MALE Heinrich I

Duke of Sachsen (Saxony).
King of Germany, 919-936.

Heinrich became duke of Saxony in 912 at the death of his father Otto ["Igitur patre patriae et magno duce Oddone defuncto, illustri et magnifico filio Heinrico totius Saxoniae [ipse] reliquit ducatum." Widukind, i, 21 (p. 25)]. On 23 December 918, the German king Konrad I died, and Heinrich I, who was not closely related to his predecessor, was elevated as king in the following year ["Heinricus dux consensu Francorum, Alamannorum, Bawariorum, Thuringorum et Saxonum rex eligitur." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 920 (recté 919), 156]. Heinrich died in 936, and was succeeded by his son Otto I "the Great".

Date of Birth: ca. 876.
Widukind states that Heinrich was about sixty years old at the time of his death ["Erant autem dies quibus regnavit XVI anni, vitae autem fere LX." Widukind, i, 41 (p. 52)].
Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: 2 July 936.
["Henricus rex, precipuus pacis sectator strenuusque paganorum insecutor, post plures fortiter et viriliter actas victorias dilatatis undique sui regni terminis VI Non. Iul. diem clausit extremum, cui filius suus Otto consensu primorum regni successor eligitur." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 936, 159]. The vast majority of necrologies also give 2 July as his date of death [e.g., "VI. non. [Iulii] Heinricus rex pat. magni Oddon." Calend. Merseb., 116-7; "vi. non. [Iul.] Heinricus rex pater magni Ottonis." Kalendarium necrologicum Weissenburgense, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 312; see Waitz (1885), 282 for a detailed list].
Place of Death: Memleben.
Place of Burial: Qudelinburg.
["Eo in tempore rex Heinricus, in castello quod est in Turingiorum et Saxonum confinio et dicitur Himénleve, gravissima valetudine correptus, migravit ad dominum. Cuius corpus in Saxoniam deportatum, in nobilissimarum ac religiosarum monasterio puellarum, quod in ipsius regis predio vocabulo Quitelingburg situm liquet, intra eclesiam cum inmensa est veneratione repositum." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iv, 15, Dümmler (1877), 86; "Translatum est autem corpus eius a filiis suis in civitatem quae dicitur Quidilingaburg et sepultum in basilica sancti Petri ante altare cum planctu et lacrimis plurimarum gentium." Widukind, i, 41 (p. 52)]

Father: Otto "der Erlauchten", d. 30 November 912, duke of Sachsen (Saxony).
["Natus est autem ei filius toto mundo necessarius, regum maximus optimus, Heinricus, qui primus libera potestate regnavit in Saxonia." Widukind, i, 17 (p. 23); ibid., i, 21 (p. 25, see above); "Heinricum Saxonum ducem, filium Ottonis" Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 919, 156]

Mother: Hedwig, d. 24 December, probably 903.
["Temporibus quondam regis Francorum Conradi, dux in tota Germania princeps extiterat nomine Otto, genere secundum seculi dignitatem nobilissimus, opibus pullens, et cunctos honore praecellens, quia virtutibus erat praeditus, cuius coniugium veneranda matrona Haduwich subierat moribus non dissimilis. His filiae procreantur et tres filii, ... horum unum nomine Heinricum maiori sustulit excellentia, ..." Vita Mahthildis reginae antiquior, c. 1, MGH SS 10; "... extitit in partibus Germaniae dux quidam Otto nomine, ... Cui Hathuwic, matrona venerabilis, coniugali copulabatur vinculo. Quibus duo gignebantur filii, ... Maior natu vocabatur Thancmarus, et alter Heinricus." Vita Mahthildis reginae, c. 1, MGH SS 4: 284; "Hic nobilissimo Ottonis et Hathui stemmate editus, ..." Thietmar, Chron., i, 2, MGH SS 3: 735; "VIIII. k. [Ian.] ... Hathuuui mat. Heinrici reg." Calend. Merseb., 127]

Spouses:

(1) Hatheburg, (d. 21 June?), daughter of Erwin, count of Merseburg.
["Interim cuiusdam matronae famam, quae Hatheburch dicebatur, Heinricus comperiens, qualiter eam sibi sociaret, iuvenali exarsit amore. Haec erat filia Ervini senioris, qui in urbe predicta, quam antiquam civitatem nominamus, maximam tenuit partem; ..." Thietmar, Chron., i, 4, MGH SS 3: 735; see also Waitz (1885), 15] She was related to a Siegfried, count of Merseburg, who died about 938 ["Illo quoque tempore defunctus est Sigifridus comes, cuius legationem cum sibi vendicasset Thancmarus, eo quod propinquus ei esset - nam mater eius filia erat materterae Sigifridi, de qua genuit rex Heinricus Thancmarum - ...", Widukind ii, 9 (pp. 61-2); Waitz (1885), 208]. She may have been the abbess of that name who appears under 21 June in the necrology of Merseburg ["XI. K. [Iul.] ... Hadeburc abb. ob." Calend. Merseb., 116; Althoff (1984), 350 (A 40)].

(2) ca. 909, Mathilde, d. 14 March 968, daughter of count Dietrich.
["Genuit quoque ei et alios filios clara et nobilissima ac singularis prudentiae regina nomine Mahthilda, ..." Widukind, i, 31 (p. 37); "Ubi et venerabilis eius coniux regnique consors ex eadem gente, nomine Machtild, ..." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iv, 15, Dümmler (1877), 86; Vita Mahthildis Reginae Antiquior, c. 3, MGH SS 10: 576; Vita Mahthildis Reginae, c. 2, MGH SS 4: 285-6; see also below under Mathilde's children] The date of ca. 909 for the marriage is based on the statement of Vita Mahthildis Reginae Antiquior that Heinrich's father Otto died three years later ["Praefatus vero dux Otto, pater Heinrici, tres post haec vivens annos, mortem subiit." Vita Mahthildis Reginae Antiquior, c. 4, MGH SS 10: 576].

Children:

(by Hatheburg)

MALE Thankmar (Tammo), d. 28 July 938.
["Thancmarus autem, filius Heinrici regis, natus erat ex matre nobili, ..." Widukind, ii, 11 (p. 64)] Thietmar calls Thankmar by the hypochoristic form of Tammo ["Interea Tammo natus est; et mens regis ab amore uxoris decescens, ob pulcritudinem et rem cuiusdam virginis, nomine Mathildis, secreto flagravit." Thietmar, Chron., i, 6, MGH SS 3: 737; "... Tammonem, regis et Liudgerdae concitavit filium, ..." one manuscript has Hateburgae (correctly) in place of Liudgerdae, Thietmar ii, 1, MGH SS 3: 744]. Thankmar was killed in 938 while rebelling against his brother Otto I ["Nam Tancmar miserabiliter occisus, ..." Ann. Quedlinb., s.a. 937, MGH SS 3: 56; "Thancmarus occisus est; ..." Ann. Corbeienses, s.a. 938, MGH SS 3: 4; "In hac eadem tempestate Dancmar, frater regis ex concubina, rebellans in Eresburgo castello occiditur, ..." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 939, 161; "V. k. [Aug.] Thancmar ob. fr. magni Oddonis." Calend. Merseb., 118; Dümmler (1876), 75, n. 1, states that 938 is correct].

(by Mathilde)
The older life of Mathilde names the three sons and Gerberge ["Quorum Otto maximus natu, nomen ab avo trahens, ... Heinricus autem ortu secundus, Bawariis dux praeponitur praeclarus. Brunonem vero minimum, virum sapientem, dignum, sacerdotalem, Coloniae archiepiscopum constituere. Nam soror eorum nomine Gerburch, Gisilberto principi Belgicorum tradita fuerat." Vita Mahthildis reginae antiquior, c. 6, MGH SS 10: 577]. The younger life, which mentions only the sons, states that Otto was born before Heinrich became king, and that Heinrich (and thus Bruno) were born after he became king ["Otto praeclarus, ante regalem dignitatem procreatus, natu fuerat maximus, forma insignis et moribus illustris. Heinricus autem, in regali solio natus, iunior fuit annis, sed haud inferior excellentia probitatis. ... Bruno vero, aetate minimus ..." Vita Mahthildis reginae, c. 6, MGH SS 4: 287]. Liudprand also states that Otto was born before Heinrich became king, and that Heinrich and Bruno were born afterwards ["Haec ante regni susceptionem viro suo filium peperit, quem vocavit Ottonem, ... Post regiam autem dignitatem duos peperit, unum quem patris nomine vocavit Heinricum, ... Tercium deinde Bruno nomine ..." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iv, 15, Dümmler (1877), 86]. All five children of Heinrich and Mathilde appear in Widukind's history ["Erat autem Isilberhtus nobili genere ac familia antiqua natus. ... ac postremo desponsata sibi filia nomine Gerberga affinitate pariter cum amicitia iunxit eum sibi, ... XXXI. Genuit quoque ei et alios filios clara et nobilissima ac singularis prudentiae regina nomine Mahthilda, primogenitum mundi amorem nomine Oddonem, secundum patris nomine insignitum, virum fortem et industrium Heinricum, tertium quoque nomine Brunonem, quem pontificis summi ac ducis magni vidimus officium gerentem. ... Aliam quoque filiam genuit, quae nupserat Hugoni duci." Widukind, i, 30-1 (pp. 37-8)]. All five children also appear in a letter from Siegfried, abbot of Görze, to Poppo, abbot of Stablo, written in 1043 ["... Heinricus rex ex Mathilde genuit tres filios: Ottonem imperatorem, Brunonem archiepiscopum, Heinricum ducem; duas quoque filias, Gerbergam et Hadwidem. Quarum altera, id est Hadewidis, Hugoni; altera, id est Gerberga, nupsit Gisleberto duci eique filiam Alberadam nomine peperit. Post obitum vero Gisleberti iuncta est in matrimonium Ludovico Francorum regi, ..." Giesebrecht (1881-95), 2: 714-5 (document #10)]. Although the order of the sons is clear, and Gerberga was apparently older than Hedwig, the exact order of the children is not certain. However, Otto was evidently the oldest, and Gerberga could not have been much younger than him. It is not clear whether Hadwig was older or younger than Heinrich.

MALE Otto I "the Great", b. 23 November 912, d. 7 May 973, king of Germany, 936-973; king of Italy, 961-973; emperor, 962-973;
m. (1) 930, Eadgyth, d. 26 January 946,
daughter of Eadweard "the Elder", king of England;
m. (2) 951, Adélaïde, d. 17 December 999, daughter of Rudolf II, king of Burgundy, widow of Lothair, king of Italy.

FEMALE Gerberga, b. say 913×4, d. 5 May, 969 or later;
m. (1) 929,
Giselbert, d. 2 October 939, duke of Lorraine;
m. (2) 939, Louis IV, d. 10 September 954, king of France.
["Gisalbertus dux Gerburgam filiam Heinrici regis duxit uxorem" Continuatio Reginonis, s.a. 929, Regino, Chronicon, 158; "Gisalbertus dux Gerbirgam, Heinrichi regis filiam, duxit uxorem." Annales Heremi, s.a. 929, MGH SS 3: 141; "Ludowicus rex, in regnum Lothariense regressus, relictam Gisleberti Gerbergam duxit uxorem, Othonis scilicet regis sororem." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 939, 74]

FEMALE Hadwig, b. say 917×922, living 958:
m. 937,
Hugues "le Grand", d. 956, duke of France.
["Hugo princeps, filius Rotberti, sororem Othonis regis Transhenensis, filiam Heinrici, ducit uxorem." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 938, 69; "Quorum scilicet primus Otto, Henrici, Saxonum regis, filius, cujus etiam sororem, nomine Haduidem, duxit uxorem Hugo dux Francorum cognomento magnus." Rodulfus Glaber, i, 8 (p. 10)]

MALE Heinrich I, b. 919×922, d. 1 November 955, duke of Bavaria 947-956;
m. Judith,
daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria.
He is probably the child mentioned in an act of Heinrich I dated 22 April 922 ["... quod rogatu coniugis nostrae domnae reginae Mahthildis una cum prole et equivoco nostro ..." MGH DD H I, 41 (#3)]. He married Judith, daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria ["At dux Henricus, frater regis venerandus, / Princeps in regno fuerat tunc nempe quieto / Post regem, plebi merito venerabilis omni; / Qui sibi condigne legali iunxit amore / Arnulfi natam, ducis egregii, generosam, / Nomine Iudittam, ..." Hrosvitha, Gesta Oddonis, 153-8, MGH SS 4: 322; "Erat autem ipse dominus Heinricus copulatus matrimonio filiae ducis Arnulfi, feminae egregiae formae mirabilisque prudentiae." Widukind, ii, 36 (p. 80); Dümmler (1876), 80]. When Judith's uncle duke Berthold of Bavaria died on 23 November 947, Heinrich succeeded as duke of Bavaria ["Bertaldus dux Bawariensis obiit, cui Heinricus frater regis in ducatu successit." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 945, 163; for the death date of Berthold, see Dümmler (1876), 160]. Heinrich died on 1 November 955, and was succeeded by his son duke Heinrich II, who was the father of emperor Heinrich II ["Heinricus frater regis desperatis rebus recuperatis receptoque Bawariae ducatu obiit. Cuius filio Heinrico pius rex ducatum et marcam dedit." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 955, 168; "Kl. Nov. ... Heinric' dux auus impr. Heinrici o." Calend. Merseb., 124; "[kal. Nov.] Heinricus dux." Kalendarium necrologicum Weissenburgense,
Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 313; for more details, see Dümmler (1876), 267, n. 5].

MALE Bruno, b. ca. 925, d. 10×11 October 965, archbishop of Cologne (Köln), 953-965, de facto duke of Lorraine.
Ruotger's life of Bruno states that Bruno was aged barely forty in the year of his death ["Igitur cum in hoc sanctissimo studio imperator tricesimum regni sui, germanus eius duodecimum pontificatus sui ageret annum, nondum nisi vix praelapsus aetatis quadragesimum, ..." Ruotger, Vita Brunonis, c. 42, MGH SS 4: 271]. He succeeded as archbishop of Cologne on the death of his predecessor Wigfrid on 9 July 953, and he also ruled as the de facto duke of Lorraine ["Eodem anno Wigfridus Coloniensis ecclesiae archiepiscopus obiit; cui Brun frater regis succedens totius Lothariensis regni ducatum et regimen cum episcopatu suscepit." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 953, 167]. He died the night of 10×11 October 965 ["Brun quoque archiepiscopus, germanus imperatoris, vir ducatu pariter et episcopatu dignissimus, V. Idus Octobris obiit." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 965, 176; Ruotger, Vita Brunonis, c. 45, MGH SS 4: 272-3; "V. id. [Oct.] Agrippine ciuitatis archiepiscop. Brun. obt." Calend. Merseb., 112; the Lüneburg necrology gives 10 October, Althoff (1984), 327 (B 142); see Dümmler (1876), 396, n. 2 for a more detailed list of sources for Bruno's death].



Commentary

Falsely attributed mother (mythical): Liutgard, daughter of Arnulf, emperor.
This claim, repeated often in some of the older secondary sources, appears in one version of the universal chronicle of Ekkehard ["Cuonradus rex moriens coram principibus regni regem designat Heinricum, filium Ottonis Saxonum ducis ex Luitgarda filia Arnulfi imperatoris." Ekkehard, Chronicon universale, MGH SS 6: 175; Annales Magdeburgenses (following Ekkehard), s.a. 919, MGH SS 16: 142]. The claim is chronologically impossible (Arnulf was born ca. 850), and the mother of Heinrich is known to have been named Hedwig (see above). It is a transparent attempt to give the Saxon dynasty a Carolingian ancestry. A variant of this error would make Arnulf the father of Heinrich's mother Hedwig [e.g., RFC2 131 (line 172)].

Relative: Wendilgard;
m. Udalrich, count.
Ekkehard states that Wendilgard was a neptis through a daughter (de filia) of king Heinrich ["Oudalrich quidam comes de Karoli prosapia, Wendilgartam, Henrici regis de filia neptim uxorem accipiens, ..." Ekkehard IV, Casus S. Galli, c. 10, MGH SS 2: 119]. The usual interpretation of this would be that Wendilgard was a maternal granddaughter of Heinrich. She was the mother of Burchard (evidently not her eldest child), who became abbot of St. Gallen in 958. Thus, it is not chronologically possible for either of Heinrich's known daughters to be the mother of Wendilgard through some otherwise unknown marriage to Udalrich. Even if we assumed that Wendilgard's mother was a daughter of Heinrich and Hatheburg, the chronology would still only be barely possible. If the literal description of de filia neptis is kept, the alternative would seem to be the possibility that Wendilgard's mother was an illegitimate daughter of Heinrich born in the 890's. On the other hand, Hlawitschka suggests that the words de filia were inserted later, and that Wendilgard was perhaps a daughter of one of the brothers of Heinrich [Hlawitschka (1987), 69ff.].


Bibliography

Althoff (1976) = Gerd Althoff, "Unerkannte Zeugnisse vom Totengedenken der Liudolfinger", Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 32 (1976): 370-404.

Althoff (1984) = Gerd Althoff, Adels- und Königsfamilien im Spiegel ihrer Memorialüberlieferung (Munich, 1984).

Calend. Merseb. = Ludwig Hesse, "Calendrium Merseburgense", Zeitschrift für Archivkunde, Diplomatik und Geschichte 1 (1834): 101-150.

Dümmler (1876) = Rudolf Köpke & Ernst Dümmler, Kaiser Otto der Große (Leipzig, 1876).

Dümmler (1877) = Ernst Dümmler, ed., Liudprandi episcopi Cremonensis opera omnia (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1877).

Flodoard, Annales = Ph. Lauer, ed., Les Annales de Flodoard (Paris, 1905).

Fontes rerum Germ. = Johann Friedrich Boehmer, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, 4 vols. (Stuttgart & Tübingen, 1843-68).

Giesebrecht (1881-95) = Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, 5th ed., 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1881-95).

Hlawitschka (1987) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Untersuchungen zu den Thronwechseln der ersten Hälfte des 11. Jahrhunderts und zur Adelsgeschichte Süddeutschlands (Sigmaringen, 1987).

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series.

MGH SRG = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum (separate editions).

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Regino, Chronicon = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis Chronicon cum continuatione Treverensi (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1890).

RFC2 = Roderick Stuart, Royalty for Commoners (2nd ed., Baltimore, 1992).

Rodulfus Glaber = Maurice Prou, ed., Raoul Glaber - les cinq livres de ses histoires (900-1044) (Paris, 1886).

Waitz (1885) = Georg Waitz, Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reichs under König Heinrich I. (3rd, ed., Leipzig, 1885).

Widukind = Georg Waitz & Karl Andreas Kehr, eds., Widukindi monachi Corbeiensis Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum libri tres (4th ed., MGH SRG 55, Hannover & Leipzig, 1904).


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 3 April 2011.

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