Because of problems with identification, Frédéric is a rather obscure individual, and the region over which he was count cannot be identified with certainty. Even though he often appears in secondary sources with the title "count of Luxemburg", there does not seem to be any record which would justify this title. Frédéric appears with the title of count in 996 as a witness to a charter of Bertha, widow of count Volkmar ["Friderich comes" Wampach (1935), 293 (#207)]. Frédéric appears as advocate of Stavelot-Malmedy in 1004, signing a document also witnessed by counts Henri and Giselbert, probably his brothers ["... Fridericum ipsius advocatum loci, Heinricum comitem, Giselbertem comitem, Godefridum ducem, ...", Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy 202 (#93); Wampach (1935), 307 (#217)]. Depoin would make him count of Castrice, based on an act of Heinrich II at Utrecht on 5 May 1005 ["... Frederici dilectissimi comitis ..., ... in villa que nuncupatur Duncherio sita in comitatu predicti Frederici comitis qui vocatur Castrinsis, ..." MGH DD H II, 120-1 (#96); Depoin (1904), 507]. Wampach stated that it is unlikely that this was Cunégonde's brother, and identified count Frédéric of Castrice with the son of Godefroid of Verdun of that name [Wampach (1935), 317 (#225)]. The claim that Frédéric was count in Moselgau is not directly documented, but is based on fact that his son Henri was count there before the death of his uncle of the same name [Wampach (1935), 317 (#225), 28 January 1026 "...in pago Mueslechowe in comitatu vero Henrici filii Friderici, ..." 328 (#234); Vannerus (1947), 819]. In the period from 1008 to 1019, there are some appearances of a count Friedrich of Hessengau, i.e., at Ingelheim on 24 May 1008 ["... Heinricus divina favente clementia rex. ... coniugus nostre Cunigundae videlicet reginæ sibi quandam nostrae proprietatis cortem Cassellam dictam sitam in pago Hessia in comitatu vero Friderici comitis, ..." MGH DD H II, 216 (#182)], Frankfurt on 26 January 1015["in villa Búnon in pago Hessigouue in comitatu vero Friderici comitis ..." MGH DD H II, 416 (#329)], and Paderborn in 1019, "... in loco qui dicitur Uuolfesanger in pago Hassia in comitatu Frederici comitis ..." MGH DD H II, 527 (#412); also, a false charter allegedly at Allstedt, 4 May 1019, "in pago Hassia sitas in comitatu Friderici comitis ..." MGH DD H II, 521 (#406b)]. Since Frédéric's wife was from that general region, and the chronology seems to fit well, he could be the same as the Hessengau count, but that is not certain. [See, e.g., Wolf (1998), 46 (for the Hessengau identification); Jackman (1997), 202-3 (against the identification)]
Date of Birth: Unknown.
Place of Birth: Unknown.
Date of Death: 6 October 1019.
["Hoc ipso anno Fridericus, frater Cunigundae imperatricis, defunctus est", Annales Quedlinburgenses (Continuation), s.a. 1019, MHG SS 3: 84] The date of 6 October is based on an epitaph from an eleventh century manuscript from Stavelot which appears to be his: "... Libertate potens, regali stemmate pollens, / Conditur hoc tumulo Fredericus funere mesto; / Qui comes insignis, titulis preclarus et altis, / Justiciae gazas et rerum rexit habenas / Hic fuit ecclesie provisor hujus honeste; / Armis protexit temerataque jura resolvit. / Nonis octobris pridiae vitalibus auris / Cessit ..." [Vannerus (1947), 819]
Place of Death: Unknown.
Father: Sigefroid, living 997, ancestor of the counts of Luxemburg.
Hedwig, d. 13 December, after 993.
As shown above, Frédéric was a brother of the empress Cunégonde, and therefore a son of Sigefroid and Hedwig.
NN, daughter of Heribert,
count in Kinziggau, by his wife Ermentrude/Imiza.
The life of Adelheid, abbess of Viliers, names among the children of Megingoz and Gerberge (Adelaide's parents) a daughter Ermentrude, grandmother of duke Heinrich, of Adalbero, bishop of Metz, and of duke Frédéric ["... Ex quibus una nomine Irminthrudis avia erat Henrici magnifici ducis et Adhelberonis Metensis episcopi, Friderici ducis fratrumque suorum, magnorum scilicet huius temporis virorum", Vita Adelheidis Abbatissae Vilicensis auct. Bertha., MGH SS 15, part 2: 757]. Since this Ermentrude could not have been the mother of Frédéric, she must have been his mother-in-law.
From the life of abbess Adelaide (see above), Flandria Generosa (see Otgive below), and the Welf genealogies (see Imiza below), we know that duke Heinrich of Bavaria, duke Frédéric of Lower Lorraine, and bishop Adalbero of Metz were brothers, and the first two of these appear as brothers in a number of other records [see, e.g., Wampach (1935), passim]. Heinrich is called son of Frédéric and son of a brother of the empress Cunégonde, and various other members of the family can be filled in by information given below.
Ermentrude/Imiza, d. 2 August, year
unknown; m. (perhaps ca. 1015), Welf II, count
Genealogies of the family of Welfs state that Welf's wife Imiza was a sister of dukes Heinrich of Bavaria (Noricum) and Frédéric of Lorraine and of bishop Adalbero of Metz ["Guelfo supra nominatus, Roudolfi huius filius, uxorem duxit de gente Salica de castro Glizberch, Imizam nomine, sororem Heinrici ducis Noricorum et Friderici ducis Lotharingiorum et Adilberonis episcopi Metensis", Historia Welforum Weingartensis, MGH SS 21: 460; similarly in Genealogia Welforum, MGH SS 13: 734]. This is confirmed by the chronicle of Hermann of Reichenau ["Quo tempore Welf comitem, Suevigenam, Welf dudum comitis filium, Carentani ducem promovit. Avunculum quoque eius Adalberonem, ducum videlicet Heinrici et Friderici fratrem, Metensis aecclesiae episcopum post Theodericum nuper defunctum constituit." Hermann of Reichenau, Chronicon, s.a. 1047, MGH SS 5: 127]. The necrology of Weingarten gives her death date as 2 August [Parisse (1981), 33].
Henri/Heinrich, d. 14 Oct. 1047
[Annales Altahenses, s.a. 1005 (year only), MGH SS 20:
804 ; "2. Idus Octobris Heinricus, filius fratris
Chunigundis imperatrice, obiit", MGH SS 4: 791; see
Wampach (1935), 383-5 (#267)], advocate of
Echternach and Saint-Maximin; count in Moselgau and Bidgau; duke
of Bavaria, 1042-7.
On 23 September 1024, a certain Henri appears as count of Moselgau [Wampach (1935), 324 (#231); cites MGH DD K II 6 (#5)]. This would be either the present Henri or his uncle of the same name, then duke of Bavaria. A donation of a certain Udilo dated 28 January 1026 mentions count Henri in Moselgau, son of Friderich ["... in pago Mueslechowe in comitatu vero Henrici filii Fiderici ...", Wampach (1935), 327-8 (#234)]. Since this was before the death of his uncle duke Heinrich one month later, this would suggest that the 1024 record was also of the nephew rather than the uncle. In 1030, he was in the army of emperor Konrad II, figthing against the Hungarians [Wampach (1935), 332-3 (#238)]. As advocate of Saint-Maximin, he appears with his brother Frédéric, advocate of Stavelot-Malmedy (and duke of Lower Lorraine) [e.g., 1033: "... super abbatiam sancti Maximini comite Heinrico, super bono sancti Remacli fratre eius Frederico, ..." Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy, 209 (#99), Wampach (1935), 342 (#245); 1034×6: "... comite Heinrico de bono sancti Maximini, Frederico fratræ eius de abbatia sancti Remagli, ..." Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy, 210 (#100), which suggests 1034-5, Wampach (1935), 351 (#248a), which suggests 1036]. On 21 February 1042, he was named duke of Bavaria [Wampach (1935), 376-7 (#259); "Hainricus VII dux Bawarie factus est" Auctorum Garstense, s.a. 1042, MGH SS 9: 567; "Hisdem diebus, id est in quinquagesima, traditus est principatus Baioariae in civitate Basilea Henrico duci, fratrueli Henrici ducis et dominae Chunigundae imperatricis, uxoris Henrici piisimi et dignissimi imperatoris." Annales Altahenses maiores, s.a. 1042, MGH SS 20: 797]. A duke Heinrich appears as count in Bitgau in a document which is undated (even approximately), which may be either the present Heinrich or his uncle ["... in pago Bitgowensi in comitatu Henrici ducis ..." Wampach (1935), 382 (#265)].
Frédéric, d. 1065 [Sigebert de Gembloux, Chronica, MGH SS
6: 361], advocate of Stavelot-Malmedy; duke of
Lower Lorraine 1046-1065; m. (1) Gerberge, daughter of Eustache I, count of
Boulogne ["Mathildis filia Gerberge, genuit Eustachium
comitem Buloiensem et Gerbergam, Friderici ducis uxorem."
Genealogia ex stirpe sancti Arnulfi, c. 4, MGH SS 25:
383]; m. (2) Ide (or Raelendis),
who later m. (2) Albert,
count of Namur ["Hiis probatis Albertus comes Namucensis
cum in Arduenna silva moraretur gratia venandi, et veneratione
loci diverteret cum uxore sua Ida, quem prius fuerat uxor ducis
Frederici, ..." Chronicon S. Hubert Andaginensis,
c. 17 (24), MGH SS 8: 577; "Huius Frederici relictam
nomine Raelendem duxit comes Namurcensis Albertus et genuit
comitem Godefridum." Aubri de Troisfontaines, s.a.
1065, MGH SS 23: 795; "Comes vero Namucensis Albertus
per aliam Idam uxorem suam dictum Bullonium reclamabat."
ibid., s.a. 1075, p. 798].
For Frédéric as advocate of Stavelot-Malmedy, see above under his brother Heinrich. In 1048, Frédéric was named duke of Lower Lorraine, at the same time that Gerard d'Alsace was named duke of Upper Lorraine ["Ducatum eius Gerardus de Alsatia, alterum ver ducatum Fridericus optinet." Sigebert de Gembloux, Chronica, s.a. 1048, MGH SS 6: 359]. On his death in 1065, he was succeeded by Godefroid "the Bearded" ["Friderico duce mortuo, Godefridus ducatum recepit." ibid., s.a. 1065, p. 361]
Giselbert (of Salm), d. 14 August
1056×9 [Wampach (1935), 414-5 (#282)], advocate of Saint-Maximin, count of Luxemburg, count
Giselbert appears with his son Conrad in Gesta Treverorum as Giselbertus, count of the castle called Lucelenburc ["... Giselbertus quidam comes de castello Lucelenburc nominato cum filio suo Cuonrado, ..." Gesta Treveroroum, c. 4, MGH SS 8: 177], and he also appears as count of Luxemburg in the life of abbot Richard of Saint-Vanne ["... auxilio Gisleberti Luzeburgensis comitis ..." Vita Richardis abb. S. Vitoni Virdunensis, c. 9, MGH SS 11: 285], making him the first to appear under that title in an early source [see also Twellenkamp (1991)]. He appears as "comes Giselbertus de Salmo" in a witness list of ca. 1034×6 [Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy, 210 (#100); Wampach (1935), 352 (#248a); also as Giselbertus comes de Salinis in Flandria Generosa, MGH SS 9: 318]. He was named with his two brothers Frédéric and Thierry/Dietrich in a document of their uncle Adalbero dated 10 November 1036 ["... Friderico comite eiusque fratribus Giselberto et Theoderico ...", Wampach (1935), 361 (#249)]. In 1056, he appears as advocate of Saint-Maximin in a document of emperor Heinrch III [Wampach (1935), 404, 410 (#279)].
Adalbero III, d. 13 Nov. 1072, bishop
of Metz, 1046-1072.
["... frater, ut dixi, ducis Friderici ...", Rudolfi Gesta Abb. Trudonensium, MGH SS 10: 235; "Ego Adelbero Dei gratia Metensis episcopus, ... inter germanum meum, ducem Fredericum, ..." Rudolfi abb. Trud. epistolae, MGH SS 10: 325; "Adelbero tercius episcopus Metensis" Ann. S. Vincentii Mettensis, s.a. 1047, MGH SS 3: 157."Adalbero Mettensis episcopus obiit; cui Herimannus Leodiensis praepositus successit." Lambert of Hersefeld, Annales, s.a. 1072, MGH SS 5: 191; "Deoderico Mettensium episcopo defuncto, succedit Adelbero fratruelis eius, vir magnae prudentiae et sanctitatis." Sigebert de Gembloux, Chronica, s.a. 1046, MGH SS 6: 358; "Obiit Idus Novembris" Gesta episcoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 10: 543; Nek. S. Vanne 148] Adalbero has sometimes been incorrectly called a son of duke Thierry of Upper Lorraine ["Post cuius obitum (i.e., of Thierry II, bishop of Metz) Adelbero eius consanguineus, nepos Adelberonis tercii (sic, correct to secundi) huius nominis ex fratre Theoderico duce Lotharingie seu Mosellorum successit, ..." Gestorum abb. Trud. cont. tertia. auctar., s.a. 1048, MGH SS 10: 384; see Witte (1893-5), 5: 71]. This is evidently due to confusion between two different duke Frédérics, one a brother of Adalbero, and one a son of duke Thierry.
Thierry/Dietrich, fl. 1036, 1056.
["Theodericus de Luzelenburch", Flandria Generosa, MGH SS 9: 318.] He was named with his two brothers Frédéric and Giselbert in a document of their uncle Adalbero dated 10 November 1036 ["... Friderico comite eiusque fratribus Giselberto et Theoderico ...", Wampach (1935), 361 (#249)], and he was a witness along with his brothers duke Frédéric, Giselbert, and Hermann in a document of emperor Heinrich III in 1056 ["... Friderici ducum, Gisilberti, Herimanni, Theoderici, ...", ibid., 420-1 (#279)].
Hermann, of Gleiberg, living 1045,
Mentioned as a brother of duke Henry of Bavaria on 13 November 1045 [Parisse (1981), 33, citing Wurt. Urk. I, Stuttgart 1849, # 226], he was evidently also the Herimannus who signed the 1056 document of Heinrich III along with other sons of Frédéric [Wampach (1935), 420-1 (#279), see above].
Oda, nun in Reinersberg, abbess in
She is referred to as sister of bishop Adalbero of Metz ["Uda a cunabulis Deo consecrata in Romaricensi ecclesia, soror domini Alberonis Metensis episcopi, quae in ecclesia Romaricensi, petente fratre eius Alberone episcopo, post mortem Adelaidis abbatissae in abbatiam successit, quam -- usque ad senectam strenue rexit." Wampach (1935), 319 (#225)]
Otgive was a daughter of either Frédéric or his brother Giselbert, and Gisèle was a sister of Otgive, whose parentage is discussed in detail on her page.
Otgive, m. Baldwin
IV, count of Flanders.
In a contradictory passage, Otgive is stated to be daughter of Giselbert of Luxemburg, and the same time sister of men known to be sons of Frédéric ["Iste Balduinus vir pulcher, formosus et stature grandis, uxorem accepit Ogivam, filiam Gisleberti comitis de Lixelemborg, cuius fratres fuerent hi: Adalbero Metensis episcopus, Fredericus dux Lotharingie, Henricus dux Baioarie, Gislebertus comes de Salinis, Theodericus de Luzelenburch", Flandria Generosa, MGH SS 9: 318]. The parentage of Otgive is discussed in detail on her page.
Gisèle, d. 22 May, year unknown;
generally believed to be the same as:
Gisèle, m. Raoul, advocate of Saint-Pierre de Gand, lord of Alost.
Gisèle is known to have been a sister of Otgive, and her connection to Frédéric obviously depends on the correctness of Otgive's attribution as a daughter of Frédéric. See Otgive's page for details.
[See Wampach (1935), 318 (#225), rejecting Schötter's claim of such a son]
Ann. Bland. = Annales Blandinenses, Grierson (1937), 1-73.
Bloch (1898-1902) = Hermann Bloch, "Die älteren Urkunden des Klosters S. Vanne zu Verdun", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 10 (1898): 338-449; 14 (1902): 48-150.
Cart. Stavelot-Malmedy = Jos. Halkin & C.-G. Roland, Recueil de chartes de l'abbaye de Stavelot-Malmedy, 2 vols. (Académie Royale de Belgique, Commission Royale d'Historie 36, Brussels, 1909).
Corpus Chron. Fland. = Joseph-Jean de Smet, Corpus Chronicorum Flandriae, 4 vols. (Brussels, 1837-1865).
Depoin (1904) = Joseph Depoin, "Sifroi Kunuz, comte de Mosellane, tige de la Maison de Luxembourg", Ons Hemecht 10 (1904): 307-315, 349-358, 422-431, 507-516.
Grierson (1937) = Philip Grierson, ed., Les Annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand (Brussels, 1937). [Annales Blandinenses, Annales Elmarenses, Annales Formoselenses, Annales Elnonenses]
Jackman (1997) = Donald C. Jackman, Criticism and Critique. Sidelights on the Konradiner (Prosopographica et Genealogica 1, 1997).
MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series (H II = Heinrich II).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Nek. S. Vanne = "Das Nekrolog des Klosters S. Vanne", in Bloch (1898-1902), 14: 131-150.
Parisse (1981) = Michel Parisse, "Généalogie de la Maison d'Ardenne", Publications de la Section historique de l'Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg 95 (1981): 9-41.
Twellenkamp (1991) = Markus Twellenkamp, "Das Haus der Luxemburger", in Weinfurter & Kluger, eds., Die Salier und das Reich 1: 475-503.
Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).
Vannerus (1947) = J. Vannerus, "La première dynastie Luxembourgeoise", Revue belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 25 (1947): 801-858.
Wampach (1935) = Camillus Wampach, Urkunden- und Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der altluxemburgischen Territorien bis zur burgundischen Zeit, I (Luxemburg, 1935).
Witte (1893-5) = Heinrich Witte, "Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und das Westrich", Jahr-Buch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 5 (1893): 26-107; 7 (1895): 79-124.
Wolf (1998) = Armin Wolf, "Luxemburg - Sachsen - Baiern: Neues zur Genealogie des ersten Hauses Luxemburg", in Jean-Claude Muller, ed., Émigration & Immigration au cours de l'Histoire (Association Luxembourgeoise de Généalogie et d'Héraldique, 1999).
I would like to thank Peter Stewart for his comments on the internet newsgroup/mailing list soc.genealogy.medieval/GEN-MEDIEVAL in response to many of my postings there on this subject, and for sharing copies of sources with me.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 5 April 2007.
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