genealogy (London, 1989).
White = Geoffrey H. White, "Henry I's Illegitimate children", CP 11, Appendix D (pp. 105-121).
Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum = William Stubbs, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De gestis regum Anglorum. libri quinque; Historiæ Novellæ libri tres, 2 vols. (Rolls series 90, 1887-9). [I lack easy access to the more recent edition of William of Malmesbury's work edited by Mynors, Thomson, & Winterbottom.]
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 7 July 2005.
Minor revision uploaded 20 June 2010 (added comments on birthdates of children and on supposed daughter Euphemia).
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