Count Geoffroy of Gâtinais was a witness to a donation to Saint-Père de Chartres in 984 ["S. Gausfridi, comitis Wastiniensis." Cart. S.-Père de Chartres, 1: 90 (#6)]. In an act of 990 of king Hugues Capet for the church of Sainte-Croix d'Orléans, count Geoffroy gave his consent ["... beneficium etiam quoddam Gaufredi comitis, quod jam dudum ecclesiae S. Crucis et Arnulfo praesuli, eodem Gaufredo consentiente, ..." RHF 10: 558]. He also appears in November 991 in an act of king Robert ["Beneficium etiam quoddam Gaufridi comitis ..." RHF 10: 573]. He was evidently deceased in 997, when a certain Gau[tier] appears as count [see below].
This count has not always been adequately distinguished from his namesake Geoffroy I "Grisegonelle" (d. 987), count of Anjou. However, the 990 and 991 acts above obviously did not concern Geoffroy Grisegonelle, who was then deceased, and the count of the 985×7 act is explicitly called count of Gâtinais. A count Geoffroy appears on 9 June 979, in an act of king Louis V for the church of Sainte-Croix d'Orléans ["in pago etiam Blesiaco villam quae vocatur Curtis, quam nuper sepe dictae aecclesiae Odo comes reddidit cum omnibus ad eam pertinentibus, consentiente Hugone Franchorum duce, beneficium etiam quoddam Gauzfredi comitis, quod idem Hugo, Arnulfo ejusdem aecclesiae praesuli, consentiente eodem Gauzfredo, reddidit." Rec. Actes Lothair & Louis V, 171 (#69)]. This count has sometimes been identified as Geoffroy Grisegonelle [e.g., Halphen & Lot in the index to the same act, ibid., 199]. However, since the act was for the church of Sainte-Croix d'Orléans, and Orléans is near Gâtinais, comparison with the 990 act indicates that the 979 act evidently also concerns Geoffroy of Gâtinais [Devaux (1885), 74; Saint-Phalle (2000), 231 n. 9].
Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Date of death: Probably 991×7.
Place of death: Unknown.
As noted above, Geoffroy was still alive in November 991. A letter of Abbo of Fleury written in 997 indicates that the count of Gâtinais at that time was a certain Wal- (Gautier?). From this, it has generally been presumed that Geoffroy was deceased at that time.
For conjectured origins, see the Commentary section.
Spouse: Béatrix, daughter of Aubry
II, count of Mâcon. She m.
Béatrix appears in the Life of Gauzlin, abbot of Fleury, as countess of Château-Landon (Gâtinais) [Vita Gauzlini, c. 35 (pp. 72-3)], and in the Saint-Aubin genealogies as the daughter of Aubry [II of Mâcon] and mother of count Geoffroy of Château-Landon [Poupardin (1900), 208 (#6)]. Proof that she was the same person as the unnamed woman who was married successively to Geoffroy (II) of Gâtinais and Hugues du Perche is given on the page of count Geoffroy (III) of Gâtinais.
d. probably 1028×1030, count of Gâtinais, 1028.
Aubry was count of Château-Landon (Gâtinais) on 26 May 1028, when a charter of Franco, bishop of Paris, mentions him, his father Geoffroy, and his two maternal half-brothers and heirs Geoffroy and Liétaud, sons of Hugues du Perche ["... Albericum, illius supradicti Gosfredi filium et heredem, et insuper, faventibus fratribus ipsius Alberici, filiis Hugonis Pertice, scilicet Gosfredo et Letoldo, ..." Cart. Notre-Dame de Paris, 1: 326-7 (#19); see the page of Geoffroy (III) for a full quote; see also the Commentary section below]. Probably about the same time, he donated lands situated in the region of Auxerre to the abbey of Fleury ["Albericus, comes Nandonensium, sui juris alodum, in Altissioderensi territorio situm, Dei genitricis Mariæ plene devotionis largitus est munere." Vita Gauzlini, c. 29 (pp. 72-3)]. Not long afterward, Beatrix donated to the abbey of Fleury as "countess", suggesting that Aubry was deceased by that time [ibid.; see also Devaux (1892), 257; Estournet (1928), 121; Settipani (1997), 255]. He is sometimes incorrectly identified as the full brother of count Geoffroy (III), and sometimes incorrectly combined with Geoffroy (III) into a supposed count Aubri/Geoffroy of Gâtinais. See the detailed discussion on the page of Geoffroy (III).
The identification of count Geoffroy (II) of Gâtinais
One difficulty in comparing different accounts of the genealogical relations of Geoffroy is that many early scholars have inadvertenly divided him into two individuals. If the same personal name with the same title appears in two different records separated by a number of years, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether or not the two references involve the same individual. If, for example, the two records are separated by only a decade or so, it will often be concluded, in the absence of contrary information, that they involve the same person. On the other hand, if in addition there is a third record dated in between the other two records which show a man having a different name in possession of the same title, then the two records involving the same name will often be attributed to two different individuals rather than assuming that one individual lost the title and then regained it. Add to this the possibility that the events were placed in the wrong chronological order, and you get the problem as we have it in this case.
A count Geoffroy of Gâtinais was a witness to a donation to Saint-Père de Chartres in 984 ["S. Gausfridi, comitis Wastiniensis." Cart. S.-Père de Chartres, 1: 90 (#6)]. A 1028 charter of Franco bishop of Paris mentioned a previous donation by Franco's predecessor biship Renaud (Rainaldus) of villas situated "in comitatu Vuastinensi, Gosfredo, comiti Landonensis castri", during the time of a war between Renaud's father count Bouchard of Vendôme and count Eudes of Blois ("... propter vuerram et discordiam que tunc temporis erat inter patrem suum nomine Burchardum, et comitem Odonem ..."), the principle event of which was the siege of Melun [Cart. Notre-Dame de Paris, 1: 326-7 (#19)]. The obvious conclusion is that at the time of the war between Bouchard and Eudes, the count of Gâtinais was named Geoffroy. This latter Geoffroy was the father of the Aubry who was count in 1028. The third record of interest is a letter of Abbo of Fleury written in 997 to Pope Gregory V, which complained that Qauz[-], nepos of count Wal[-] of Château-Landon, was ravaging church lands ["... Est quidem Qauz, nepos Wal comitis de castro Nantonis, ..." PL 139: 421; see below].
At one time it was common to place the siege of Melun in 999. For someone who believed that to be the correct year, the natural interpretation of the evidence would be to identify the Geoffroy who was count at the time of the siege of Melun with Qauz[-], nepos of Wal[-] (presumably Gautier), count in 997, and to make him distinct from the Geoffroy who was count in 984. However, it is now generally accepted that the siege of Melun took place in 991 [for the arguments in favor of 991, see, e.g., Lex (1892), 64-72]. This changes matters completely, making it very probable that the Geoffroy who was count at the time of the siege of Melun, father of count Aubry, was the same as the Geoffroy who was count in 984 (and, as noted above, probably also in 979). Thus, some of the earlier authors have unintentionally made two count Geoffroys out of one, and this needs to be remembered when one tries to compare the different accounts.
The counts of Gâtinais (Château-Landon)
In order to follow the conjectures which have been made regarding the family of Geoffroy, a brief outline of the known tenth and early eleventh century counts of Gâtinais will be useful. What little is known about the counts of Gâtinais (sometimes called counts of Château-Landon, after their principle stronghold) has to be pieced together from various scraps of information which are insufficient to document a continuous succession or genealogy of these counts. The counts of Gâtinais did not identify themselves with numbers (i.e., I, II, etc.) during their own lifetime. Some historians have assigned numbers to the counts named Geoffroy in order to distinguish them, but these do not always agree, and there is no standard numbering of the counts Geoffroy of Gâtinais. The numbers adopted here for the counts Geoffroy are those of Settipani (1997), given in parentheses to emphasize their tentative and uncertain nature. Starting with the tenth century, and continuing through Geoffroy (III) (d. 1042×5), we get the following list of known counts of Gâtinais/Château-Landon.
Geoffroy (I), count [of Gâtinais?, of
Nevers?], bef. 933 - aft. 941
In an act of 933 at Auxerre, a count Geoffroy, a vassal of king Raoul, is mentioned in connection with 60 manses in the comitatus of Gâtinais ["... Gauzfredus comes ... cum mansis LX ex Wastinensi comitatu, ... Actum Autissiodoro." RHF 9: 579; Settipani (1997), 233, gives the date 935]. In November 941, a count Geoffroy, presumably the same man, witnesses a donation of land in Gâtinais to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire ["... in Guastinensi pago ... Sig. Gauzfredi comitis ..." Cart. Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, 1: 121-2 (#47)]. Although Geoffroy appears in both cases with regard to land in Gâtinais, he is not specifically called count of Gâtinais. His appearance in 933 in an act at Auxerre suggests a possible Burgundian connection. Thus, it has been suggested that this count Geoffroy was the same person as the count Geoffroy who appears at Nevers with his wife Ava on 8 April 936 ["... ego, in Dei nomine, Gauzfredus, disponente Deo comes, et uxor mea Ava, ... Signum Gauzfredi comitis, et signum Avane, uxoris ejus, ... Actum Nivernis civitate publice ..." Cart. Cluny, 1: 435 (#446)]. This count also appears in a charter of June 936 ["... ego Gauzfredus, ..., et uxor mea Ava, ... Signum Gauzfredi comitis, et signum Avæ, uxoris ejus, ..." Cart. Cluny, 1: 438-9 (#449)] and in one of July & September 940 with his wife Ava and brother Gauzbert ["ego, in Dei nomine, Gauzfredus comes et conjux mea Ava, ... pro remedio animarum nostrarum et fratris mei Gauzberti, ... Signum Gauzfredi commitis, et Ave, uxoris ejus, ..." Cart. Cluny, 1: 496-8 (#511)]. This is probably also the count Geoffroy who appears in a charter of Liétaud, count of Mâcon on 12 April 935 ["S. Gaufredi comitis." Cart. Cluny, 1: 421 (#432), the exact date might not be correct]. He has also been identified with the Geoffroy, viscount of Orléans who appears in May 942 (or 939?) in a charter of Hugues le Grand for Saint-Julien de Tours ["S. Gaufredi Aurelianensium vicecomitis. ... Data mense maio ... anno scilicet Dominicæ incarnationis DCCCCXLIIº sive anno tertio regnante Hludovico rege." Rec. Chron. Touraine, 234; also RHF 9: 723, dating it to May 939, with the words "anno scilicet Dominicæ incarnationis DCCCCXLIIº sive" missing].
Geoffroy (II), count of Gâtinais, bef.
979 - 991×7
As already outlined above, count Geoffroy appears in acts of 9 June 979, 984 (as count of Gâtinais), 990, and November 991. Since he was count at the time of the siege of Melun in 991, he is clearly identified as being the father of the Aubry who was count in 1028. As noted above, he has sometimes been incorrectly split into two Geoffroys, one before and one after count Wal[-].
Gautier), count of Château-Landon, 997
A letter of Abbo of Fleury written in 997 to Pope Gregory V complained that Qauz[-], nepos of count Wal[-] of Château-Landon (who was in Rome at the time), was ravaging church lands ["... Est quidem Qauz, nepos Wal comitis de castro Nantonis, qui devastat possessiones nostri monasterii; de quo precor ut cum ipso Wal, qui nunc Romae est, loquamini, minando contra ejus nepotem virgam excommunicationis nisi resipuerit, si inveni gratiam in oculis vestris; ..." PL 139: 421]. The two abbreviated names Qauz[-] and Wal[-] are generally interpreted as Walterius (Gautier) and Q[u]auzfridus (Geoffroy).
[As noted above, Geoffroy, father of the Aubry who was count in 1028, is erroneously placed here by some. As a separate matter, we must leave open the possibility that Qauz[-], the nepos of Wal[-], was count at some point between 997 and 1028, in which case the Geoffroys would probably have to be renumbered. However, there is no direct evidence that Qauz[-] was ever count.]
Aubry, count of Château-Landon, 1028
As indicated above, he was count of Château-Landon (Gâtinais) on 26 May 1028. Probably about the same time, he donated lands situated in the region of Auxerre to the abbey of Fleury.
Geoffroy (III), count of
Château-Landon, d. 1042×5.
No known document during Geoffroy's tenure mentions him as count. He is mentioned as heir in the 1028 charter of his maternal half-brother Aubry, and the genealogy from Saint-Aubin evidently composed under his grandson calls him count of Château-Landon ("... ex Beatrice Gosfridus comes de Castello Landonensi ...", see above). In an attempt to reconcile contradictory evidence which would make Aubry the father of counts Geoffroy "le Barbu" and Foulques "le Réchin" of Anjou, Geoffroy has often been incorrectly identified with his brother by combining them into a double-named count "Aubry-Geoffroy" of Gâtinais. This is discussed in detail on the page of Geoffroy (III).
The parentage of Geoffroy (II)
Little material is available for a genealogy of the counts of Gâtinais. Often, attempts to give such a genealogy have been little more than a string of conjectures [e.g., Chaume (1925), 532 (table 3)]. The meager raw data on which a genealogy of the counts of Gâtinais could be based mainly include the 997 letter of Abbo of Fleury, the 1028 charter of bishop Franco of Paris, and the Saint-Aubin genealogies, all mentioned above. The data given by these sources is shown in tabular form on the page of Geoffroy (III). However, none of these sources tell us the parentage of Geoffroy (II). The most recent known count of Gâtinais prior to Geoffroy (II) is Geoffroy (I), who appears 38 years before the earliest known appearance of Geoffroy (II). Several sceanrios have been suggested for the origin of Geoffroy (II).
Scenario 1: Supposed connections with the viscounts of Orléans
Château-Landon, the main stronghold of Gâtinais, is close to the city of Orléans. Thus, in 1871, Émile Mabille noted that the known tenth century viscounts of Orléans were named Geoffroy (942) and Aubry (957, 966), the same names borne by later counts of Gâtinais [Mabille (1871), lxxxiv-lxxxvi]. This led to the conjecture that this Aubry was the father of Geoffroy (II):
Conjectured father (possible
Aubry, fl. 957-966, viscount of Orléans.
Aubry signed an act of Thibaud ("le Tricheur"), count of Tours, on 31 March 957 ["Signum Alberici Aurelianensium vicecomitis." Mabille (1871), cx (Pièces justificatives #10)] and and act of Geoffroy I Grisegonnelle on 10 June 966 ["sig. Alberigi Aurelianensis vicecomitis" Mabille (1871), lxix, n. 1]. Chaume calls Aubry count of Gâtinais, for which there is no evidence [Chaume (1925), 532 (table 3)].
Mabille was writing at a time when scholars had not yet assembled the scanty charter evidence for counts of Gâtinais. He was unwilling to decide between Aubry and Geoffroy as the name of the count of Gâtinais who was father of the Angevin counts Geoffroy III le Barbu and Foulques IV le Réchin [see the page of Geoffroy (III) for the discussion of this problem], and he followed Ménage's Histoire de Sablé in identifying the previous count of Gâtinais as Geoffroy, husband of Bétrix de Mâcon [Ménage (1683), 118; Mabille (1871), lxxxvi]. Unaware of any other tenth century counts of Gâtinais, he linked these counts to the two viscounts of Orléans, Geoffroy (942) and Aubry (957, 966). Mabille also suggested that the Geoffroy of 942 was the son of an otherwise unidentifed Aubry who appears in a charter of 886 [Mabille (1871), lix, lxxxv], a supposition which is very slimly based even if the Orléans-Gâtinais connection is valid. Devaux and Espinay argued against the Orléans-Gâtinais connection, on the basis that Orléans and Gâtinais were administered separately and that the similarity of names might only be a coincidence [Devaux (1885), 72-3; Espinay (1898), 37-9]. Indeed, the name of count Aubry of Gâtinais is clearly explained as coming from his maternal grandfather count Aubry II of Mâcon, which considerably weakens the onomastic argument. Chaume not only accepted the connection, but elaborated on it considerably [Chaume (1925), 533, see below]. In 1997, Settipani accepted as a working hypothesis that Geoffroy (II) was a son of Aubry (957, 966), viscount of Orléans and grandson of Geoffroy (I) [Settipani (1997), 244], but later abandoned it in favor of a connection with the counts of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin (see Scenario 2 below) [Settipani (2000), 249]. While this scenario is possible, it seems less likely than the connection with the counts of Amiens suggested in Scenario 2.
father (did not exist): Aubry, fl. ca. 990.
Like others who accepted that count Geoffroy husband of Béatrix de Mâcon was living [see comments above], Chaume divided count Geoffroy (II) into two different men, a count Geoffroy II (979-985) and a count Geoffroy III husband of Béatrix, making the two grandfather and grandson, with an Aubry "III" as the intervening generation [Chaume (1925), 532 (table 3)]. It is difficult to regard this "Aubry" as anything other than a fabrication of Chaume, who evidently wanted the generations of his conjectured genealogy to alternate between the names Aubry and Geoffroy.
Scenario 2: Supposed connections with the counts of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin
It has been suggested that the count Wal[-] of Gâtinais who appears in 997 should be identified with either count Gautier I or his son Gautier II, of the family of counts of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin [Guillot (1973), 3; Bachrach (1993), 65; Saint-Phalle (2000), 233-5, 242-4; Settipani (2000), 247-9; Saint-Phalle (2000), 233 & n. 18 attributes the suggestion to Lot (1891), 116, but no such suggestion appears on the cited page].
Conjectured father (possible): Gautier I, d. after 992, count of
Amiens, Valois, and Vexin.
Conjectured mother (possible): Adèle, probable daughter of Foulques II, countof Anjou.
Conjectured brother (possible): Gautier II (Wal[-]), fl. 997, count of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin; count of Gâtinais.
The most common variation of this scenario would identify count Geoffroy (II) of Gâtinais with the Geoffroy who appears in a 988 charter of king Hugues Capet as the son of count Gautier I of Amiens ["S. Walteri Comitis Ambianensis ac filiorum ejus Walteri, Gotfredi, Rodulfi." RHF 10: 553 (#4)]. Count Wal[-] of Château-Landon is identified with Gautier II as a brother of Geoffroy [Bachrach (1985), 16; Bachrach (1993), 65; Settipani (2000), 247-9]. As a comital dynasty in which reasonable candidates having both of the names Geoffroy and Gautier appear, the counts of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin provide a very plausible origin for count Geoffroy (II) of Gâtinais. Also, when Hugues Capet (then duke) gave a charter in favor of Sainte-Croix d'Orléans in 975, several of "his counts" ("Comitibus nostris") were among those who consented, including Gautier I and his sons Gautier and Raoul ["S. Wauterii Comitis. S. Waltherii et Radulphi filiorum ejus." RHF 9: 733]. Although this does not prove a Gâtinais connection for Gautier I, such a connection would explain why he and two of his sons were witnissing an Orléans charter. Settipani also conjectures that Gerberge, wife of Foulques II of Anjou, was a daughter of count Geoffroy (I) of Gâtinais [Settipani (1997), 240-1], which, if true, would explain why the counts of Amiens had a claim to Gâtinais, and would make Geoffroy (II) a great-grandson of Geoffroy (I). While this scenario rests to a large degree on conjecture, it has the advantage of plausibility.
Conjectured father (almost
Geoffroy, fl. 987-8, son of Gautier I, count of Amiens,
Valois, and Vexin.
(a mistake in composing a genealogical table?)
In a genealogical table, Bachrach places count Geoffroy of Gâtinais, paternal grandfather of counts Geoffroy III le Barbu and Foulques IV le Réchin of Anjou, as a son of Geoffroy, son of count Gautier (Walter) I of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin [Bachrach (1993), 264], in apparent disagreement with the earlier text of the same book [ibid., 65] and with an earlier article by the same author [Bachrach (1985), 16]. The statement of the table may not have been intended by the author, and could just be a mistake in composing the genealogical table. In any case, it is unlikely that Gautier I, born ca. 925 or not long before [see Grierson (1939), 107], would have a grandson through a younger son old enough to be a count in 979, and this link can be rejected.
Scenario 3: Béatrix de Mâcon as the supposed heiress of Gâtinais
The main point of this scenario is the suggestion that the inheritance to Gâtinais came through Geoffroy (II)'s wife Béatrix de Mâcon [Saint-Phalle (2000)]. The logic behind this suggestion is that two sons of Béatrix by different husbands became counts of Gâtinais. In this scenario, Geoffroy (II) is of unknown parentage, and only becomes count of Gâtinais by right of his marriage to Béatrix. Count Wal[-] of Gâtinais is identified with the aged Gautier I, count of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin (b. ca. 925), who was supposedly a husband of Béatrix in between her marriages to Geoffroy (II) and Hugues du Perche, and the nepos Qauz[-] is made to be a grandson of Gautier I via an otherwise unspecified son. [Saint-Phalle (2000), 233-5]. This scenario is very unlikely [see the page of Béatrix for more details].
Scenario 4: None of the above
Another possibility worth mentioning is that there may have been a connection between Geoffroy (I) and Geoffroy (II) which came through neither the viscounts of Orléans nor the counts of Amiens. Although it seems chronologically less likely, Geoffroy (I) could even have been the father of Geoffroy (II):
Conjectured father or
grandfather: Geoffroy (I),
fl. 933-941, count [of Gâtinais?].
Of course, if Geoffroy (II) were the grandson of Geoffroy (I), then this suggestion would be consistent with Scenario 1.
Conjectured son (possible):
(perhaps by an earlier wife)
Geoffroy (Qauz-), fl. 997, nepos of Wal-, count of Château-Landon.
The Qauz- who appears in the 997 letter of Abbo of Fleury as ravaging church lands (see above) is difficult to identify, because he cannot reasonably be identified with count Geoffroy (II) of Gâtinais (who appears to have been deceased), and he couldn't be Geoffroy (III), who was either an infant or not yet born. He would be placed by Settipani as a son of Béatrix by her first husband Geoffroy of Gâtinais (who is identified as the son of Gautier I of Amiens, and brother of Gautier II, whom Settipani identifies as the count Wal- of 997) [Settipani (2000), 247-9]. Note that this conjecture would give Béatrix two sons of the same name (by different husbands), and would probably require Béatrix to be old enough to be a daughter of an earlier marriage of Aubry.
Conjectured daughter (very
NN, m. Guy, joint count of Mâcon, son of Otte-Guillaume, count of Burgundy and Mâcon.
[Chaume (1925), 1: 465, n.2; 533 (table 3); see the page of Béatrix for more details]
Conjectured daughter (improbable):
NN, m. Ebles de Poitou, son of Guillaume II (IV) "Fier-à-Bras", count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine.
(conjectured mother of Ebles I, count of Roucy and archbishop of Reims and Liétaud de Marle)
[Saint-Phalle (2000), 242 (table 1)] Mathieu has a similar conjecture where the wife of Ebles de Poitou would be placed as a sister rather than a daughter of Béatrix, and that scenario is chronologically much more plausible [Mathieu (2000); see the page of Aubry II for more details].
Falsely attributed son:
Geoffroy (III), d. 30 April 1042×5, count of Gâtinais;
m. Ermengarde, d. 1076, heiress of Anjou.
Some secondary sources place Geoffroy (III) as a son of Geoffroy (II) [Chaume (1925), 1: 533 (table 3); Halphen (1906), 134 (by implication); Bouchard (1981), 511 (Figure 2); Bachrach (1993), 264]. However, no early sources state that relationship, and Geoffroy (III) was in fact a son of Béatrix, wife of Geoffroy (II), by her second husband Hugues du Perche [see the page of Geoffroy (III) for a detailed discussion].
Bachrach (1985) = B. Bachrach, "Geoffrey Greymantle, count of the Angevins, 960-987: a study in French politics", Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 17 (n.s. 7, 1985): 3-65.
Bachrach (1993) = B. Bachrach, Fulk Nerra, the Neo-Roman Consul, 987-1040 (University of California Press, 1993).
Bouchard (1981) = Constance B. Bouchard, "The Origins of the French Nobility: A Reassessment", The American Historical Review 86 (1981): 501-532.
Cart. Cluny = A. Bernard & A. Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny, 6 vols., (Paris, 1876-1903).
Cart. Notre-Dame de Paris = Benjamin Guérard, Cartulaire de l'église Notre-Dame de Paris, 4 vols. (Paris, 1850).
Cart. S.-Benoît-sur-Loire = Maurice Prou & Alexandre Vidier, eds., Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1900-12).
Cart. S.-Père de Chartres = M Guérard, Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres, 2 vols. (Paris, 1840).
Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).
Devaux (1885) = J. Devaux, "Étude chronologique sur les comtes de Gâtinais", Annales de la Société Historique & Archéologique du Gâtinais 3 (1885): 55-83.
Devaux (1892) = J. Devaux, "Origines Gâtinaises" (parts I & II), Annales de la Société Historique & Archéologique du Gâtinais 10 (1892): 241-260.
Espinay (1898) = G. d'Espinay, "Les comtes du Gâtinais", Mémoires de la Société nationale d'agriculture, sciences & arts 5ser. 1 (1898): 25-42.
Grierson (1939) = Philip Grierson, "L'origin des comtes d'Amiens, Valois et Vexin", Le Moyen Age 49 (1939): 81-125.
Guillot (1972) = Olivier Guillot, Le Comte d'Anjou et son entourage au XIe siècle (Paris, 1972).
Halphen (1906) = Louis Halphen, Le comté d'Anjou au XIe siècle (Paris, 1906).
Lex (1892) = Léonce Lex, Eudes, comte de Blois, de Tours, de Chartres, de Troyes et de Meaux (995-1037) et Thibaud, son frère (995-1004) (Troyes, 1892).
Lot (1891) = Ferdinand Lot, Les derniers Carolingiens (Paris, 1891).
Mabille (1871) = Émile Mabille, Introduction au Chroniques des Comtes d'Anjou (Société de l'Histoire de France, vol. 155, Paris, 1871).
Mathieu (2000) = Jean-Noël Mathieu, "La succession au comté de Roucy aux environs de l'an mil. Les origines de l'archevêque de Reims Ebles (1021-1033)", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 75-84.
Ménage (1683) = Ménage, Histoire de Sablé. première partie (Paris, 1683).
PL = P. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus, series Latina, 221 vols. (Paris, 1844-1859).
Poupardin (1900) = René Poupardin, "Généalogies angevines du XIe siècle", Mélanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire (Paris, Rome) 20 (1900):199-208.
Rec. Actes Lothair & Louis V = Louis Halphen & Ferdinand Lot, eds., Recueil des actes de Lothaire et de Louis V rois de France (Paris, 1908).
Rec. Chron. Touraine = André Salmon, ed., Recueil de Chroniques de Touraine (Tours, 1854).
RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.
Saint-Phalle (2000) = Edouard de Saint-Phalle, "Les comtes de Gâtinais aux Xe et XIe siècles", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 230-246.
Settipani (1997) = Christian Settipani, "Les comtes d'Anjou et leur alliances aux Xe et XIe siècles", in K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ed., Family Trees and the Roots of Politics (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1997): 211-267.
Settipani (2000) = Christian Settipani, "Les vicomtes de Châteaudun et leur alliés", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 247-261.
Vita Gauzlini = Robert-Henri Bautier & Gillette Labory, ed. & trans., André de Fleury, Vie de Gauzlin, abbé de Fleury (Vita Gauzlini abbatis Floriacensis monasterii) (Paris, 1969). Edited previously by Léopold Delisle, "Vie de Gauzlin, abbé de Fleuri et archevèque de Bourges, par André de Fleuri", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique de l'Orléanais 2 (1853): 257-322.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 24 January 2011.
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