MALE Gottfried

Duke of the Alemannians, ca. 687?-708×9.

Gottfried appears to have already been duke early in the reign of Pippin the younger as mayor of the palace ["... maior domus Bertharius; quo occiso, Pipinus iunior, filius Ansegisili, veniens de Austrasiis, successit in principatum maiorum domus. ... Illis namque temporibus ac deinceps Cotefridus dux Alamannorum caeterique circumquaque duces noluerunt obtemperare ducibus Franchorum, eo quod non potuerint regibus Meroveis servire, sicuti antea soliti erant, ideo se unusquisque secum tenuit, donec tandem aliquando post mortem Cotefridi ducis Carlus caeterique principes Franchorum paullatim ad se revocare illos, arte qua poterant, studuerunt. ..." Erchanbert, Breviarum, MGH SS 2: 328]. In an uncertain year (perhaps ca. 700), Gottfried gave Biberburg on the Neckar river to St. Gallen ["Gotefridus Alemanniae dux tradit Biberburgum vicum ad Neccarum. Godafridus dux, vir inluster. ..." UB Sanct Gallen, 1: 1 (#1)]. Gottfried died in 709 [see below].

The year 687 that has often been given as the beginning of Gottfrieds reign as duke is subject to much uncertainty. It seems to be based on a late statement that there existed [apparently lost] charters in the name of duke Gottefridus of Alemannia written in the 20th year of his "ducatus", more or less 13 years before abbot Othmar ["Exstant Chartæ nomino Gottefridi Alamanniæ Ducis anno Ducatus eius XX. scriptæ, annis plus minus XIII ante Abbatem Othmarem." Goldast (1606), 1: 176]. Thus, the year 687 has apparently been obtained by subtracting 33 (20+13) from 720, the year often given for the beginning of the abbacy of Othmar, but itself subject to some uncertainty. Observe that the notice mentioning the charter is obviously not contemporary, and that the 13 year span is qualified as only approximate.

Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.

Date of death: 709.
Place of death: Unknown.
["... et Gotafridus mortuus." Ann. Lauresham., s.a. 709, MGH SS 1: 22; "Gotefrid moritur." Ann. Alamannici, s.a. 709 (or 710), MGH SS 1: 22; "... et Gotofridus mortuus est." Ann. Nazariani, s.a. 709, MGH SS 1: 23; "... et Cotafridus dux moritur." Ann. Sangallemses breves, s.a. 708, MGH SS 1: 64; "Et Gotafredus dux moritur." Ann. Augienses, s.a. 709, MGH SS 1: 67; "Cotafridus dux mortuus est." Ann. Sangallenses maiores, s.a. 708, MGH SS 1: 73]

Father: Unknown.
See the Commentary section.

Spouse: Unknown.
She has been conjectured as an Agilolfing. See the Commentary section below.

Although several sons have been ascribed to Gottfried, only two of these sons are verified by eighth century sources.

MALE Lantfrid I, d. 730, duke of Alemannia.
Lantfrid is called a son of Gottfried in the introduction to the Leges Alamannorum ["In Christi nomine incipit textus lex Allamannorum, qui temporibus Lanfrido filio Godofrido renovata est." Leges Alamannorum, MGH Leg. Nat. Germ. 5.1: 62]. Charles Martel marched against Lantfrid in 730, and the duke died in the same year ["Karlus perrexit ad Suavos contra Lantfredum." Ann. S. Amandi, s.a. 730, MGH SS 1: 8; similarly Ann. Tiliani, Ann. Laubacenses, Ann. Petaviani, MGH SS 1: 9; "Lantfrid[us] mortuus." Ann. Lauresham., Ann. Alamannici, Ann. Nazariani, s.a. 730, MGH SS 1: 24-5; "Lantfrid moritur." Ann. Sangallemses breves, s.a. 730(729), MGH SS 1: 64; Ann. Augienses, s.a. 730, MGH SS 1: 67].

MALE Theodebald, living 745, duke of Alemannia.
["Per idem tempore, rebellante Theudobaldo, filium Godafredo [sic] duce, Pippinus cum virtute exercitus sui ab obsidione Alpium turpitur expulit fugientem; revocatoque sibi eiusdem loci ducato, victor ad propria remeavit." Cont. Fredegar, c. 27 (113), MGH SRM 2: 180-1; "Eodem anno Teobaldo rebellante, filio Godefridi ducis Alamannorum, ..." Ann. Mettenses, s.a. 745, MGH SS 1: 328; "... Alamannos duce Thiotbaldo ..." Einhard, Ann. Fuld., s.a. 742, MGH SS 1: 345; "Theobaldus in Alsatia." Ann. Alamannici, s.a. 745, MGH SS 1: 26; also Ann. Guelferbytani ("Deotbaldus"), Ann. Nazariani ("Theotbaldus"), s.a. 745, MGH SS 1: 27].

Probable sons:
As noted individually below, various late sources give Gottfried two additional sons named Liutfrid and Watilo. A consecutive list of names in the Reichenau confraternity book reads "Lantfridus dux, Deotpold, Liutfrid, Uatalo, Hiltrud, Tessilo" [MGH Libri Confrat. 1: 294 (col. 465)]. The first two of these are clearly duke Lantfrid I and his brother Theodebald, so in combination with the late sources, the list offers clear support for the suggestion that two additional sons were named Liutfrid and Uatilo. The last three names are clearly duke Odilo of Bavaria, his wife Hiltrud (daughter of Charles Martel), and his son duke Tassilo of Bavaria.

MALE Huoching.
Huoching is known only from the passage in Thegan's Vita Hludowici which gives the descent of Charlemagne's wife Hildegard from Gottfried ["Qui cum in iuventute erat, supradictus imperator desponsavit sibi nobilissimi generis Suavorum puellam, nomine Hildigardam, quae erat de cognatione Gotefridi ducis Alamannorum. Gotefridus dux genuit Huochingum, Huochingus genuit Nebi, Nebe genuit Immam, Imma vero genuit Hiltigardam beatissimum reginam." Thegan, Vita Hludowici, c. 2, MGH SS 2: 590-1]. However, although Thegan is a reasonably early (ninth century) source, he is not contemporary, and some have doubted the connection, or have even questioned Huoching's existence. See the pages of Huoching and his son Nebi for more details.

MALE Liutfrid, fl. 731?, duke of Rhaetia?
A long forgotten Reichenau source, written down in 1739 by P. Maurice Chardon, states that holy zeal drove the Agilolfing duke Leutfrid, son of Gotofrid, duke of Alemannia and Rhaetia, to take St. Pirmin to Rhaetia, where he founded the monastery of Pfäfers ["... Leutfridum ducem Agilolfingum, Gotofridi Alemannie et Rhetie ducis filium ..." Zöllner (1951), 257 & n. 76, citing Brussels, Bib. royale, Cod. 3494, fol. 118v; see also De Sancto Pirminio Episcopo, X, 74, AASS Nov., 2: 19]. If the late account of Hermann of Reichenau is correct, this was in 731 ["Tria coenobia, id est Altaha, Morbach et Favarias, ex Augensibus fratribus instructa sunt, ..." Hermann von Reichenau, Chron., s.a. 731, MGH SS 5: 98]. The confraternity book of Pfäfers appears to confirm that there was a duke of Rhaetia named Liutfrid ["Liuthfredus dux" MGH Libri Confrat. 1: 359, col. 7, 15]. The description of Liutfrid as an Agilolfing also fits well with the attribution of Odilo as a son of Gottfried (see below).

MALE Odilo, d. 18 January 748?, duke of Bavaria, ca. 736 - ca. 748;
m. Hiltrude,
daughter of Charles Martel.
Odilo became duke of Bavaria in succession to Hucbert, probably in 736 ["... Hucbertus dux ... . Post hunc extitit Otilo dux, ..." Indiculus Arnonis, iii-iv, Keinz (1869), 17; "739. Hukebertus dux Bawariae obiit, cui succedit Odilo." Auctarium Garstense, MGH SS 9: 563; "739. Hucbertus dux Bawariae obiit; pro quo Odilo." Ann. S. Rudberti Salisburgenses, MGH SS 9: 768; there is a document dated in the 12th year of Odilo: "Actum est hoc XII. die mensis februarii in loco nuncupante Machinga anno XII. Oatiloni ducis." Trad. Freis., 1: 29]. He was succeeded by his son Tassilo, probably in 748 ["748. Pippinus Grifonem depulit de Baioaria, et Tassiloni dedit illum ducatum." Ann. Iuvavenses minores, MGH SS 1: 88; "748. Pippinus Grifonem de Baiowaria expulit, et Tasiloni ducatum dedit." Ann. S. Emmerammi Ratisponensis maiores, MGH SS 1: 92; "Quorum dux eo tempore Odilo defunctus erat, cui Tassilo filius eius successerat." Ann. Mettenses, s.a. 749, MGH SS 1: 330; for a discussion of the date, for which the evidence is contradictory, see Hahn (1863), 212-5]. The older necrology of St. Emmeranus states that Odilo died on 18 January ["XV. Kal. Febr. Em. ant. Vdilo dux." Excerpta Necrologiorum Salisburgensis & S. Emmerami Ratisponæ, Mon. Boica, 14: 368]. His wife was Hiltrude, daughter of Charles Martel ["Chiltrudis quoque, filia eius, faciente consilio nefario noverce sue, fraudulenter per manus sodalium suorum Renum transiit et ad Odilonem ducem Bagoariis pervenit; ille vero eam ad coniugium copulavit contra voluntatem vel consilium fratrum suorum." Fredegar, Chron., Cont., c. 25, MGH SRM 2: 180; "eius" refers to Charles Martel; "Soror domini Pipini regis nomine Hiltrut mater Tassilonis ducis concedente eodem rege post obitum viri sui Otilonis ducis ..." Breves Notitiae Salzburgenses, xi, Keinz (1869), 36-7].

The two most important early Bavarian sources for the history of the Agilolfing dukes, the Indiculus Arnonis and the Notitiae Salzburgenses, do not identify the father of Odilo [Zöllner (1951), 261-2; Keinz (1869)]. The fact that these sources indicate the parentage upon reporting the succession of the other dukes, but are silent about the parentage of Odilo, suggests that Odilo was not in the immediate family of his predecessor Hucbert. The attribution of Odilo as a son of duke Gottfried of Alemannia was first proposed by Erich Zöllner [Zöllner (1951), 257-263]. According to Gallus Öhem's Chroncile of Reichenau (16th century), based on a lost Reichenau record, a Watilo, son of duke Gottfried of Swabia, ruled in Thurgau, where St. Pirmin had built a temporary monastery in the village of Pfungen ["Man vindt och in ainem vast alten rodel in der Ow geschriben, wie sant Pirminius anfengclichen, als er usser Frankrich gezogen ist, in ain dorff Fungen genant, in dem Thurgöw by Wintertur gelegen (Watilon, hertzog Göpfrids sun von Swaben, daselbe regierende), mit sinen brüdern viertzig, zwayer minder oder mer, och mit sinen büchern, so vil er by im haben môcht, dero fünfftzig waren, komen, daselbs ain zell oder closter gebuwt habt mit mercklichem z&#x016Fnemen der brüder und bücher, und allda bis z&#x016F dem tod und abgang hertzog Götpfrids bliben sig." Chron. Öhem, 8-9; Zöllner (1951), 259]. This is supported by the Reichenau confraternity list mentioned above, in which Odilo is listed immediately after Lantfrid, Theodebald, and Liutfrid [Zöllner (1951), 260; Zöllner (1978), 104]. The fact that Liutfrid is called an Agilolfing [see above] supports the Agilolfing connections of the Alemannian dynasty, and helps to explain how a son of Gottfried would become duke of Bavaria. It has also been pointed out that a letter of Pope Gregory III of 737 or 738, which refers to provincia Baioariorum et Alamannia ["Dilectissimis nobis episcopis in provincia Baioariorum et Alamannia constitutis, Uiggo, Liudoni, ..." Quellen Alamannen, 5: 15; Juraschek (1958), 284-5; Johanek-Ehbrecht (2002), 271-2]. This suggests that Odilo also ruled over part of Alemannia.

Not all authors have accepted Zöllner's thesis. Rolf-Peter Lacher, while accepting that Gottfried had a son named Watilon, does not accept his identity with Odilo of Bavaria [Lacher (1974), 107-110]. He points out that the silence of the early Bavarian sources [Indiculus Arnonis and Notitiae Salzburgenses, above] is no proof of duke Odilo's relationship to the Alemannian ducal house, and suggests the possibility that these sources considered Odilo's descent from his predecessor Hucbert to be self-evident [ibid., 109]. In a genealogical table, he conjectures that Odilo was a sibling of Swanahild, wife of Charles Martell, and that they were children either of Lambert, Tassilo, or Theodebert, all sons of duke Theodo II [ibid., 110; for Swanahild, see below on Gottfried's conjectured daughter Imma(?)]. Nevertheless, most authors have accepted Zöllner's thesis as at least probable [see, e.g., Siegwart (1958), 162-7; Juraschek (1958), 284-5; Eckhardt (1965), 70-3; Störmer (1972), 22-4; Jarnut (1976), 351 & n. 115; Jarnut (1977a), 273ff.; Jahn (1991), 123; Johanek-Ehbrecht (2002), 271-2].


Possible spouse of Gottfried: NN of Bavaria, Agilolfing.
Possible ancestry of Gottfried:
Agilolfing dynasty.

Gottfried's connection to the Agilolfinger

Members of the ducal family of Bavaria were sometimes called Agilolfinger ["De genealogia qui vocantur Hosi Drazza Fagana Hahilinga Anniona isti sunt quasi primi post Agilolfingos qui sunt de genere ducali." Lex Baiwariorum, III, I, MGH Leg. Nat. Germ. 5.1: 312-3]. As noted above, Gottfrieds probable son Liutfrid is also called an Agilolfing in a late source. It has also been pointed out that one of Gottfried's son (Theodebald) was given the same name as one of the sons of duke Theodo of Bavaria, that the name of another son (Lantfrid) had the same first element as the name of one of Theodo's son (Lantbert/Lambert), and that Gottfried's Odilo is a variant form of the name of one of Theodo's daughters (Oda) [Eckhardt (1965), 77-9]. Also, Odilo gave his son the name Tassilo, also present in the family of duke Theodo, and Tassilo named two sons Theodo and Theodebert, the latter also being the name of duke Theodo's son and successor [ibid.]. Assuming that Zöllner's theory that Odilo was a son of Gottfried is correct, all of this points to a close relationship between Gottfried's sons and the Bavarian ducal family of duke Theodo. Thus, it is probable that either Gottfried or his wife was an Agilolfing.

But which was it? This is unclear. If the Agilolfinger were an exclusively patrilineal dynasty (and this is far from certain), then the Agilolfing status of Liutfrid would imply that Gottfried was also an Agilolfing. This was the view of Erich Zöllner, who referred to the Swabian "branch" ("Zweig") of the Agilolfinger [Zöllner (1951), 263; Zöllner (1978), 105]. To Wilhelm Störmer it appeared that the connection went back to an earlier marriage (or marriages) [Störmer (1972), 22].

On the other hand, Karl August Eckhardt argued that Gottfried was descended from the previous Alemannian dukes (see below), and based on the Agilolfing connections of Gottfried's sons mentioned above, proposed that Gottfried was married to a daughter of duke Theodo of Bavaria [Eckhardt (1965), 77-9]. Störmer objected that this was not probable, because Gottfried died in 709, and Theodo not until 717×8 [Störmer (1972), 22]. Such chronological arguments based on death dates can be misleading, but it does seem likely that Gottfried and Theodo were in approximately the same generation. Thus, if Gottfried's wife really was a member of Theodo's family, then Christian Settipani's suggestion that she was a sister of Theodo seems more likely [Settipani (1990), 9 & n. 24, 10 (table)].

Ultimately, the situation is uncertain. Although the evidence of Agilolfing connections is good, there is simply not enough evidence to decide whether these connections came through Gottfried or through his wife.

Conjectured wife (evidence poor - very improbable): NN, Merovingian princess.

Based on the fact that Gottfried gave one of his sons the name Theodebald (common among the Merovingian kings), Levillain stated that Gottfried "without doubt" ("sans doute") married a Merovingian princess [Levillain (1937-8), 32]. However, this name was not the exclusive property of the Merovingians, and it is more likely that this name indicates an Agilolfing connection, as discussed above. Klebel considered it probable that Gottfried was married to a daughter of one of the Merovingian kings Clovis II or Clothaire II, because Gottfried's great-great-granddaughter Hildegard named two of her sons Louis and Lothair [Klebel (1958), 214]. There is no good reason to accept this, for even if Louis and Lothair were named after ancestral Merovingian kings, there would be no good reason to expect that such hypothetical ancestry came through the wife of Gottfried.

Conjectured son (evidence lacking):

MALE Willehari, duke of Alemannia (or of Ortenau), fl. 709-12.
Called dux in one source, Willehari appears as an Alemannian leader in the Frankish annals during the period 709-712 ["quando Pippinus perrexit in Suavis contra Vilario." Ann. S. Amandi, s.a. 709; "iterum Pippinus in Suavis contra Vilario." ibid., s.a. 710; "quando Walericus duxit exercitum Francorum in Suavis contra Vilario." ibid., 711; "quidam episcopus duxit exercitum Francorum in Suavia contra Vilario." ibid., s.a. 712, MGH SS 1: 6; "quidam episcopus duxit exercitum Francorum in Suavis contra Willeharium." Ann. Tiliani, s.a. 712, MGH SS 1: 6; "... contra Wilarium" Ann. Petaviani, s.a. 709, 710, 712, MGH SS 1: 7; "Primum Pipinus perrexit in Alamaniam contra Wilharium ducem." Ann. S. Columbae Senonensis, s.a. 709, MGH SS 1: 102; "... Willarium ducem" Ann. S. Max. Trev., MGH SS 2: 212]. The Passio Desiderii locates Willehari as a duke in Ortenau ["Venit in fines Alamannorum ad locum, cuius vocabulum est Mortunaugia, ubi dux preerat Willicharius." Passio Desiderii et Reginfridi martyrum Alsegaudiensium, c. 3, MGH SRM 6: 57]. Based on this, Stälin suggested the possibility that Willehari was not duke of all of Alemannia, but only of Ortenau [Stälin (1841), 179 n. 8]. Eckhardt argued that the four year war of Pippin against Willehari showed that Willehari had more than local support [Eckhardt (1965), 65]. Behr argued for the localiztion of Willehari's rule [Behr (1975), 178-9]. Eckhardt would identify the Alemannian duke with the Willihari who witnessed a charter apparently of 693 adjacent to a certain Lantfrid ["Acta epistola ad ipsum monasterium Wizunburg publice, sub die kl. Maias, anno XII regnante Hludowico, rege Francorum. ... sign. Williharii, signum Lantfridi, ..." Pardessus, Diplomata, 2: 425-6 (#5), who dates the charter to 693 in the reign of Clovis III; Trad. Wiz. 39 (#38)]. From this, Eckhardt concluded that Willehari was an elder brother of Lantfrid [Eckhardt (1965), 65, 80]. This is not impossible, but it is very slim evidence on which to base such a relationship [see Lacher (1974), 111-2; Behr (1975), 178].

Conjectured daughter (evidence slimly based):

FEMALE NN [Imma?];
m. NN [Tassilo?],
son of Theodebert, duke of Bavaria.
The existence of this conjectured daughter is based on the statement of Einhard that Swanahild, second wife of Charles Martel, was a neptis of the Bavarian duke Odilo ["Hoc anno Karlus maior domus diem obiit,tres filios heredes relinquens, Carlomannum scilicet et Pippinum atque Grifonem. Quorum Grifo, qui ceteris minor natu erat, matrem habuit nomine Swanahildem, neptem Odilonis ducis Baioariorum." Einhard, Annales, s.a. 741, ARF 3]. Aventin states that she was a neptis of the Bavarian duke Hugbert [Jarnut (1976), 351 & n. 114; Jarnut (1977b), 245 & n. 3; both cite Aventinus, Annales ducum Boiariae, ed. S. Riezler (1882), lib. 3, c. 8, p. 383 (not seen by me)]. Fredegar calls her a neptis of Beletrude, apparently the woman who was successively wife of Theodebald (Theodoald) and Grimoald, sons of duke Theodo of Bavaria ["Subacta regione illa, thesauris multis cum matrona quandam nomine Beletrude et nepta sua Sunnichilde regreditur." Cont. Fredegar, c. 12, MGH SRM 2: 175; cf. Breysig (1869), 53; Störmer (1972), 21]. Based on this information, Jörg Jarnut conjectured that Swanahild was a daughter of a son of Hugbert by a sister of Odilo [Jarnut (1977b)]. This interpretation depends heavily on the word neptis being interpreted as meaning "niece", someting that is possible but not certain. The names Imma and Tassilo are purely conjectural, and not backed up by any good evidence.

Falsely attributed daughter:

FEMALE Regarde (existence doubtful);
supposedly m. Hildebrand, fl. 779-788, duke of Spoleto.
["Hildebrandus dux Spolitinus" Ann Lauriss. Maj., s.a. 779, ARF 52-4"... id est duce Spoitino nomine Hildebrando ..." ibid., s.a. 788, 82]

An account of the foundation of the abbey of Buchau gives much alleged information about the supposed founders Ato (Hatto/Otho) and his wife Adalinde (Adelindis). It states that after a war against the Langobard king Aistulf (749-756), king Pippin of the Franks and "king" Marsilius of the Suevians (Swabians) took two boys captive, Bonosius and Sophonius, sons of Russo, a certain regulus of the Langobards or a Greek count "de Tragento", who had been killed in the war. Bonosius married a daughter of a count of Montfort and had Bero, who married a noble girl of Bodmen (Baden?) and had four sons, of whom Tallatar married a countess of "Hillermontana" and had a son Godefrid. It states that Godefrid married a countess of Andechs and had a son Hatto/Otho, who married Adelindis, sister of Hildegardis (wife of Charlemagne) and daughter of Hildebrand, duke of the Suevians/Swabians by his wife Regarde, duchess of the Bavarians, by whom she had four sons Beringer, Reginold, Gerhard, and Hatto ["[c. 2.] ... Post adeptam ex Longobardis victoriam et servatam Romam a tyrannide Ilaystulphi Longobardorum regis, duxerunt Pipinus ac Marsilius inter alios captivos ac datos obsides, duos etiam egregios juvenes Bonosium ac Sophonium, Russonis Longobardorum cujusdam reguli aut, ut aliqui volunt, Græci alicujus comitis de Tragento (qui in hoc ipso bello occubuerat) filiolos secum in Germaniam. [c. 3.] Sophoniam decem annorum puerum Pipinus sibi vendicabat: Bonosium vero uno anno majorem natu Marsilius apud se retinuit, et in Laureacensi coenobio, sacra baptismate ablui fecit. ... Venerant tunc recens in Germaniam e Roma nobilissimi comites Montis-fortis: horum unius filiam quamdam dedit Marsilius Suevorum rex huic ipsi comiti Bonosio in uxorem ... [c. 4.] ... Bero filius Bonosi et Montfortiæ, ducta uxore nobili puella de Bodmen, pater quatuor filiorum Clingoldi, Hussonis, Tallatarii, et Birridonarii ... . Tallatarius uxorem ducens comitissam Hillermontanam, filium Godefridum genuit. ... Is postea ex Andecensi comitissa Bavarica Hattonem vel Othonem filium suscepit. Hatto sive Otho comes Caldariensis ... potentissimi Suevorum ducis Hildebrandi, et dominæ Regardæ Bavarorum ducissæ ... filiam dominam Adelindin in arce Andechs natam, sororem Hildegardis reginæ (quæ Carolo Magno desponsata fuerat) uxorem duxit: quæ quatuor ei filios peperit ... Beringerum, Reginoldum, Gerhardum et Hattonem. ..." De beata Adelinde abbatissa, c. 2-4, AASS Aug. 6: 492].

The corruptness of the genealogy is clear from chronology alone. According to Hermann of Reichenau, three of the sons of Ato and Adalinde were killed in 902 ["Ipso anno Beringer, Reginolf et Gerhard nobiles germani fratres, filii Atonis comitis et Adellindae, ... ab inimicis circumventi et occisi sunt, ..." Hermann von Reichenau, Chron., s.a. 902, MGH SS 5: 111]. Yet Adalinde was supposedly a sister of Charlemagne's wife Hildegarde, married in 771. Similarly, Ato, the supposed brother-in-law of Charlemagne, is stated to be five generations removed from Russo, an alleged contemporary of Charlemagne's father Pippin. Prior to the generation of Ato and Adalinde, there does not appear to be any of the genealogy that can be independently verified by a reliable source. Although the supposed Alemannian or Swabian dukes Marsilius and Hildebrand appear in some late sources [e.g., "Inter duces duo tamen notantur fautores rei christianæ Marsilius & Hildebrandus. Quorum ille arcem Laureacensem in Wirtenbergia, postea monasterium, sedem aulæ habuit, alter Campiduni in Hillarmontio: qui prope Biberacum Hunnos vicisse dicitur, constituto ad ipsum locum monasterio Buchovensi." Gerbert (1776), 29], there appear to be no early sources which confirm their existence.

Nevertheless, Hansmartin Decker-Hauff argued that the report was based on a confused account of real people and events, and that it could be used to deduce real relationships [Decker-Hauff (1955), 351-369]. Thus, Decker-Hauff argued that the account had combined two historical Adalindes into one person, one of them a later Adalinde from the late ninth and early tenth centuries who married Ato, and the other an earlier Adalinde from the eighth century who was married to the well known count Warin, who along with count Ruthard administered Alemannia. He also argued that it was this older Adalinde who was the daughter of a Hildebrand and a Bavarian Regarde. Noting that there was no known duke Hildebrand of Alemannia, and drawing on the Italian connections shown for Hatto/Otho in the Buch history, Decker-Hauff identified Adalinde's alleged father Hildebrand as duke Hildbrand of Spoleto. As confirmation of this, Decker Hauff uses a 787 record from Farfa, in which duke Hildebrand mentions his son-in-law count Warin [ibid., 362, citing Regesto di Farfa, 2: #137 (not seen by me); but Tellenbach (1957), 61 (816) n. 112 cites Regesto di Farfa 2: 122 (#159) for this record]. Decker-Hauff speculates that Hildebrand lived in Swabia before he became duke of Spoleto, and that as a result of this he was remembered as duke of Swabia in the Buchau tradition [Decker-Hauff (1955), 362-3]. He then conjectures that Regarde was a sister of duke Odilo of Bavaria, pointing out that Odilo appears to have been a member of the "Swabian" ducal house and that the name Gottfried appears (allbeit in a different context) in the Buchau genealogical tradition [ibid., 363, 369 (table)]. In a genealogical table, Decker-Hauff leaves the parentage of Odilo and Regarde as unstated [ibid., 369], but he apparently accepts Zöllner's thesis regarding the parentage of Odilo [ibid., 363], and Josef Siegwart, accepting Decker-Hauff's conclusion that Regarde was a sister of Odilo [Siegwart (1958), 169-170], shows Odilo and Regarde as children of Gottfried [ibid., 156].

However, such "cut-and-paste" genealogy is difficult to accept. Decker-Hauff places the birth of Regarde as about 715/20 [Decker-Hauff (1955), 363], which would clearly be impossible for any child of Gottfried (d. 709). As Tellenbach points out, it is not clear that the count Warin from duke Hildebrand's record was even the same person as the well known count who administered Alemannia [Tellenbach (1957), 61 (816)]. Lacher criticized the supposed connection of Regarde to Gottfried as standing on an extremely objectionable basis [Lacher (1974), 119]. Even if we accept that the Buchau genealogy was based in part on real individuals and that the Hildebrand "duke of Swabia" in that source was based on Hildebrand of Spoleto, it does not mean that it should be used as a source to deduce the identity of Hildebrand's wife. The Buchau genealogy as it survives is an garbled mess, and there is no reasonable way to separate fact from fiction. No reliable source gives us any information about the wife of duke Hildebrand of Spoleto, and this attempt to deduce such information from a completely unreliable source should be rejected.

Conjectured son (more likely a grandson):

MALE Nebi (Hnabi).
Thegan's genealogy states that Nebi was a son of Huoching, son of Gottfried. It has been suggested that the intervening generation of Huoching should be removed, and that Nebi was in fact another son of Gottfried. This is discussed in detail on the page of Nebi.

Conjectured father (chronologically doubtful):
Conjectured grandfather
(more likely, but still unproven):

Leuthari II, duke of Alemannia, 607×8 - 643.
Leuthari appears in Fredegard's chronicle as duke of Alemannia in 643 ["Anno decimo regno Sigyberti Otto, qui adversus Grimoaldo inimicicias per superbia tomebat, faccionem Grimoaldo a Leuthario duci Alamannorum interfecetur." Fredegar, Chron., iv, 88, MGH SRM 2: 165]. Eckhardt stated that Gottfried was probably ("wahrscheinlich") a son of Leuthari II [Eckhardt (1965), 77, 80], but this chronologically unlikely suppostion is based on nothing more than the assumption that the Alemannian dukes all belong to the same dynasty and the fact that there are no known dukes between Leuthari and Gottfried. In fact, it is quite probable that there were one or more intervening Alemannian dukes whose names are lost to history. Settipani's conjecture that Gottfried was a grandson of Leuthari is chronologically more likely, but also unproven [Settipani (1990), 10 (table)].

Falsely attributed mother:

NN, daughter of Willebad, d. 642, Burgundian patrician.
[Eckhardt (1965), 77; Settipani (1990), 10 (table)] This conjecture is apparently based solely on the name element Wille- which is common to both Willebad and to Gottfried's alleged son Willehari [Eckhardt (1965), 77; Settipani (1990) cites no source]. This must be rejected. Not only is there no proof that Willehari was a son of Gottfried (see above), but even if he were there would be no good reason to accept the argument on such a slim basis.


AASS = Acta Sanctorum.

ARF = Georg Pertz & Friedrich Kurze, Annales Regni Francorum (Annals of the kingdom of the Franks), MGH SRG 6 (Hannover, 1895).

Behr (1975) = Bruno Behr, Das alemannische Herzogtum bis 750 (Geist und Werk der Zeiten, 41, Herbert Lang, 1975).

Breysig (1869) = Theodor Breysig, Jahrbucher des fränkischen Reiches 714-741 (Leipzig, 1869).

Chron. Öhem = Karl Brandi, ed., Die Chronik des Gallus Öhem (Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der Abtei Reichenau, 2, Heidelberg, 1893).

Decker-Hauff (1955) = Hansmartin Decker-Hauff, "Die Ottonen und Schwaben", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 14 (1955), 233-371.

Eckhardt (1965) = Karl August Eckhardt, Merowingerblut, 2 vols. (Witzenhausen, 1965). [I have only seen vol. 1]

Gerbert (1776) = Martin Gerbert, Vetus Liturgia Alemannica (Typis San-Blasianis, 1776).

Goldast (1606) = Alamannicarum rerum scriptores aliquot vetusti (Frankfurt, 1606).

Hahn (1863) = Heinrch Hahn, Jahrbücher des fränkischen Reichs 741-752 (Berlin, 1863).

Jahn (1991) = Joachim Jahn, Ducatus Baiuvariorum (Monographien zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 35, 1991).

Jarnut (1976) = Jörg Jarnut, "Beiträge zu den fränkisch-bayerisch-langobardischen Beziehungen im 7. und 8. Jahrhundert (656-728)", Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte 39 (1976): 331-352.

Jarnut (1977a) = Jörg Jarnut, Studien über Herzog Odilo (736-748), Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 85 (1977), 273-

Jarnut (1977b) = Jörg Jarnut, "Untersuchungen zur Herkunft Swanahilds, der Gattin Karl Martells", Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte 40 (1977): 245-9.

Johanek-Ehbrecht (2002) = Peter Johanek, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Der weite Blick des Historikers (Böhlau, 2002).

Juraschek (1958) = Franz Juraschek, "Die Reihung der Traditionen im Passauer 'Codex antiquissimus' ", Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 66 (1958), 276ff.

Keinz (1869) = Friedrich Keinz, ed., Indiculus Arnonis und Breves Notitiae Salzburgenses (München, 1869).

Klebel (1958) = E. Klebel, "Zur Geschichte des Herzogs Theodo", Verhandlungen des Historischen Vereins für die Oberpfalz und Regensburg 99 (1958): 165–205 , reprinted in K. Bosl, ed., Zur Geschichte der Bayern (Wege der Forschung 60, Darmstadt, 1965), 172-224.

Lacher (1974) = Rolf-Peter Lacher, "Die Anfänge der Reichenau und agilolfingische Familienbeziehungen", Schriften des Vereins für Geschichte des Bodensees und seiner Umgebung 92 (1974), 95ff.

Levillain (1937-8) = Léon Levillain, " Les Nibelungen Historiques et leur alliances de famille", Annales du Midi 49 (1937): 337-408; 50 (1938): 5-66.

MGH Leg. Nat. Germ. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Legum Sec. I, Legum Nationum Germanicarum (vol. 5, pt. 1, Hannover, 1888).

MGH Libri Confrat. = Paul Piper, ed., Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli Augiensis Fabariensis (Berlin, 1884).

MGH SRM = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptorum rerum Merovingicarum.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Mon. Boica = Monumenta Boica (vol. 14, 1784).

Pardessus, Diplomata = J. M. Pardessus, Diplomata chartæ, epistolaæ, leges aliaque instrumenta ad res Gallo-Francicas spectantia, 2 vols. (1843-9).

Quellen Alamannen = Camilla Dirlmeier & Klaus Sprigade, Quellen zur Geschichte der Alamannen (vol. 5, Thorbecke, 1983).

Settipani (1990) = Christian Settipani, Les ancêtres de Charlemagne (addenda 1990), pdf file available at GEN-MEDIEVAL website, also available there in an English translation.

Siegwart (1958) = Josef Siegwart, "Zur Frage des alemannischen Herzogsgutes um Zürich", Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte 8 (1958), 145-192.

Stälin (1841) = Christoph Friedrich Stälin, Wirtembergische Geschichte (Erster Theil: Schwaben und Südfranken von der Urzeit bis 1080, Stuttgart & Tübingen, 1841).

Störmer (1972) = Wilhelm Störmer, Adelsgruppen im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Bayern (Kommission für Bayerische Landesgeschichte, 1972).

Tellenbach (1957) = Gerd Tellenbach, "Der großfränkisches Adel und die Regierung Italiens in der Blütezeit des Karolingerreiches", in Gerd Tellenbach, ed., Studien und Vorarbeiten zur Geschichte des großfränkischen und frühdeutschen Adels (Freiburg, 1957), 40-70, reprinted in Gerd Tellenbach, Ausgewählte Abhandlungen und Aufsätze (Stuttgart, 1988), 3: 795-825.

Trad. Freis. = Theodor Bitterauf, Die Traditionen des Hochstifts Freising, 2 vols. (1905-9), reprinted 1967 (Quellen und Erörterungen zur bayerischen Geschichte. Neue Folge, 4, 5).

UB Sanct Gallen = Hermann Wartmann, ed., Urkundenbuch der Abtei Sanct Gallen (vol. 1, Zürich, 1863).

Zöllner (1951) = Erich Zöllner, "Die Herkunft der Agilolfinger", Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 59 (1951): 245-264.

Zöllner (1978) = Erich Zöllner, "Das Geschlecht der Agilolfinger", in Siegfried Haider, ed., Die Anfänge des Klosters Kremsmünster (Linz, 1978): 83-110.

Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 16 August 2012.

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