MALE Godefroid "le Captive"/Gottfried "der Gefangene" (Godefridus)

Count in Bidgau, 959, and in Methingau, 960, 963.
Count of Verdun, before 965-after 997.
Marquis/duke of Eename.

Godefroid appears on 1 November 959 as count in Bidgau ["... in villa Dundeba in comitatu Bedense, cui Gotefridus comes præesse dinoscitur, ..." Wampach (1935), 212 (#166)], and he is called count in Methingau on 8 April 960 ["... in comitatu Mithegovve, cui Godefridus comes preesse videtur, ..." (a donation of his aunt Liutgard), Wampach (1935), 218 (#168)] and on 17 February 963 ["Igitur posita est haec eadem munitio in pago Methingowi in comitatu Godefridi comitis super ripam Alsuntiæ fluminis." (his uncle Sigefroid's acquisition of the castle of Luxemburg), Wampach (1935), 234-5 (#173)]. About this time he starts to appear as count in charters of Saint-Vanne at Verdun ["Signum Gotdefridi et fratris eius Heinrici." Bloch (1898-1902), 402 (#14), dated by Bloch to ca. 960? and by Vanderikindere to 963×5, Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 355; "Signum Gotdefridi comitis." 963?×6, Bloch (1898-1902), 404 (#15); "Signum Godefridi comitis." 967, ibid. 407 (#17); His supposed appearance as a witness in a charter of bishop Bérenger of Verdun in 951×2 occurs only in the later, falsified, version, Bloch (1898-1902), 391-5 (#11)]. He appears as marquis (marchio) in 981 ["Gottefredus et Arnulfus marchiones XL mittant." MGH Const. 1: 632-3 (#436); Franz (1940), 234], and is called duke (dux) of Eename by both Genealogia comitum Flandriae Bertiniana ["... Godefrido duci de Enham ..."MGH SS 9: 306] and an interpolation to the chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux ["Iste dux Godefridus dictus est Eihamensis." MGH SS 6: 399; see below for more detailed quotes from these two sources]. In 985, when king Lothair of France was attempting the conquest of Lorraine, he, along with other Lotharingian nobles, defended Lorraine from Lothair's attacks ["Dum haec multa consultatione ventilaret, Belgicae dux Teodericus, necnon et vir nobilis ac strenuus Godefridus, Sigefridus quoque vir illustris, Bardo etiam et Gozilo fratres clarissimi et nominatissimi, aliique princes nonnulli, latenter pertemptant Virdunum irrumpere, eamque a Gallis evacuare." Richer iii, 103, MGH SS 3: 629], and Godefroid was among those captured by Lothair, along with his son Frédéric and his uncle Sigefroid (of Luxemburg), among others. His captivity was the subject of several letters of Gerbert (later pope Sylvester II) [Gerbert, Letters, pp. 45-6 (letter #47, April 985, to Godefroid's sons bishop Adalbero and Hermann, mentioning his son Frédéric as one of the captives), p. 47 (letter #50, April 985, to his wife Mathilde, also naming Frédéric), p. 48 (letter #52, to empress Theophanu, mentioning Godefroid's patruus Sigefroid as one of the captives)]. Having spent two years as a prisoner, he was released in 987, shortly after the accession of Hugues Capet as king of France [Gerbert, Letters, p. 95 (Letter #103, 17 June 987)]. Godefroid was present at the Council of Mouzon in 995 with two of his sons ["Laici etiam Godefridus comes cum duobus filiis suis, ..." Richer iv, 99, MGH SS 3: 654], and he was still alive on 6 April 997, when emperor Otto III confirmed possessions of the abbey of Mouzon which had been donated by Godefroid [MGH DD O III, 656 (#238)]. [See also DBF 17 (1985): 433-4; Franz (1940); Evrard (1981); Parisse (1981)]

Date of Birth: Unknown.
Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: 3 September, in or after 997.
Godefroid was living on 6 April 997 (see above), and the necrology of Saint-Vanne shows his death date as 3 September ["III. non. [Sept.] Godefridus comes, pater ducis Gozelonis, qui nobis Borracum dedit. Nek. S. Vanne 145].
Place of Death: Unknown.

Father: Gozlin/Gozelo, d. 18 October 942 or 16 February 943, count.
In 943, the last will of Gozlinus nomine miles quidam, ex nobilissimis regni Chlotarii ducens prosapiam was executed by his widow Uda and his son Regingerus, with his brothers Fridericus, Gisilbertus, and Sigebertus among the witnesses [Wampach (1935), 193-7 (#156); For the date of death, see Parisse (1981), 21].

Mother: Uda, who was living 18 May 963, probably a relative of emperor Heinrich II.
A donation of Uda (Voda) on 18 May 963 names her husband Gozlin and her four sons Henricus, Regingerus, Godefridus, and Adalbero ["... ego Voda Dei gratia comitissa, ..., pro remedio et absolutione peccatorum meorum seniorisque mei Gozlini, necnon filiorum meorum Henrici videlicet et Reginheri, Godefridi quoque et Adalberonis, ...", Wampach (1935), 229 (#172)]. Uda's grandson Frédéric is twice called a relative of the emperor [Heinrich II] by Hugues de Flavigny (see below), and Hlawitschka argues convincingly that this relationship came through Uda [see Hlawitschka (1969), 58-61].

Spouse: Mathilde von Sachsen, d. 1009, daughter of Hermann "Billung", duke of Sachsen (Saxony), and widow of Baldwin III, d. 1 January 962, (joint) count of Flanders. [See the pages of Baldwin III and Mathilde for more details.]

Children:
The names of the five sons of Godefroid and Mathilde are proven by numerous sources. ["Hic [Baldwin III] duxerat filiam Herimanni ducis Saxonum Mathildem, ex qua genuit Arnulfem. Mathildis vidua relicta nupsit Godefrido duci de Enham, ex quo suscepit tres filios, Gozolonem ducem, Godefridum Hezelonem" Genealogia comitum Flandriae Bertiniana, MGH SS 9: 306; "Iste dux Godefridus dictus est Eihamensis. Erat autem Eiham oppidum et castrum munitissimum, et sedes principalis ducatus regni Lotharici. Qui dux Godefridus duxit Mathildem, filiam Herimanni ducis Saxonum, viduam relictam Baldewini comitis, qui erat filius Arnulfi magni marchionis. De qua idem Godefridus genuit tres filios, Godefridum, Gozcelonem, Hezcelonem. Hezcelo comes, post mortem ducis, ..." (see below under Hermann/Hezelo), Interpolation to chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux, s.a. 1005, Sigeb. auctarium Affligemense, MGH SS 6: 399; "Unde et Mathildis nobilissima Saxoniae comitissa, quae de viro suo comite Godefrido quinque filios genuerat, Alberonem scilicet huius ecclesiae urbis episcopum post Vifredum, et Fredericum et Hermannum industrios comites, Godefridum et Gozelonem praeclarissimos duces, ..." Vita Richardi Abb. S. Vitoni Virdunensis, MGH SS 11: 285; "Mathildis Saxoniae comitissa ... . Haec comitissa comiti Godefrido copulata, quinque filios ex ipso genuit, videlicet Adelberonem, nostrae civitatis post Wicfridum episcopum, et praedictos Fredericum et Herimannum comites, duos quoque ducatus prosapia pollentes Godefridum atque Gozelonem." Gesta episcoporum Virdunensium, Continuatio, c. 9, MGH SS 4: 48; "Fredericus nomen erat viro, generosa satis eius et alta propago. Comitatus honore vigebat, et quod maximum est, comitatum mentis indole perornabat. Pater eius Godefridus erat, vir probitate gratia et divitiis et honoribus inter magnates regni nominatissimus. Habebat et alios filios, Adalberonem Virdunensem quem diximus episcopum, Herimannum quoque comite nobilissimum, Godefridum quoque et Gozolonem duces. Herimannus, qui et Hezelo, ..." (see also below), Hugues de Flavigny, Chronicon, ii, 3, MGH SS 8: 370; "Huius Godefridi Ardenensis fuit uxor Mathildis comitissa Saxonie, que peperit ei episcopum Virdunensem Alberonem, de quo supra diximus, comitem Fredericum, Sancti Vitonii monachum, comitem de Daburc Hermannum, cuius fuit filius Gregorius Leodiensis archidyaconus, et duos duces prosapia inclitos, Godefridum istum et Gothelonem." Chronicle of Aubri de Troisfontaines, MGH SS 23: 778]

MALE Frédéric/Friedrich (Fridericus), d. 6 January 1022, count of Verdun, provost of Saint-Vaast.
Frédéric, evidently the eldest son, was among those captured along with his father in 985 [Gerbert, Letters 46 (letter #47, to Frédéric's brothers Adalbero and Hermann, April 985), 47 (letter #50, to Frédéric's mother Mathilde, April 985]. He appears as a witness with his brother Godefroid in an act of bishop Haimo of Verdun in 995 ["Signum domni Heimonis gloriosissimi pontificis. Signum Friderici comitis. Signum Gotdefridi comitis." (since Frédéric signs first, this must be the younger Godefroid), Bloch (1898-1902), 416 (#21)]. The date and year of his death are given by the necrologies of Saint-Vanne and Saint-Vaast, respectively ["VIII id. [Ianuarii] Venerande memorie domnus Fridericus monachus huius loci et ex comite conversus, frater Godefridi et Gozelonis ducum, qui nobis Borracum contulit." Nek. S. Vanne 135; "Fridericus, avunculus Balduini Barbati comitis Frandriae, ortus ex Godefrido Barbato comite Arduennae, Virduni, Bullonii, et Mathilde comitissa Saxoniae. Fit praepositus S[anc]ti Vedasti 1001 ac usque ad finem vitae perseveravit. Quo mortuo 1022 cadaver ejus relatum est ad monasterium S[anc]ti Witoni." Nec. Vedast., 10]. Hugues de Flavigny states that he was of imperial blood and a consanguineus of the king/emperor (i.e., Heinrich II) ["Huius ergo principis curiam pro quibusdam negociis domnus et pater Richardus adire compulsus, venerabilem Fredericum secum duxit, qui et de imperiali sanguine procreatus et principibus regni erat notissimus; ..."; "... regis et principium consanguineus ..." Hugues de Flavigny, Chronicon, ii, 6, MGH SS 8: 372; "... Fredericum comitis filium, fratrem duorum ducum, imperatoris consanguineum, ..." ibid., ii, 7, p. 373].

MALE Adalbero, d. 18 April 991, bishop of Verdun, 984-991.
Adalbero's cousin, another Adalbero (son of Frédéric, duke of Upper Lorraine), had been named as bishop of Verdun in September of 984, but soon exchanged that see in order to become bishop of Metz (16 October 984), and the present Adalbero then became bishop of Verdun ["Huic successit domnus Adalbero, filius comitis Godefridi, qui fuit avus ducis Godefridi, ..." Gesta episcoporum Virdunensium, Continuatio, c. 6, MGH SS 4: 47; Parisse (1981), 25-6, 30]. The necrologies of Saint-Vanne and Verdun give 18 April as the date of Adalbero's death ["XIIII. kal. [Maii.] Adelbero episcopus Virdunensis." Nek. S. Vanne, 139; "XIIII Kal. [Maii] Obiit Adelbero episcopus virdun. ecclesie." Nec. Verdun, 204]. Parisse places Adalbero's death on 18 April 988, evidently on the strength of the statement in the continuation of Gesta episcoporum Virdunensium that Adalbero was bishop for only three and a half years ["Vixit autem in episcopatu tribus semis annis." Gesta episcoporum Virdunensium, Continuatio, c. 6, MGH SS 4: 47; Parisse (1981), 30]. However, the Necrological Annals of Fulda give a death date of 991 ["Adelbero episcopus" Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, s.a. 991, MGH SS 13: 206], which is likely to be correct, since Gerbert wrote a letter to Adalbero in 990 [Gerbert, Letters, 153 (#173); Lattin (1961), 210, dates the letter to 1 June 990].

MALE Hermann (Hezelo), d. 28 May 1029 ["V. kal. [Iunii] Anno incarnationis dominice MXXIX obiit pie memorie domnus Herimannus ex comite conversus, ..." Nek. S. Vanne 140-1; "Et obiit comes Herimannus" Ann. Bland., s.a. 1029, Grierson (1937), 24 (similarly, Ann. Elmarenses, ibid., 89)], count of Eename; count of Brabant ["Herimannus quoque venerabilis comes in comitatu Bracbantinse ... frater eius dux Godefridus ..." Charter of emperor Heinrich II, 1015, Bloch (1898-1902), 423; "Hezcelo comes, post mortem ducis, castrum Eiham cum provincia Brabantensi suscepit et diu tenuit. Hic enim genuit filium nomine Herimannum, et filiam nomine Berthildem; qui dum adhuc iuvenes essent, defuncti sunt, et in ecclesia apud Felseka sepulti. Qui postea multis miraculorum signis claruerunt, sed a Verdunensibus monachis furtive ablati sunt. Alteram quoque filiam tradidit nuptui Reginero, Montensi comiti, simul cum tota provincia Brabantensi. Deinde cum omnia sua ad votum ordinasset, relicto in manus Regineri castro et comitatu, apud Verdunum effectus est monachus." Interpolation to chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux, s.a. 1005, Sigeb. auctarium Affligemense, MGH SS 6: 399], m. Mathilde ["Herimannus, qui et Hezelo, Mathildem duxit uxorem, ex qua genuit duos filios, bonae spei arbores, Gregorium et Godefridum, et filiam Odiliam, quae fuit abbatissa ancillarum Dei in monasterio sanctae Odiliae. Habuit et alium ex concubina filium nomine Godefridum." Hugues de Flavigny, Chronicon, ii, 3, MGH SS 8: 370]. Aubri de Troisfontaines calls Hermann count of Dagsburg [MGH SS 23: 778 (see above)]. Wampach would identify him with a count Hermann of Eifelgau appearing in 978 ["... in pago Eiflensi in comitatu Herimanni, ..." Wampach (1935): 258-260 (#186)], but Hermann's parents were certainly not married before 962, and he does not appear to have been the eldest son.

MALE Godefroid/Gottfried (Godefridus), d. 27 September 1023, duke of Lower Lorraine, 1005-1023.
Godefroid appears as a witness with his brother Frédéric in an act of bishop Haimo of Verdun in 995 [Bloch (1898-1902), 416 (#21)]. He became duke of Lower Lorraine on the death of the Carolingian duke Otto in 1005 ["Mortuo Ottone duce, ducatus Lotharingiae datur comiti Godefrido, filio Godefridi Ardennensis." Siegfried of Gembloux, s.a. 1005, MGH SS 6: 354], and was succeeded by his brother Gozelo in 1023 ["Obiit Godefridus dux." Ann. Bland. & Ann. Elmarenses, s.a. 1023, Grierson (1937), 24, 89; Annales Mosomagenses, s.a. 1023, MGH SS 3: 161]. The date of 27 September is given by the necrology of Saint-Vanne ["V. kal. [Oct.] Godefridus dux, frater Gocelonis ducis, qui nobis in Beurnes XX mansos dedit suaque supellectile monasterium hoc admodum locupletavit." Nek. S. Vanne 146]. [See also DBF 17 (1985): 431; Franz (1940); Evrard (1981); Parisse (1981)]

MALE Gozelo/Gozlin I, d. 19 April 1044, duke of Lower Lorraine, 1023-1044; and of Upper Lorraine, 1033-1044; marquis of Antwerp, 1008-1044; m. NN.
[19 April: "Gazlinus dux", Merseburg Necrology, Althoff (1984), 377 (H 10); "Gotzelo dux obiit." Annales Laubienses & Annales Leodienses, s.a. 1044, MGH SS 4: 19] He succeeded his brother Godefroid as duke of Lower Lorraine in 1023, and he also became duke of Upper Lorraine on the death of his kinsman Frédéric II in 1033. [See also DBF 17 (1985): 881-2; Franz (1940); Evrard (1981); Parisse (1981)]

FEMALE Ermengarde, d. before 5 January 1043 (10 March 1042?), m. Otto von Hammerstein, d. 1036, count in Wetterau.
Ermengarde and her husband Otto were second cousins, once removed (i.e., degree of consanguinity 2:3 in the terminology of the time), and were involved in a long dispute involving their non-canonical marriage. The well-known document which specifies their degree of relationship, after giving evidence relevant to the ancestry of Otto (evidence which is the subject of many disputes, but not immediately relevant here), continues: "Item ex alia parte: Godefridus et Gerbirhc nepos et neptis. Godefridus genuit Irmingardam. Gerbirhc genuit Imizam. Imiza genuit Ottonem." [MGH Const. 1: 639); here, in the first sentence, "nepos et neptis" is to be interpreted that Godefroid and Gerberge had a common grandparent, i.e., that they were first cousins]. The life of Poppo, abbot of Stavelot-Malmédy, also gives Godefroid as the name of Ermengarde's father ["Sed non multo post ab Ermengarde, nobilissimi principis Godefridi filia, didicit quoniam beatus Poppo non clerici, ut ipse regiae maiestati finxit, sed laici ingenuitate et militia egregii filius fuerit." Vita Popponis abb. Stabulensis, c. 19, MGH SS 11: 305]. The identity of Ermengarde's father Godefroid with Godefroid of Verdun has been widely accepted [see, e.g., the detailed discussion in Hlawitschka (1969), 49-53]. Ermengarde was deceased on 5 January 1043 when, according to a diploma of emperor Heinrich III of that date at Goslar, he restored a fief to the monastery of Hersfeld which had been given by his father to count Otto, after the death of countess Hirmingard ["... beneficium, quod felicis memoriae pater noster inde ablatum comiti Ottoni tradidit, post obitum Hirmingardæ comitissae praedicto abbati et fratribus regali nostra munificencia remisimus atque tradidimus, ..." MGH DD H III, 127 (#100); see also ibid., 128 (#101), at Goslar 2 days later, in which Heinrich III donated the comitatus of Maelstat in Wetterau to the monastery at Fulda, further confirming the identity of Otto and Ermengarde]. The necrology of Saint-Vanne shows an "Ermengardis comitissa" under VI id. March (10 March), who is probably her, since most of her siblings appear in the same necrology [Nek. S. Vanne 137].



Commentary

Conjectured daughter: Gerberge, m. Folmar, count of Metz, 1012-1026.
Chatelain states that Gerberge's name is known from a charter of Pierre de Brixey, and that she was of the house of Ardennes [Chatelain (1898-1901), 13: 299]. Parisse gives the relationship with a question mark [Parisse (1981), 31, 41; Parisse (1982), 104, 112]. The evidence appears to be onomastic, based on the fact that the sons of Folmar and Gerberge were named Godefroid and Hermann.

Falsely attributed daughter or sister (in fact first cousin): Gerberge, m. Megingoz, count.
Gerberge is stated to be daughter of a dux Godefroid and sister of another dux Godefroid who died without issue [Vita Adelheidis Abbatissae Vilicensis, MGH SS 15, 757], which has misled some to make her a daughter of Godefroid of Verdun and a sister of duke Godefroid of Lorraine (d. 1023) [Witte (1893-5), 5: 70] or a sister of Godefroid of Verdun [e.g., Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 170-1, 179]. However, this identification cannot be correct, for Gerberge's grandson Otto of Hammerstein was married to Godefroid of Verdun's daughter Ermengarde (see above). Gerberge was a sister of the duke Godefroid of Lorraine who died in 964 ["... Ex qua pestilentia obierunt ... et Godefridus, dux Lothariensis, ..." Continuator Reginonis, MGH SS 1: 627], and a first cousin of Godefroid of Verdun [see above under Ermengarde].


Bibliography

Althoff (1984) = Gerd Althoff, Adels- und Königsfamilien im Spiegel ihrer Memorialüberlieferung (Munich, 1984).

Annales Blandinenses = Grierson (1937), 1-73.

Annales Elmarenses = Grierson (1937), 74-115.

Bloch (1898-1902) = Hermann Bloch, "Die älteren Urkunden des Klosters S. Vanne zu Verdun", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 10 (1898): 338-449; 14 (1902): 48-150.

Brandenburg (1964) = Erich Brandenburg, Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen (Frankfurt, 1964).

Chatelain (1898-1901) = V. Chatelain, "Le Comté de Metz et la vouerie épiscopale du VIIIe au XIIIe siècle", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 10 (1898): 71-119; 13 (1901): 245-311.

Corpus Chron. Fland. = Joseph-Jean de Smet, Corpus Chronicorum Flandriae, 4 vols. (Brussels, 1837-1865).

DBF = Dictionnaire de Biographie Française.

Evrard (1981) = Jean-Pol Evrard, "Les comtes de Verdun aux Xe et XIe siècles", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 95 (1981): 153-182.

Franz (1940) = Hildegard Franz geb. Reinhold, "Die Marken Valenciennes, Eename und Antwerpen im Rahmen der kaiserlichen Grenzsicherungspolitik an der Schelde im 10.-11. Jahrhundert." Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 10 (1940), 229-276.

Gerbert, Letters = Julien Havet, ed., Lettres de Gerbert (983-997) (Paris, 1889). [In Latin. For English translation, see Lattin (1961).]

Grierson (1937) = Philip Grierson, ed., Les Annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand (Brussels, 1937). [Annales Blandinenses, Annales Elmarenses, Annales Formoselenses, Annales Elnonenses]

Havet (1889) = See Gerbert, Letters.

Hlawitschka (1969) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen (Saarbrücken, 1969).

Latrie (1889) = L. de Mas Latrie, Trésor de Chronologie d'Histoire et de Geographie (Paris, 1889).

Lattin (1961) = Harriet Pratt Lattin, trans., The Letters of Gerbert (Records of Civilization - Sources and Studies, 60, New York, 1961). [English translation. For Latin edition, see Gerbert, Letters.]

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series.

MGH Const. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Constitutiones series.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Nec. S.-Vedast. = M. le Chanoine Van Drival, Nécrologe de l'abbaye de St.-Vaast d'Arras (Arras, 1878).

Nec. Verdun = Ch. Aimond, "Le Nécrologe de la Cathédrale de Verdun", Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringisches Geschichte und Altertumskunde/Annuaire de la Société d'Histoire et Archéologie Lorraine 21.2 (1909), 132-314.

Nek. S. Vanne = "Das Nekrolog des Klosters S. Vanne", in Bloch (1898-1902), 14: 131-150.

Parisse (1981) = Michel Parisse, "Généalogie de la Maison d'Ardenne", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 95 (1981): 9-41.

Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).

Wampach (1935) = Camillus Wampach, Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit, I (Luxemburg, 1935).

Werner (1967) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)", Karl der Große 4 (1967): 403-483.

Witte (1893-5) = Heinrich Witte, "Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und das Westreich", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 5 (1893): 26-107; 7 (1895): 79-124.


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
Originally uploaded 12 October 2006.

Minor revision uploaded 5 April 2007 (with thanks to James Hansen for offering corrections)

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