MALE Gerold (I)

Count in Alemannia, fl. 777-784.

On 27 May 777, Gerold donated land to Lorsch in pago Alemannorum ["sub die VI kalendas Junii, anno IX Karoli regis, ego Geroldus ..." Codex Lauresh., 3: 76 (#3289)]. On 30 June 779, count Gerold and his wife Imma donated land in the pagus of Kraichgau to the monastery of Lorsch ["... sub die II kalendas Julii, anno XI Karoli regis, ego Geroldus comes & conjux mea Imma donamus ad sanctum Nazarium &c. in pago Creichgowe ..." ibid., 2: 439 (#2310)]. On the next day count Gerold appears as a donator to Lorsch of land in Anglachgau [ "... sub die kalendas Julii, anno XI Karoli regis, ego Geroldus comes ... in supradicta marca ..." ibid., 2: 492 (#2503)]. On a 22 August between 779 and 783, an Isenhart donated land to Lorsch "in ducatu Alemannorum in villa Giselsteden, quidquid Geroldus comes ibidem hebere visus est" [ibid., 3: 165 (#3617); for date: Borgolte (1986), 119]. On 1 July 784, Gerold and his wife Imma donated property in Wormsgau, Lobdengau, Anglachgau, Kraichgau, and Uffgau ["sub die kalendas Julii, anno XVI Karoli regis, ego Geroldus & conjux mea Imma donamus ..." Codex Lauresh., 2: 320 (#1880)].

The Roman numerals given here to Gerold (I) and his son Gerold (II) are not standard, and are used here only for purposes of convenient identification. [For further discussion of Gerold and his family, see Chaume (1925), x-x, 550-1; Levillain (1937-8), 37-44 & table between 46 & 47; Schmid (1957), 9-13; Mitterauer (1963), 8ff.; Gockel (1970), 244-6, 275ff.; Borgolte (1986), 119-126; Alter (1996); Alter (2000) (the last two not seen by me).]

Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth:

Date of death: after 1 July 784, probably before 3 May 786.
Place of death: Unknown.
As noted aboved, Gerold (I) was still alive on 1 July 784. On 3 May 786, a charter of count Gerold (II) was witnessed by his mother (genetrix) Imma but not by his father Gerold (I), so the latter was probably deceased at that time.

Father: Unknown.
See the Commentary section.

Mother: Unknown.

Spouse: Imma, d. 798, daughter of Nebi, count in Alemannia.
[Codex Lauresh., 2: 320 (#1880); 439 (#2310); see above]


FEMALE Hildegard, b. 757×761, d. Saxony, 30 April 783;
Charlemagne, b. prob. 2 April 748, d. 28 January 814, king of the Franks, emperor.

MALE Gerold (II), d. 1 September 799, count in Bertholdsbaar, marquis in Bavaria.
Queen Hildegard is called a sister of Gerold in a poem by Walahfrid Strabo, abbot of Reichenau (d. 849), which states that Gerold had no children or heirs ["Cui Regina soror Hludovici cara genetrix / Hildegardis erat, parili bonitate venusta, / Viribus ille potens sanctoque potentior actu. / Defuerat soboles, pariterque et defuit heres." Walahfrid Strabo, Visio Wettini, lines 813-6, MGH Poet. Lat. 2: 329], and he is also called Hildegard's brother in the Casus S. Galli of the monk Ratpert (2nd half of the ninth century) ["... Hildigardae reginae, ..., quia a Geroldo comite, germano praedictae reginae ..." Ratpert, Casus S. Galli, c. 3, MGH SS 2: 64]. On 3 May 786, Gerold appears as count of the pagus of Bertholdsbaar, in a charter witnessed by his mother Imma ["Igitur ego in Dei nomine Ceroldus comes ... in pago, qui vocatur Perihtilinpara, ... Signum + Gerolto comite auctore, qui hanc traditionem fieri rogavit. sig. Aginon(e) episcopo teste. sig. Imma genetrix test. ... anno XVI regnante Carlo gloriosissimo rege Francorum ... Notavi diem mercoris, V non. mad., sub ipso Gerolto comite." UB Sanct Gallen, 1: 101-2 (#108)]. He also appears as count in Bertholdsbaar on 24 January 790 ["... quod dono in Perathtoltipara ... anno XVIII regnante Carolo rege Franghorum ... Notavi die dominico, VIII kal. feb., sub Geraldo comite." UB Sanct Gallen, 1: 116 (#124)]. He was killed fighting against the Avars in 799 ["... et Geroldus comes, Baioariae praefectus, commisso contra Avares proelio cecidit." ARF 108-9, s.a. 799]. Count Gerold's death is given as 1 September in the necrology of Reichenau ["1. kal. Keroldus com." Necrologium Augiae divitis, MGH Nec. 1: 279].

MALE Udalrich/Ulrich (I) (Vodalrichus), fl. 778-803 (817?), count in Alpgau, Breisgau, Hegau, Thurgau, Argengau, Linzgau, etc.;
m. NN.
Udalrich is called a brother of queen Hildegarde by the "monk of St. Gall" (commonly believed to be Notker) in his Gesta Karoli ["Ex certis autem causis quibusdam plurima tribuit, ut puta Oudalrico, fratri magnae Hildigardae, genitricis regum et imperatorum. De quo, cum post obitum ipsius Hildigardiae pro quodam commisso a Karolo viduaretur honoribus, quidam scurra in auribus misericordissimi Karoli proclamavit: 'Nunc habet Oudalricus honores perditos in oriente et occidente, defuncta sua sorore!' " Gesta Karoli, i, 13, MGH SS 2: 736]. He appears for the first time as count on 31 March 778 in a charter of Imma ["Domino filio Imma genetrix tua uenditur uendidisse me tibi constat ita et uendidi .i. in pago Alsacinse in locis nominatis in Ehinhaim in Uualabu in Eringinsashaim in Bodashaim et in Strazburga ciuitate quicquid de terra Uualtharii conquesiui ... . Actum pridie kalendas apriles. anno X. regni domni Karoli regis. + Imminum quae hanc uenditionem fieri rogauit + Vodalrichi comitis. ..." Codex Fuld., 38-9 (#61)]. On 12 February 798 he gave a donation for the soul of Oto/Voto ["... ego Adalrichus dono pro remedium Otoni ... in pago Alsacinse ... supra dictus Voto in ipsa marca conquesiui et quod Vodalrichus comis mihi pro anime sue tradidit ... sub die XV kalendas ianuarias. anno XXX regnante domno nostro Karolo ..." Codex Fuld. 83 (#148)], identified as his germanus in a later charter of 1 May 803 ["... ergo in dei nomine Vodalrichus comi[.] dono pro remedium animae meae seu pro remedium germani mei Votoni ... . ... data kalendis maiis anno XXXV. regni domni [Ka]roli regis + Vodalrichi qui hanc donationem fieri rogauit + Beboni + Geroldi [+] Vdilrichi + Ratberti + cum filiis suis qui consenserunt" Codex Fuld., 100-1 (#178)]. On 6 January 800 he appears as a witness with his sons Udalrich (II) and Robert "+ Odalrici comitis. + filiorum ejus Odalrici et Rodperti" UB Sanct Gallen, 1: 151 (#160). After 803 it becomes difficult to distinguish between him and his same-named son. A count Udalrich appears on 13 May 781 as count in Alpgau ["... in Alpegauia ... Notavi die domenicum, III id. mad., anno decimo ragnante domno nostro Charlo rege Franchorum, sub Uodolrico comite." UB Sankt Gallen 1: 89-90 (#94)], and on numerous other occasions as count in Alpgau, Breisgau, Hegau, Thurgau, Linzgau, Argengau, and on the north bank of the Bodensee as late as 4 June 817 [see Borgolte (1986), 248 for references]. For the later appearances, it is unclear whether the records refer to Udalrich (I) or Udalrich (II). A family descended from Udalrich, the genealogy of which is to some extent conjectural, has been called the "Udalrichinger" by some scholars.

MALE Oto/Eudes (Voto), fl. 19 April 788, d. bef. 12 February 798.
Mentioned by Udalrich in documents of 12 February 798 and 1 May 803 [see above], the latter of which explicitly calles him a germanus of Udalrich, he was probably the Voto who donated lands in Alsace to Fulda on 19 April 788 [Codex. Fuld., 54-5 (#89)].

Probable additional sons:
Each of the following individuals is documented as the son of a Gerold, but in each case it is not entirely clear that it was Gerold (I) who was their father. However, Megingoz is documented as both the son of a Gerold and the brother of a Gerold, so his presence in the family is very probable. The siblings Hadrien and Erbio were sons of a Gerold, who has sometimes been identified as Gerold (II) [e.g., Chaume (1925), 1: 551 (table #12); Mitterauer (1963), 13], but Walahfrid Strabo indicated that Gerold (II) had no children [see above]. On the other hand, Mitterauer considers the record mentioning Hadrien and Erbio as sons of a Gerold as proof that Wahlafrid Strabo is wrong on this point [Mitterauer (1963), 13], even though the Gerold in question is not explicitly identified [see below under Hadrien]. Lemmel would make Hadrien and Erbio the sons of another Gerold, supposed grandson of the present Gerold through his alleged daughter Willigarde [Lemmel (1972), 32; see below].

MALE Megingoz/Meingaud, fl. 780-806.
Megingoz appears in a Lorsch donation of 25 October 780, in which he calls a Gerold genitor meus ["Ego Megingoz dono ad sanctum Christi martyrem Nazarium &c. in Malscure marca quidquid ibidem habere videor, & quod genitor meus Geroldus moriens dereliquit mihi, ... Actum in monasterio Laurisham, VIII kalendas Novemb. anno XIII regni domini nostri Karoli gloriosi imperatoris. Signum Megingozi, qui hanc donationem fecit, ..." Codex Lauresh., 1: 609 (#791); Chaume (1925), 1: 525 n. 2 gives date as 785]. He appears in another Lorsch donation of 20 April 795 ["... sub die XII kalendas Maji, anno XXVII Karoli regis, ego Mengoz dono ad sanctum Nazarium &c. quatuor jurnales de terra arabili in Batenheim marca, in pago Wormat. ..." Codex Lauresh., 2: 120 (#1327)]. On another Lorsch record of 9 September 801 he refers to a Gerold as his brother ["Ego in Dei nomine Mengoz dono ad sanctum Nazarium &c. quidquid in basilica sancti Lantberti germanus meus Gerholt mihi dereliquit, ... Actum in monasterio Laurisham, sub die V idus Septembris, anno XXXIII Karoli regis." ibid., 2: 345 (#1974)]. Assuming that the 780 and 801 records refer to the same Megingoz, he would have had a father and brother both named Gerold, making his identification as a son of Gerold (I) very likely. He appears in another Lorsch donation of 1 November 805 ["Nos in Dei nomine Megingoz & Ortburc donamus ad sanctum Nazarium &c. in pago Logenahe in Cleheimer marca ... Actum in monasterio Laurisham, die kalendas Novembris, anno XXXVIII Karoli regis." Codex Lauresh., 3: 24 (#3100); "Circa eadem tempora dederunt pariter Megingoz & Ortburc in eodem pago in villa Deheim ..." ibid., 3: 250 (#3725)] and in a Fulda donation of 24 April 806 ["Ego ind dei nomine Megingoz dono atque trado in elimosinam Hertingen ... in monasterio Fuldae mense aprili die uero VIII. kalendas maias. anno XXXVIII regni domni Karoli ..." Codex Fuld., 120 (#229)].

MALE Hadrien, fl. 793, d. before 821;
m. Waldrade (Vualtrat), fl. 821-4.
At Lorsch on 11 July 793, Hadrien, son of Gerold, made a donation for the soul of his brother Erbio ["In Christi nomine sub die V idus Julii anno XXV regni Karoli regis, ego Adrianus filius Geroldi dono pro anima Erbionis germani mei ... Signum Adriani, qui hanc donationem fieri rogavit, ..." Codex Lauresh. 2: 46 (#936)]. On 10 November 821, Waldrade, widow of Hadrien, made a donation to St. Boniface with the consent of count Eudes ["ego Uualtrat relicta Adriani sana mente sanoque corpore trado ad sanctum Bonifatium ... cum consensu et licentia Votoni comitis ..." Codex Fuld., 178 (#395)]. On 15 February 824, Waldrade and Eudes appear again with regard to the same donation ["... nos itaque in dei nomine Uualtrat et Voto tradidissemus res nostras ad ecclesiam sancti Bonifatii ..." Codex Fuld., 192 (#429)]. The name Hadrian was quite uncommon. If he was named after pope Hadrian I, which is a reasonable possibility, then he was probably born soon after Hadrian became pope in 772. Hadrian has been conjectured by some to be the father of Eudes, count of Orléans.

MALE Erbio, d. bef. 793.
Mentioned in the donation of his brother Hadrien in 793 (above).


Conjectured father (doubtful): Agilolf.
This conjecture is based on the identification of Gerold with the Geroldus filius Egilolfi who sold land in the pagus of Rheingau to abbot Helmeric of Lorsch on 30 July 780 ["Ego Geroldus filius Egilolfi vendidi Helmerico venerabili abbati rem meam in pago Rinensi, in illa marcha, quæ dicitur Husun, vj jurnal. de terra arabili quæ accingitur ex utraque parte rebus sancti Nazarii. ... Actum in monasterio Lauresham sub die III kalendas Augusti." Codex Lauresh. 1: 323 (#229)]. On 12 June 766, Agilolf and a Gerold (presumably his son from the later 780 record) had donated donated land in Wormsgau to Lorsch ["In Christi nomine die II idus Junii, anno XV Pippini regis, ego Egilolfus & Geroldus donamus ad sanctum Nazarium &c. jurnal. vjj de terra in pago Worm. in Ibersheim &c." ibid., 2: 224 (#1493)]. The conjecture has been supported by Wenskus, Alter, and Jackman [Wenskus (1976), 426; Alter (2003), 19, citing Alter (1996) & Alter (2000), neither seen by me; Jackman (2007), 41]. According to Gockel, the identification of Gerold (I) with Gerold son of Agilolf is chronologically possible, but should be ruled out [Gockel (1970), 276, 288].

Conjectured mother (basis unknown): Herswinda.
[Alter (2003), 19]

Supposed father (doubtful): Gerold, bishop of Mainz.
[Levillain (1937-8), gen. table betw. 46-7] This is presumably an onomastic conjecture, but I see no reason to accept it in the absence of more suitable evidence.

Falsely conjectured children:
These conjectured relationships, which are almost certainly false, are based on dubious family reconstructions by Lemmel [Lemmel (1972), 28ff., 57-9; Lemmel (1980), 143]. The following outlines part of his arguments. According to the Necrological Annals of Fulda, an Eggold died on 4 April 783 ["2. No. Apr. ob. Eggolt" MGH SS 13: 167]. Lemmel identidies him with the Egilolf who appears as the father of a Gerold in a Lorsch record of 30 July 780 [the same Egilolf sometimes conjectured as the father of the present Gerold; see above; Lemmel (1972), 28]. Lemmel identifies this Gerold with the Gerold who along with his brothers Regilo and Hartger, gave a donation in 781×2 for the soul of Liuthard and his wife Ruotgarde ["Nos in Dei nomine Gerold, Regilo & Hartger, pro remedio animarum Luithardi & conjugis ejus Ruotgardæ ... Acyum in monasterio Lauresham anno XIIII regni domini nostri Karoli regis. Signum Geroldi & fratrum suorum, qui hanc donationem fecit." Codex Lauresh. 1: 532 (#603)]. In a Fulda charter of 20 November in an uncertain year, a certain Biligart mentions her sons Hartger and Uuigger ["Ego itaque Biligart ... duo filii mei Hartger et Uuigger ... Actum ad monasterio Fulta die XX. mensis nouembri." Codex Fuld. 79 (#138), and Lemmel would identify this Hartger with the brother of Gerold and Regilo, obtaining by this chain of conjectured identifications the conclusion that Eggiold's wife was named Willigarde [Lemmel (1972), 29]. Arguing on the basis of corresponding possessions, the use of the endings -fried and -gard in names in the two gorups, and the common names Gerold, Lantfrid (Landfried), and Willigard(e) among the group (allegedly) descending from Eggiold and Willigarde and the group containing Gerold and Imma, Lemmel argues that Willigarde must have been a sister of Hildegarde [Lemmel (1972), 28, 58-9; Lemmel (1980), 143; I do not know how Lemmel places the name Willigarde as occurring in the family of Gerold or Imma]. However, the chain of identifications given by Lemmel does not inspire confidence, and his scenario in which Willigarde's alleged son Gerold was active as early as 780 would require this Gerold to be about the same age as his supposed aunt Hildegarde. His placement of Wieland, Baugulf, and Erkanbert as further siblings is based on similar possessions plus the prefix Wil- in the names of Willigarde and Wieland [Lemmel (1972), 59]. Having already rejected Willigarde's placement in the family of Gerold, there is no reason to accept this evidence of further siblings.

FEMALE Willigarde;
supposedly m. Eggiold (Eggolt, Egilolf), d. 4 April 783.
["2. No. Apr. ob. Eggolt" Ann. Nec. Fulda, s.a. 783, MGH SS 13: 167]

MALE Wieland, count.
Count Wieland appears as a brother of a Baugulf in a Fulda document ["Wilant comes et frater eius Bagolf tradit. sco. Bon. proprietates suas in uillis istis." Trad. Fuld., 111 (c. 42, #236)].

MALE Baugulf, d. 8 July 815, 2nd abbot of Fulda, 779-803.
Baugulf appears as abbot of Fulda on 30 November 780 ["... ad monasterium sancti Bonifacii quod dicitur Fulda ubi Paugolf abbas praeesse uidetur ... anno XIII. regnante Carlo rege Francorum die XXX. mensis nouembri" Codex Fuld. 44 (#70)], while the previous abbot Sturmi was still in office on 1 December 779 [ibid., 42 (#66)], and died 17 December 779 [Ann. Nec. Fuld., s.a. 779, MGH SS 13: 166; Cat. ab. Fuld., MGH SS 13: 272]. Baugulf abdicated between 5 May 803, when he was still abbot [Codex Fuld., 101 (#179)], and 1 July 803, when his successor Ratgar appears as abbot [ibid., 110 (#208)]. Baugulf lived until 8 July 815 ["815. 8 Idus Iul. Baugolfus Fuldensis obiit." Marianus Scottus, Epitome, MGH SS 13: 77; similarly, Ann. S. Bonifatii, Dümmler (1876), 169; "Baugolfus, abbas Fuldensis obiit." Lamberti Annales, MGH SS 3: 43; "8. Id. Iul. obiit Baugolf abbas 2." Ann. Nec. Fuld., s.a. 779, following the death notice of Sturmi, MGH SS 13: 166; "816 Baugolfus abbas obiit" Ann. Fuld. antiq., MGH SS 3: 117; "Per annos igitur 25 idem coenobium ... perrexit. 8. Id. Iun. obiit." Cat. ab. Fuld., MGH SS 13: 272]. Baugulf was said by Candidus to be of distinguished German descent ["Baugolf eligitur, larga Germanica proles" Candidus, De vita Aeigili, II, iv, line 6, MGH Poet. Lat., 2: 99].

MALE Erkanbert, first bishop of Minden.
The metrical life of Eigil by Candidus states that Baugulf had a brother abbot Erkanbert ["Ercanberctus, Baugolfi germanus, et abbas" Candidus, De vita Aeigili, II, xvii, line 98, MGH Poet. Lat., 2: 111]. He was the first bishop of Minden ["Ercambertus episcopus 1." Series episcoporum Mindensium, MGH SS 13: 289]. Abbot Baugulf and bishop Erkanbert are adjacent witnesses in a Fulda document dated 7 June of an uncertain year ["+ sign. Baugolfes abbatis + Ercanperahtes episcopi" Codex Fuld. 76 (#132)].


Alter (1996) = Willi Alter, "Graf Gerold und Frau Imma. Besitz, Familie und personelles Umfeld", Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins der Pfalz 94 (1996): 7-80. [Cited by Alter (2003) and Jackman (2007), but not seen by me]

Alter (2000) = Willi Alter, "Gerold und seine Söhne Adrian und Erbio von 793. Eine Ergänzung zur Familie des Grafen Gerold", Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins der Pfalz 98 (2000): 83-96. [Cited by Alter (2003) and Jackman (2007), but not seen by me]

Alter (2003) = Willi Alter, "Die Grundbesitzer in Siedlungskomplex Alsheim, Assenheim, Dannstadt, Hochdorf und Schauernheim in karolingischer Zeit", Mitteilungen des Historischen Vereins der Pfalz 101 (2003): 7-59.

Borgolte (1986) = Michael Borgolte, Die Grafen Alemanniens in merowingischer und karolingischer Zeit: eine Prosopographie (Sigmaringen, 1986).

Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).

Codex Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Codex diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, 1850).

Codex Lauresh. = Codex principis olim Laureshamensis abbatiae diplomaticus, 3 vols., (Mannheim, 1768-70). I have not seen Glöckner's modern edition [K. Glöckner, ed., Codex Laureshamensis, 3 vols., (Darmstadt, 1929-36)].

Dümmler (1876) = E. Dümmler, "Aus einer Fuldischen Handschrift", Forschungen für deutsche Geschichte 16 (1876): 168-177.

Gockel (1970) = Michael Gockel, Karolingische Königshöfe am Mittelrhein (Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte, 31, Göttingen, 1970).

Jackman (2007) = Donald C. Jackman, Ius hereditarium Encountered I: The Meingaud-Walaho Inheritance (Archive for Medieval Prosopography 2, State College, PA, 2007)

Lemmel (1972) = Herbert E. Lemmel, Lampertiner in Ostfranken (Quellen und Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Abtei und der Diözese Fulda, 21, Fulda, 1972).

Lemmel (1980) = Herbert E. Lemmel, "Zur Struktur des karolingischen Adels am Mittelrhein", Genealogisches Jahrbuch 20 (1980): 141-9, also printed in Gerhard Gessner, ed., Festschrift für Heinz F. Friederichs (Neustadt a. d. Aish, Degener, 1980), 141-9.

Levillain (1937-8) = Léon Levillain, " Les Nibelungen Historiques et leur alliances de famille", Annales du Midi 49 (1937): 337-408; 50 (1938): 5-66.

MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Mitterauer (1963) = Michael Mitterauer, Karolingische Markgrafen im Südosten (Archiv für österreichische Geschichte 123, 1963).

Schmid (1957) = Karl Schmid, "Zur Problematik von Familie, Sippe und Geschlecht, Haus und Dynastie beim mittelalterlichen Adel", Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 105 (NF 66) (1957): 1-62.

Trad. Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Traditiones et antiquitates Fuldenses (Fulda, 1844).

Wenskus (1976) = Reinhard Wenskus, Sächsischer Stammesadel und fränkischer Reichsadel (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 1976).

Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 16 August 2012.

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