FEMALE Hadwig of Saxony (Hatheuui, Haduidis, Hathawig)

Wife of Hugues le Grand, duke of France.

Hadwig (Hadeuui) appears in an act of her father king Heinrich I on 9 May 935 ["... nos Heinrici aequivoci ac dilecti filii nostri et Hadeuui filiae nostrae ..." MGH DD H I, 71 (#37)]. She appears with her husband Hugues le Grand on 14 September 937 [RHF 9: 721, see below].

Date of Birth: say 917×922.
Hadwig's birth has been frequently placed in or about 922 [Werner (1967), table; ES 1: 3; Settipani (1993), 410], evidently placing her birth after that of her brother duke Heinrich of Bavaria, who was born after Heinrich I became king in 919 and was probably the child mentioned in an act of Heinrich I dated 22 April 922 [MGH DD H I, 41 (#3); see the page of Heinrich I]. On the other hand, Waitz places her birth earlier, before the birth of Heinrich, while her father was still only duke [Waitz (1885), 114]. There does not seem to be any compelling evidence to decide the birth order of Hadwig and Heinrich.
Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: After 958.
Hadwig was still alive in 958, when she was mentioned by Flodoard as being alive, although not by name ["Bruno Coloniensis archiepiscopus cum exercitu Lothariensium per Franciam proficiscitur in Burgundiam, locuturus cum sororibus ac nepotibus suis." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 958, 146]. It is clear from an entry in the previous year that the "sisters" of Bruno mentioned here were Gerberga and Hadwig (the nephews were king Lothaire and Hugues Capet) ["Lotharius rex cum matre et amita sua, relicta Hugonis, obviam pergit in pagum Camaracensem avunculo suo Brunoni." ibid., s.a. 957, 144]. According to Sigebert of Gembloux, she was still living in 965 [Sigebert, Chronica, s.a. 965, MGH SS 6: 351], but Sigebert's information has been questioned [Dümmler (1876), 371, n. 9; Kalckstein (1877), 315, n. 1; Lot (1891), 48, n. 3]. Suggestions about Hadwig's date of death include 10 May from the necrologies of Merseburg and Essen ["VI. id. [Maii] ... Hadeuui ob." Calend. Merseb., 114; "VI Id. Maii Hathawig comitissa" (Nec. Essen) Dümmler (1876), 371, n. 9; Althoff (1984), 157, 365 (K 13); Lot (1891), 48, n. 3], 16 August from the necrology of Echternach ["XVII Kal. Sept. Hatawich filia [sic] regis Ottonis" Dümmler (1876), 371, n. 9; Lot (1891), 48, n. 3], and 9 January from the necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés ["V idus [Ian.] ... atque Hadhuidi, comitisse et ababatisse [sic]" Obit. Sens, 1 (pt. 1): 248; Lot (1891), 48, n. 3].
Place of Death: Unknown.

Father: Heinrich I, d. 2 July 936, king of Germany.
Mother: Mathilde, d. 14 March 968, daughter of count Dietrich.
See the page of
Heinrich I for the details.

Spouse:
m. 937, Hugues "le Grand", d. 16×17 June 956, duke of France.
Flodoard places the marriage in 938 ["Hugo princeps, filius Rotberti, sororem Othonis regis Transhenensis, filiam Heinrici, ducit uxorem." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 938, 69], but an act of 14 September 937 shows that the marriage had already taken place in the previous year ["... tam domni Hugonis Francorum ducis, quam etiam Haduidis ipsius amabilis et satis diligibilis uxoris ..." RHF 9: 721]. See the page of Hugues "le Grand" for further details.

Children:
See the page of Hugues "le Grand" for the details.

FEMALE Béatrix, b. say 938, d. 23 September after 987;
m. 954,
Frédéric I, d. 18 May 978, count of Bar; duke of Upper Lorraine, 959-978.

MALE Hugues "Capet", b. say 940, d. 24 October 996; duke of the Franks, 960-987; king of France, 987-996;
m.
Adélaïde.

FEMALE Emma, b. say 945, d. after 18 March 968;
m. 960
Richard I of Normandy, d. 996, count of Rouen.

MALE Otto, b. say 945, d. 23 February 965, duke of Burgundy;
m. Liutgard,
daughter of Giselbert, duke of Burgundy.

MALE Eudes alias Henri, b. say 948, d. 15 October 1002;
m. 975,
Gerberge, daughter of Lambert, count of Chalon, and widow of Adalbert, king of Italy.



Commentary

Depoin:
Falsely attributed mother: Hatheburg, daughter of Erwin, count of Merseburg, and first wife of Heinrich I.
Depoin's claim that Hadwig's mother was Heinrich's first wife is based on his unacceptable hypothesis that Frédéric, duke of Upper Lorraine, was a son of Amalrada, sister of Mathilde, second wife of Heinrich [Depoin (1907), 332]. (For the supposed marriages between Amalrada, daughter of Dietrich, and Wigeric of Bidgau and Ricuin of Verdun, see the pages of
Wigeric and Dietrich). This theory, if correct, would make Frédéric a first-cousin once-removed of his wife Béatrix unless Hadwig were a daughter of Hatheburg. However, as discussed on the pages of Wigeric and Dietrich, Depoin's theory must be rejected, leaving no reason to doubt that Hadwig was a daughter of Heinrich and Mathilde, as the chronology would suggest.


Bibliography

Althoff (1984) = Gerd Althoff, Adels- und Königsfamilien im Spiegel ihrer Memorialüberlieferung (Munich, 1984).

Calend. Merseb. = Ludwig Hesse, "Calendrium Merseburgense", Zeitschrift für Archivkunde, Diplomatik und Geschichte 1 (1834): 101-150.

Depoin (1907) = Joseph Depoin, "Wicman II, comte du Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au Xe siècle", in Paul Bergmans, ed., Annales du XXe Congrès (Gand, 1907), 2 vols (Ghent, 1907), 2: 315-351.

Dümmler (1876) = Rudolf Köpke & Ernst Dümmler, Kaiser Otto der Große (Leipzig, 1876).

Flodoard, Annales = Ph. Lauer, ed., Les Annales de Flodoard (Paris, 1905).

Kalckstein (1877) = Carl von Kalckstein, Geschichte des französischen Königthums unter den ersten Capetingern (Leipzig, 1877).

Lot (1891) = Ferdinand Lot, Les derniers Carolingiens (Paris, 1891).

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series.

Obit. Sens = Obituaires de la Province de Sens (2 vols. in 3, Paris, 1902-6).

Waitz (1885) = Georg Waitz, Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reichs under König Heinrich I. (3rd, ed., Leipzig, 1885).


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 3 April 2011.

Minor revision uploaded 5 April 2011, with thanks to Steve Barnhoorn for pointing out a reference I had missed.

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