In 828, when count Matfrid was deprived of his honors, Eudes was named count of Orléans ["Siquidem Matfrido comite quondam Aurelianensi ob culpam inerciae propriis honoribus privato, Odo in locum eius substituitur.", Miracula sancti Benedicti, c. 20, MGH SS 15: 487; Merlet (1897), 17]. In 830, Matfrid drove him out of Orléans ["His ergo allectus incitamentis iuvenis, cum eis et suorum multis copiis per Aurelianensem urbem, sublato inde Hodone et restituto Mahtfrido, Werimbriam usque venerunt." Vita Hludowici Imp., c. 44, MGH SS 2: 633]. In 831, Eudes was restored to his countship, which he held until his death [Merlet (1897), 20]. In 834, Eudes and his brother, count Guillaume of Blois, were killed in battle by counts Lambert and Matfrid ["Eo etiam tempore in expeditione, quae contra Lantbertum et Matfridum aliosque Hlotharii complices directa fuerat, interfecti sunt Odo et Willelmus, frater eius, ac Fulbertus comites et Theoto monasterii Sancti Martini abbas et alii quam plures." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 834, 9; "Cecidit Uodo et Odo, Vivianus, Fulbertus, ac plebis innumera multitudo." Nithard, i, 5, MGH SS 2: 653; "... ibique et ipse Odo cum fratre interiit Willelmo plurimisque aliis; ..." Vita Hludowici Imp., c. 52, MGH SS 2: 638; "..., ductores belli, Odonem fratremque illius Willelmum comitem Blesensium, Teutonem denique abbatem Sancti Martini, Guidonem comitem Coenomannensem cum multis aliis amplae opinionis viris mortem oppetiisse." Miracula sancti Benedicti, c. 21, MGH SS 15: 489].
For the possible identification of Eudes of Orléans with a count Eudes who appears in documents dated 10 November 821 and 15 February 824, see the Commentary section below.
Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Date of death: June (or late May) 834.
This date is based on the chronology of the chancellor Theoto, who died in the same battle [Simson (1874-6), 2: 105, n. 4; Dümmler (1862-88), 1: 96, n. 29].
Place of death: In battle (in Touraine?).
The parentage of Eudes is not directly documented. See the Commentary section for some conjectures.
Spouse: Engeltrude, sister of the seneschal Adalard.
She is named as mother of Ermentrude by Nithard (see below).
Ermentrude, d. 6 October 869, m. 842 Charles "the Bald", d. 877, king of the Western Franks, Emperor.
["Accepit quidem Karolus, uti praefatum est, in coniugio Hirmintrudem, Uodonis et Ingeltrudis filiam et neptem Adelardi." Nithard, iv, 6, MGH SS 2: 671]
Guillaume, beheaded 866.
["Karolus Willelmum, sobrinum suum, Odonis quondam comitis Aurelianensis filium, a quibusdam suorum in Burgundia captum, quasi contra rem publicam agentem secus Silvanectum civitatem decollari fecit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 84] See the Commentary section for a discussion of the interpretation of the word sobrinus here.
Brother: Guillaume, d. June (or late May) 834,
count of Blois (and Châteaudun?), constable.
He is called count of Blois by Adrevald ["... Odonem fratremque illius Willelmum comitem Blesensium ..." Miracula sancti Benedicti, c. 21, MGH SS 15: 489] and constable (comes stabuli) by the astronomer ["Willelmus comes stabuli" Vita Hludowici Imp., c. 49, MGH SS 2: 637]. In a contemporary poem, Guillaume, brother of Eudes, is said to be of first rank among the Franks, of very high descent ["Francigenum primo proavis abavisque peralto / Guillelmo ..." Gosbert, Ad Guillelmum Blesensium comitem, MGH Poet. Lat. 1: 621]. Merlet's evidence that he was also count of Châteaudun comes from an act of Louis the Pious of 19 November 832, which suggests that the regions of Châteaudun and Blois were then united as a single county ["... in pago Blisense vel Dunense ..." RHF 6: 583 (#179); Merlet (1895), 108; Merlet (1897), 14 & n. 3]. At one time, Guillaume was regarded as a primary candidate for the father of Robert le Fort, on whose page the conjectured paternity is discussed. The same page also has a detailed account of count Eudes of Châteaudun and Troyes, another man who has often been conjectured as a son of Guillaume of Blois.
Adalard (Alard), fl. 831-877, seneschal, count of the
palace; lay-abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours and Marmoutier,
834-843; lay-abbot of Echternach, 849-856; lay-abbot of
Nithard states that Ermentrude, daughter of Eudes, was a neptis of Adalard, and Annales Bertiniani state that Adalard was an avuculus of Ermentrude ["... cum Adalardo, Yrmintrudis reginae avunculo, ..."]. More details on Adalard appear on the page of Engeltrude, wife of Eudes.
Probable relative(s): Heribert, blinded 830, and/or his
brother Bernard, marquis of Septimania.
["Denique Heribertus, Bernhardi frater, luminum amissione multatus est contra votum imperatoris, Hodo consobrinus illius armis ablatis exilio deportatus, tamquam eorum quae Bernhardo et reginae adclamabantur conscii et fautores." Vita Hludowici Imp., c. 45, MGH SS 2: 633]. This Hodo (Odo in some manuscripts) is generally held to be Eudes of Orléans, so this source is an important clue regarding the ancestry of Eudes. It is unclear whether the antecedent of illius is Heribert or Bernard. This is important to Jackman, who believes that Heribert was only a brother-in-law of Bernard [Jackman (1997), 135-6]. However, most would interpret the word frater literally, and make Heribert and Bernard brothers, both sons of Guillaume de Gellone [e.g., Chaume (1925), 547; Bouchard (1986), 655; Settipani (2004), 44]. Some have speculated on the details of this consobrinus relationship. Calmette concluded that either the father or mother of Eudes was a sibling of Witburge, wife of Guillaume [Calmette (1906), 157-160]. Most have concluded that the connection probably came through Eudes's mother, who has been conjectured variously as a sister of Berhard's wife [Jackman (1997), 135-6], as a sister of Guillaume's wife [Levillain (1937-8), 44-6 & table between pp. 46-7], or as a niece of Guillaume [Chaume (1925), 551 (table #12); Chaume (1929), 51, 56; Settipani (2004), 196]. Some of these conjectures are mentioned further below. Of these possibilities, a close relationship to Guillaume de Gellone seems quite plausible, for Eudes had a brother and son both named Guillaume.
Clues to the origin of Eudes of Orléans and Guillaume of Blois
No source explicitly states the parentage of the brothers Eudes, count of Orléans, and Guillaume, count of Blois. Regarding the family of Eudes, we have the following four clues, each of which has already been mentioned.
Of these clues, it is the statement that the younger Guillaume was a sobrinus of king Charles that was used by Levillain to deduce a lineage for Eudes which has been widely followed.
How was Guillaume (son of Eudes) a sobrinus of Charles "the Bald"?
Charles was married to Ermentrude, a sister of Guillaume. However, the word sobrinus does not apply to a brother-in-law relationship. This has led to the suggestion that the word sobrinus in Annales Bertiniani is a mistake for sororius [Lot (1902), 426, n. 4; Chaume (1925) 247 n. 1]. However, although Charles was a sororius (sister's husband) of Guillaume, there is no reason to believe that Guillaume was a sororius of Charles. Thus, it has been argued that the word sobrinus should stand as it is [e.g., Levillain (1937-8), 34-5; Jackman (1997), 116, n. 12]. Levillain lists some scenarios which would fit the classical definition of how Charles and Guillaume might be sobrini, and settles on one as the most likely [Levillain (1937-8), 36-7]. However, it is difficult to be sure that the word sobrinus is being used here in any precise classical sense, and so little is known about the ancestry of Guillaume that it is difficult to have full confidence in Levillain's process of elimination. Nevertheless, the possibility singled out by Levillain does seem more likely than others from an onomastic point of view. The paternal grandmother of Charles, Hildegarde, wife of Charlemagne and daughter of count Gerold and his wife Imma, had a brother named Eudes (Uoto, Oto) [Levillain (1937-8), 37 & n. 2-4, 38 & n. 1-4]. The following Hadrien may be another brother, and there was another count Eudes who was apparently Hadrien's son or other close relative, and who may well have been the same person as Eudes of Orléans.
Conjectured father: Hadrien, fl. 793, d. before 821, possible brother of Hildegarde, wife of
Conjectured mother: Waldrade (Vualtrat), fl. 821-4.
At Lorsch on 11 July 793, Hadrien, son of Gerold, made a donation for the soul of his brother Erbio ["In Christi nomine sub die V idus Julii anno XXV regni Karoli regis, ego Adrianus filius Geroldi dono pro anima Erbionis germani mei ... Signum Adriani, qui hanc donationem fieri rogavit, ..." Codex Lauresh. 2: 46 (#936)]. On 10 November 821, Waldrade, widow of Hadrien, made a donation to St. Boniface with the consent of count Eudes ["ego Uualtrat relicta Adriani sana mente sanoque corpore trado ad sanctum Bonifatium ... cum consensu et licentia Votoni comitis ..." Codex Fuld., 178 (#395)]. On 15 February 824, Waldrade and Eudes appear again with regard to the same donation ["... nos itaque in dei nomine Uualtrat et Voto tradidissemus res nostras ad ecclesiam sancti Bonifatii ..." Codex Fuld., 192 (#429)]. This Eudes was almost certainly a close relative, and probably a son, of Hadrien and Waldrade. Although there is no direct evidence to identify the Gerold who was father of Hildegard with the Gerold who was father of Hadrien, it is a reasonable conjecture (although Chaume would identify Hadrien's father with the Gerold who was Hildegard's brother [Chaume (1925), 551 (table #12)]). From the sobrinus relationship between Charles and Guillaume, Levillain conjectured that this Eudes was the same man as Eudes of Orléans [Levillain (1937-8), 36-44, table between pp. 46-7]. This conjecture has been accepted by others [e.g., Jackman (1997), 116, 126, table IV, qualified as uncertain; Settipani (2004), 196 (with a "solid" line on the chart)].
Note that this suggested link between Hildegard and Eudes of Orléans has three weak points: the identification of Hildegard's father Gerold with Hadrien's father Gerold, the linking of the Eudes of 821 and 824 as a son of Hadrien and Waldrade, and the identification of this Eudes with Eudes of Orléans. Thus, while plausible, this connection remains a conjecture.
Several different conjectures have been formed about the origin of Hadrien's wife Waldrade, all based on the statement that Eudes was a consobrinus of Heribert and/or Bernard (see above). Since the family of Guillaume de Gellone does not have any known occurrence of the name Waldrade or any other name that would allow the supposition of a direct alliance between the families of Guillaume and Hadrien, Levillain claims that the only plausible hypothesis is that Waldrade was a sister of the mother of Bernard of Septimania [Levillain (1937-8), 44-6 & table between pp. 46-7, with further conjectures which would make the supposed sisters daughters of a Lambert in the dynasty of "Widonids"]. For Jackman, who believes that Bernard and Heribert were only brothers-in-law, with Eudes of Orléans related as consobrinus only to the latter, Waldrade would be a conjectured sister of one of the parents of Duoda (Bernard's wife, and according to Jackman, a sister of Heribert) [Jackman (1997), 135, Table 4]. For Settipani, who regards Heribert and Bernard as brothers, Waldrade is a conjectured daughter of Adalhelm, brother of Guillaume de Gellone [Settipani (2004), 196]. Since Eudes had a brother and a son both named Guillaume, onomastics would seem to favor a relationship with Guillaume de Gellone, although there seems to be no reason to prefer the exact link given by Settipani over various similar conjectures which could be offered.
Conjectured father: NN, brother of Hadrien.
Conjectured mother: Biletrude, conjectured daughter of Thierry, count of Ripuarie, brother of Guillaume de Gellone.
[Chaume (1925), 551 (table #12); Chaume (1929), 51, 56] The conjecture about the father is a variant of the conjecture making Hadrien the father. The conjecture about the mother is based on the statement that Eudes was a consobrinus of Heribert and/or Bernard, and is in fact a variant of the conjecture of Settipani just mentioned above. Biletrude was the name of the mother of abbot Hilduin, conjectured by Chaume as a brother of Eudes (see below).
Conjectured father (very
Robert, count, missus in the province of Tours,
Robert appears with bishop Landrand as a missus in the province Tours in a capitulary of Louis the Pious in May 825 ["Turones Landramnus archiepiscopus, et Hruodbertus comes." MGH Leg. 1: 246]. The present conjecture that Eudes of Orléans was a son of Robert grew out of a conjecture of Mabille that Robert le Fort was a son of the Robert of 825 [Mabille (1871), liv-lv, who gives the date 822 for the capitulary, followed by Rioult de Neuville]. A little later, Rioult de Neuville, who had conjectured that Robert le Fort was a son of Guillaume of Blois, adapted Mabille's conjecture to make the Robert of 825 the possible father of Eudes of Orléans and Guillaume of Blois, and thus a conjectured grandfather of Robert le Fort [Rioult de Neuville (1872-3), 238-9]. This conjecture is thus based in part on the false premise that Guillaume of Blois was the father of Robert le Fort, and there is no good reason to accept it. See the page of Robert le Fort for more details.
Conjectured son (unconvincing):
Gebhard, fl. 832-845, count of Lahngau, probable ancestor of the "Konradiner".
The following three arguments in support of this connection were advanced by Irmgard Dietrich [as reported in Hlawitschka (2006), 2: 18-9 (Dietrich's work being unavailable to me)]:
If the conjectured relationship between Eudes of Orléans and Gebhard is true, it would make the seneschal Adalard a granduncle of the three brothers Udo, Berengar, and Waldo, which is how Dietrich would explain the relationship of propinquus [see also Jackman (1997), 117-8, 126]. Hlawitschka lists three objections to the thesis of Dietrich:
While none of these doubts are conclusive, the arguments in favor are not that strong, and the conjecture is unconvincing.
NN, m. Robert "le Fort", d. 866, ancestor of the Capetian kings of France.
[Werner (1997), 21-2, 53 n. 77] This conjecture is discussed on the page of Robert le Fort.
Conjectured brothers (no proof - evidence poor):
Aubert, d. after 875, count of Anglachgau.
Hilduin, fl. 816-842, abbot of Saint-Denis and Saint-Germain.
Gérard, d. 841, count of Auvergne.
Vougrin, d. 886, count of Angoulême.
Bernard, count of Poitou, 815-825.
[Chaume (1925), 551 (table 12); Chaume (1929), 56]. Aubert's presence in Chaume's table is onomastic, based on the fact that Hadrien appears to have had a brother named Aubert. The basis of Depoin's conjecture that Géraud was a brother of Eudes, followed later by Chaume, was a passage in one recension of the work of Adémar de Chabannes, which made Gérard of Auvergne the brother of an otherwise unidentified Guillaume ["Et Ramnulfum, filium Girardi, comitis Arvernis, nepotem Willelmi fratris Girardi, comitem Pictavis praefecit." Adémar Chab., iii, 16 (p. 132)]. Since the same rescension had mentioned Guillaume, brother of Eudes of Orléans, earlier in the same chapter [ibid., p, 131], Gérard was identified as a brother of Eudes and Guillaume [see Depoin (1912), 113, n. 92, 114]. Gérard (Gerardus, Girardus) was erroneously called by the distinct name Géraud (Geraldus, Geroldus) by Depoin and Chaume, and Hilduin was apparently added to the list because he had a brother named count Géraud ["VI idus. Dep. Gairoldi comitis, frater domini Hildwini" Necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Obit. Sens, 1 pt. 1: 266], and Bernard and Vougrin were evidently included as (arguable) brothers of Hilduin. The logic behind these conjectures was rejected by Settipani, who then made a similar conjecture with respect to abbot Hilduin based on an entirely different reason [Settipani (2004), 194-6, see next item].
Conjectured brothers (no proof - evidence weak):
Géraud, d. 856×867, count.
Hilduin, fl. 816, abbot of Saint-Denis.
Obituaries of Saint-Germain-des-Près suggest that these three individuals were brothers [see Settipani (2004), 191-2]. Onomastics suggests a connection both with the family of Gerold of Bavaria (brother of Hildegard, wife of Charlemagne), and the family of Guillaume de Gellone (in which the name of Bernard is common). Since the parents of Eudes of Orléans are conjectured to have the same two origins, Settipani conjectured that these three were brothers of Eudes [Settipani (2004), 194-6]. Since there is apparently no other reason to suggest a relationship between these three siblings and Eudes of Orléans, the basis of this conjecture is weak.
Conjectured nephew: Robert "le Fort", d. 866, ancestor of the Capetian kings of France.
This conjecture has had a couple of variations, one in which Robert is the son of Guillaume of Blois (see the page of Robert le Fort), now generally regarded as false, and another in which Robert's probable mother Waldrade is conjectured as a sister of Eudes (see the next conjecture). This supposed relationship between Robert and Eudes has been partly based on a very questionable charter in which Eudes is named as an avunculus of Robert, as is discussed on the page of Robert le Fort. The fact that Robert named a son Eudes has been used as an onomastic argument.
Conjectured sister: Waldrade (Wialdrut), living 19 February 834, m. Robert, d. before 19 February 834, count in Wormsgau.
(Probable parents of Robert le Fort)
[e.g., Jackman (1997), 116, table 4; Settipani (2004), 196; both have a dotted line indicating conjecture] Onomastically, this conjecture would fit well with the above conjecture that Eudes was the son of a Waldrade. See also the page of Robert le Fort.
Conjectured sister (extremely doubtful): NN, m. Thibert, count of Madrie.
[Levillain (1937-8), 31, 45, table between pp. 46-7] This very weak conjecture is based on the assumption that Thibert had children named Robert and Engeltrude, that the wife of Eudes was named Engeltrude, and that Levillain's conjectured parentage of Eudes gives him a granduncle named Robert. The coincidence involving the name Engeltrude is irrelevant (since a sister of Eudes would have no reason to pass on the name of the wife of Eudes to her children), and the appearance of the name Robert is insufficient justification for the conjecture.
Conjectured sibling: NN, parent of Gontier, archbishop of Köln, and Gerulf, count in Frisia.
[Chaume (1925), 547 (table 10), reason not stated]
Adémar Chab. = Jules Chavanon, ed., Adémar de Chabannes - Chronique (Paris, 1897).
Ann. Bertin. = G. Waitz, ed., Annales Bertiniani (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1883).
Ann. Fuld. = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Annales Fuldenses (MGH SRG 7, Hannover, 1891).
Bouchard (1986) = Constance B. Bouchard, "Family structure and family consciousness among the aristocracy in the ninth to eleventh centuries", Francia 14 (1986): 639-658.
Calmette (1906) = Joseph Calmette, "Le famille de saint Guilhelm de Gellone", Annales du Midi 18 (1906): 145-165.
Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).
Chaume (1929) = Maurice Chaume, "Études Carolingiennes, I: La famille de saint Guillaume de Gellone", Annales de Bourgogne 1 (1929): 27-56.
Codex Fuld. = Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke, ed., Codex diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, 1850).
Codex Lauresh. = Codex principis olim Laureshamensis abbatiae diplomaticus, 3 vols., (Mannheim, 1768-70). I have only had access to volumes 1 and 2. I have not seen Glöckner's modern edition [K. Glöckner, ed., Codex Laureshamensis, 3 vols., (Darmstadt, 1929-36)].
Depoin (1912) = Joseph Depoin, "Les comtes de Paris sous la dynastie carolingienne", Mémoires de la société historique et archéologique de l'arrondissement de Pontoise et du Vexin 31 (1912): 83-117.
Dietrich (1952) = Irmgard (Dienemann-)Dietrich, Das Haus de Konradiner. Untersuchungen zur Verfassungsgeschichte der späten Karolingerzeit (diss., Marburg, 1952). [Not seen by me]
Dümmler (1862-88) = Ernst Dümmler, Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1862-88).
Hlawitschka (1980) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Wer waren Kuno und Richlint von Öhningen? Kritische Überlegungen zu einem neuen Identifizierungsvorschlag", Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 128 (1980), 1-49. (includes Konradiner genealogy with documentation at end, pp. 36-49).
Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).
Jackman (1997) = Donald C. Jackman, Criticism and Critique. Sidelights on the Konradiner (Prosopographica et Genealogica 1, 1997).
Levillain (1937-8) = Léon Levillain, " Les Nibelungen Historiques et leur alliances de famille", Annales du Midi 49 (1937): 337-408; 50 (1938): 5-66.
Lot (1902) = Ferdinand Lot, "Une année du règne de Charles le Chauve - année 866", Le Moyen Age 15 (1902): 393-438.
Mabille (1871) = Émile Mabille, Introduction au Chroniques des Comtes d'Anjou (Société de l'Histoire de France, vol. 155, Paris, 1871).
Merlet (1895) = René Merlet, "Les origines de Robert le Fort", Mélanges Julien Havet (Paris, 1895), 97-109.
Merlet (1897) = René Merlet, "Les comtes de Chartres de Châteaudun et de Blois aux IXe et Xe siècles", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique d'Eure-et-Loir 12 (1897), 1-84.
MGH Leg. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges series.
MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.
MGH SRG = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum (separate editions).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Obit. Sens = Obituaires de la Province de Sens (2 vols. in 3, Paris, 1902-6).
Poupardin (1900) = René Poupardin, "Les grandes familles comtales à l'époque carolingienne", Revue historique 72 (1900), 72-95.
RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.
Rioult de Neuville (1872-3) = Louis Rioult de Neuville, "Robert le Fort. Sa famille et son origine", Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du Midi de la France 2 ser. 10 (1872-3): 217-248.
Settipani (2004) = Christian Settipani, La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien (Prosopographia et Genealogica 5, 2004).
Simson (1874-6) = Bernhard Simson, Jahrbücher des Fränkischen Reichs unter Ludwig dem Frommen, 2 vols. (1874-6).
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 26 July 2008.
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