MALE Heinrich (of "Babenburg") (Heimricus)

Dux Austrasiorum, d. 886.
Marquis in Neustria.
Count of Grabfeld.

In 866, Heinrich appears as leader of the soldiers of Ludwig the Younger when the latter revolted against his father ["... Heimricum principem militiae suae ..." Ann. Fuld. (Mogont.), s.a. 866 (p. 65)]. In 880, Heinrich was one of the leaders fighting against the rebellion of Hugues, illegitimate son of Lothar II, winning a conflict against Thibaud, ally and brother-in-law of Hugues [Ann. Fuld. (Mogont.), s.a. 880 (p. 95)]. Heinrich later gained prominence fighting against the Vikings. He was killed by the Vikings in 886, when he was called dux Austrasiorum by Annales Vedastini and marchensis Francorum by one continuation of Annales Fuldenses, which also state that he held Neustria ["Heinricum dictum ducem Austrasiorum" Ann. Vedast., s.a. 886 (p. 61); "Occiso ibi Heimrico marchensi Francorum, qui in id tempus Niustriam tenuit, ..." Ann. Fuld. (cont. Ratisbon.), s.a. 886 (p. 114); "Ubi dum aliquanto tempore moraretur, Heimrih comes a suis desertus et ab hostibus circumdatus occiditur." Ann. Fuld. (Mogont.), s.a. 886 (p. 105)]. There is no justification for calling him duke of Lorraine, as has sometimes been done [see Parisot (1898), 469-70]. In a charter witnessed by his brother Poppo, either Heinrich or his son of the same name is called count of Grabfeld ["... in pago Graphelt in comitatu Heinrici ... Huius rei testes sunt Boppo comes. ..." Codex Fuld., 284-5 (#625); the date given is 16 April 887, but the indiction given is for 880].

Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth:
Unknown.

Date of death: 28 August 886.
Place of death: Near Paris.
Place of burial: Saint-Medard de Soissons.
As noted above Annales Fuldenses and Annales Vedastini place his death in 886, as do the Annales Alamannici ["Heimrihcus dux a Nordmannis occisus est." Ann. Alamannici, s.a. 886, MGH SS 1: 52]. The Necrological Annals of Fulda place his death on 28 August 886 ["5. Kal. Sep. ob. Heimrih com." Ann. Nec. Fuld., s.a. 886, MGH SS 13: 186]. Further verifying his date of death in necrologies which don't give the year is complicated by possible confusion with Heinrich der Zänker, duke of Bayern (Bavaria), who also died on a 28 August (995) [e.g., "[V Kal. Sep.] ... Heinric f...ric' dux ob." Calend. Merseb., 120]. Regino places his death wrongly in 887, and states that he was buried at Saint-Medard de Soissons ["Agminibus autem impetum facientibus vix cadaver exanime eruitur et a suis usque Suessionis deportatum in basilica sancti Medardi sepelitur." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 887 (pp. 125-6)]. [See Dümmler (1887-8), 3: 170 (Heinrich's grave inscription), 269, n. 2]

Probable father or grandfather: Poppo (I), fl. 819-839, count of Grabfeld.
See the Commentary section for details.

Mother: Unknown.
See the Commentary section for some unconvincing conjectures.

Spouse: Unknown.
There has been much speculation on the identity of Heinrich's spouse, none of it conclusive. See the Commentary section.

Children:
On 9 February 888, the unnamed sons of count Heinrich are mentioned in a Fulda charter ["... in pago Puohunna dicto in comitatu filiorum Heimrici comitis ..." Codex Fuld., 286-7 (#629)]. In 898, the sons of Heinrich, namely Adalbert, Adalhard, and Heinrich, were involved in a quarrel with Rudolf, bishop of Würzburg ["Ea tempestate inter Ruodolfum episcopum Wirziburgensem et filios Heinrici ducis Adalbertum, Adalardum et Heinricum magna discordiarum lis et inplacabilis odiorum controversia ex parvis minimisque rebus oritur ..." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 898 (p. 145)]. By 902, a full scale feud had erupted between the three "Babenberg" brothers and the "Konradiner" brothers, counts Eberhard and Gebhard, and bishop Rudolf, in which Heinrich was killed and Adalhard was captured and beheaded by orders of Gebhard ["Adalbertus cum fratribus Adalardo et Heinrico collecta valida manu adversus Everhardum et Gebehardum et Ruodolfum fratres, ..., ex castro, quod Babenberh dicitur, prosiliens ad pugnam processit. ... in quo certamine Heinricus interfectus est et Adalardus captus et post modicum iussu Gebehardi decollatus est." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 902 (p. 149)].

MALE Adalbert, d. 9 September 906, count of Grabfeld.
Two Fulda charters identify Adalbert as count of Grabfeld and Tullifeld [undated (late 880's?): "... in pago Graphelde in nordhemero marca in comitatu Adalberti. ... Bobbo comes. Adalbraht. Bobbo. filii eius. ..." Codex Fuld., 286 (#628); 8 May 901: "... in Ibistetino marcu in pago Grapfelde et Tullifelde in comitatu Adalbrahtes ..." ibid., 297 (#648)]. The last of the three brothers, Adalbert was deprived of all of his lands and executed by decapitation on 9 September 906 ["... adiudicantibus capitalem suscepit sententiam V. Id. Septembris." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 906 (p. 152); "V. id. [Sep.] ... Adelbert' com. o." Calend. Merseb., 121; "v. id. [Sep.] Adalbertus comes." Kalendarium necrologicum Weissenburgense, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 313; Dummler (1887-8), 3: 542 n. 1].

MALE Adalard, d. 902.
[Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 902 (p. 149), see above]

MALE Heinrich, d. 902.
[Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 902 (p. 149), see above]

Brother: Poppo (II), fl. 880-892, duke of Thüringen (Thuringia).
Poppo first appears in 880 as count and duke of the Sorbian Mark ["Quibus Boppo comes et dux Sorabici limitis (cum Thuringiis) occurrit et Dei auxilio fretus ita eos prostravit, ut nullus de tanta multitudine remaneret." Ann. Fuld. (Mogont.), s.a. 880 (p. 95)]. The Annales Fuldenses explicitly call him a brother of Heinrich on two occasions ["Civile bellum inter Saxonibus et Thuringis exoritur, machinantibus Poppone fratre Heimrici et Eginone comitibus; magna post clade Poppo cum Thuringis inferior extitit." Ann. Fuld. (cont. Ratisbon.), s.a. 882 (p. 109); "Heimricus, frater Popponis scilicet, ..." ibid., s.a. 883 (p. 110)]. Poppo also appears as duke of Thuringia, and was deprived of his honors in 892 ["... Boppone Turingorum duce ..." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 889 (p. 134); "Boppo dux Thuringorum dignitatibus expoliatur; ..." ibid., s.a. 892 (p. 140); "Poppo dux Thuringoroum honoribus privatus est." Ann. Fuld. (cont. Ratisbon.), s.a. 892 (p. 122)]. A Fulda document apparently of the late 880's is witnessed by two of his sons, showing that he left issue ["... in pago Graphelde in nordhemero marca in comitatu Adalberti. ... Bobbo comes. Adalbraht. Bobbo. filii eius. ..." Codex Fuld., 286 (#628)].



Commentary

Probable father or grandfather: Poppo (I), fl. 819-839, count of Grabfeld.
Poppo appears in records from 819 to 839 [4 November 819: "... in pago Grapfeld ... in pago Folcfeld ... in pago Gozfeld ... in pago Cueringeuue ... . ... facta haec traditio in conuentu publico in uilla Sundheim coram comite et iudicibus suis. Popo comes. ..." Codex Fuld., 175 (#388); 23 November 819: "in pago Grapfelde ... + sign. Popponi comitis ..." ibid., 176 (#389); 24 May 821: "... Treisbaches ... Poppo comes ..." ibid., 178 (#393); 29 March 823: "... uillae Ostheim ... in uilla quae nuncupatur Tulba in pago Salageuue ... + sign. Popponis comitis." ibid., 184 (#408); 20 February 825: "... factus est publicus conuentus Popponis comitis et totius comitatus eius in terminis uillae quae dicitur Geismari ... Poppo comes ..." ibid., 201 (#456); 1 February 826: "... ego Poppo comes trado ... capturam unam in silua Bochonia comprehensam iuxta fluuium qui dicitur Lutraha quod est in pago Grapfeld ... + sign. Popponi comitis qui haec fecit traditionem." ibid., 205 (#465); 14 June & 10 July 838: "... Popone comite ..." (one of many counts named), ibid., 226 (#513); 27 February 839: "... duas scilicet uillas ex beneficio Bopponis comitis infra Bokoniam quarum uocabula sunt Geismara et Borsaa, ... quae res in in pago Graphelt sitae ..." ibid., 231-2 (#524)]. Both onomastically and by his possessions, Poppo (I) stands out as a predecessor of the brothers Heinrich and Poppo (II), and if he was not their father or grandfather, then he would have almost certainly been their uncle or another very close relative. Many have assigned Heinrich and Poppo (II) as probable sons of Poppo (I) [e.g., Dümmler (1887-8), 3: 168, 522; Geldner (1971), 7, gen. table], but others have allowed for a possible intervening generation, for which there seems sufficient time [e.g., Stein (1884), 139; Hlawitschka (2006), 1.2: 58]. Either alternative fits the evidence well enough, and it is difficult to decide between them.

Possible daughter:

FEMALE Hadwig, d. 24 December, prob. 903;
m.
Otto "der Erlauchten", d. 30 November 912, duke of Sachsen (Saxony), 880-912.
See the page of Hadwig for details.

The wife of Heinrich
As noted below, the medieval account of Heinrich's supposed wife must be rejected, and the modern attempts to identify his wife are based on the assumption that Hadwig was his daughter, and are covered in more detail on the page of Hadwig.

Falsely attributed wife (probably mythical):
Baba, alleged daughter of Otto, duke of Saxony.
Several sources state that Baba, daughter of duke Otto, was the mother of Adalbert (of Babenberg), and that Babenberg was named after Baba ["... Otto dux. Hic habuit filium qui vocabatur Heinricus humilis et filiam Babam nomine, matrem Adalberti, de cuius nomine idem mons Babenberc dictus est." Regum Imperatorum Catalogus, MGH SS 10: 137; gen. table, Ekkehard, Chron. Wirziburgense, MGH SS 6: 28; "... Adelbertus ..., filius sororis Heinrici ducis sed postea regis, nepos Ottonis ducis Saxoniae, ..." Ekkehard, Chron. Univ., s.a. 901, MGH SS 6: 174; "His temporibus Adalbertus magnus heros, cuius pater Heinricus dux, mater Baba dicebatur, idemque sororis filius Heinrici postea regis, nepos vero Ottonis Saxonum ducis, cum fratribus suis ..." Ann. Saxo, s.a. 902, MGH SS 6: 590]. This relationship is not chronologically possible, and it is likely that the name Baba is itself an invention. See the page of duke
Otto for more details.

Conjectured wife (improbable): NN, daughter of count Adelard, and sister of Adélaïde, second wife of Louis II le Bègue, king of France.
See the page of
Hadwig for details.

Conjectured wife (unlikely): Engeltrude, b. say 837×840, d. after 2 April 870, daughter of Eberhard, duke of Friuli.
See the page of
Hadwig for details.

Conjectured wife (extremely improbable): Judith, d. after 863×4, daughter of Eberhard, duke of Friuli.
See the page of
Hadwig for details.

Falsely attributed wife: Bava/Baba, daughter of Berengario, count of Spoleto.
See the page of
Hadwig for details.

Conjectured wife (possible): NN, granddaughter of count Egbert and St. Ida.
See the page of
Hadwig for details.

Conjectured identification (false):
Hunroch, b. before 20 June 840, living 1 July 874, d. 874×5?, duke of Friuli, 865-874×5;
m. Ava,
daughter of duke Liutfrid.
In 1899, Depoin conjectured that Heinrich was the same person as Hunroch, duke of Friuli [Depoin (1899), 50-1; see the page of Hunroch's father Eberhard], but this identification is not possible, for Heinrich was the brother of Poppo, duke of the Thuringians [see above], and enough is known about Eberhard's children to be sure that Poppo was not among them.

Conjectured daughter (doubtful):
FEMALE Adallinde;
m. Eticho, count (Welf family).
The starting point of this conjecture is a certain count Heinrich who appears in an act of Heinrich I dated 18 October 927, where the king refers to this count Heinrich as propinquus noster ["... Heinricus divina favente clementa rex. ... quia nos interventu fidelis dilectique comitis ac propinqui nostri Henrici ..." MGH DD H I, 51 (#14)]. Decker-Hauff identifies this propinquus with the count Heinrich who appears in eight other acts of Konrad I and Heinrich I during the period 912-34 [MGH DD K I, 10 (#9), 12 (#11), 16 (#17), 32 (#35), 33 (#36); H I, 40 (#2), 65 (#29), 70 (#36)], and with Heinrich "mit dem goldenen Wagen", of the German "Welf" family, son of Eticho ["Eticho genuit filium Heinricum ..." Genealogia Welforum, c. 1, MGH SS 13: 733; Historia Welforum Weingartensis, c. 4, MGH SS 21: 459]. Decker-Hauff then concluded based on the appearance of the name Heinrich that Eticho had married a daughter of Heinrich of Neustria [Decker-Hauff (1955), 315-321, 337]. The supposed daughter was supplied with the name Adallind based on the identification of Eticho with a certain Ato who had a wife named Adallinde [Decker-Hauff (1955), 322ff.]. In a severe criticism of Decker-Hauff's article, Tellenbach pointed out that there was probably more than one count Heinrich appearing in the above records, and rejected the identification of Eticho with Ato [Tellenbach (1956), 184ff.].

Conjectured son (evidence unknown):
MALE Berengar.
Decker-Hauff conjectures another son Berengar for Heinrich [Decker-Hauff (1955), 301, with evidence supposedly to be given in a future work]. Given Decker-Hauff's generally unconvincing arguments in this article, it seems best to doubt the information.


Bibliography

Althoff (1984) = Gerd Althoff, Adels- und Königsfamilien im Spiegel ihrer Memorialüberlieferung (Munich, 1984).

Ann. Fuld. = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Annales Fuldenses (MGH SRG 7, Hannover, 1891).

Calend. Merseb. = Ludwig Hesse, "Calendrium Merseburgense", Zeitschrift für Archivkunde, Diplomatik und Geschichte 1 (1834): 101-150.

Codex Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Codex diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, 1850).

Decker-Hauff (1955) = Hansmartin Decker-Hauff, "Die Ottonen und Schwaben", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 14 (1955), 233-371.

Depoin (1899) = Joseph Depoin, "Le duc Ébrard de Frioul et les trois comtes Matfrid", Annales de la société archéologique de Bruxelles 13, 1 (1899): 5-20.

Dümmler (1887-8) = Ernst Dümmler, Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches, 3 vols. (2nd. ed., Leipzig, 1887-8).

Fontes rerum Germ. = Johann Friedrich Boehmer, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, 4 vols. (Stuttgart & Tübingen, 1843-68).

Geldner (1971) = Ferdinand Geldner, Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte der "Alten Babenberger" (Meisenbach, 1971).

Hlawitschka (1974) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Zur Herkunft der Liudolfinger und zu einigen Corveyer Geschichtsquellen", Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 38 (1974): 92-165.

Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Parisot (1898) = Robert Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (1898, reprinted Geneva, 1975).

Regino, Chronicon = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis Chronicon cum continuatione Treverensi (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1890).

Stein (1884) = F. Stein, "Ostfranken im zehnten Jahrhundert", Forschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte 24 (1884): 123-152.

Tellenbach (1956) = Gerd Tellenbach, "Kritische Studien zur großfränkischen und alemanniscen Adelsgeschichte", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 15 (1956), 169-190.


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 3 April 2011.

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