FEMALE Engeltrude

Wife of Eudes, count of Orléans.

Engeltrude is mentioned by the historian Nithard in his account of the marriage of Charles the Bald to her daughter Ermentrude ["Accepit quidem Karolus, uti praefatum est, in coniugio Hirmintrudem, Uodonis et Ingeltrudis filiam et neptem Adelardi." Nithard, iv, 6, MGH SS 2: 671].

Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth:
Unknown.

Date of death: Unknown.
Place of death: Unknown.

Probable father: Leuthard, fl. ca. 800, count of Fézensac.
Probable mother:
Grimhilde.
See the page of Leuthard for the details.

Spouse: Eudes, d. 834, count of Orléans.

Children:
As indicated above, Ermentrude is directly documented as a daughter of Engeltrude. Guillaume is documented only as a son of Eudes (see the page of Eudes), who is not known to have had any other marriages.

FEMALE Ermentrude, d. 6 October 869, m. 842 Charles "the Bald", d. 877, king of the Western Franks, Emperor.

MALE Guillaume, d. 866.

Brother: Adalard (Alard), fl. 831-877, senechal, count of the palace; lay-abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours and Marmoutier, 834-843; lay-abbot of Echternach, 849-856; lay-abbot of Saint-Symphorien, 866.
The most detailed account of the career of the senechal Adalard is that of Ferdinand Lot [Lot (1908a); see also Poupardin (1900), 84; Parisot (1898) 184-5]. Adalard appears on 19 October 831, when he had the title of "senechal" ["L. ob deprecationem Iudith augustae et Adalardi seniscalci, ..." Sickel (1867), 173 (#292)]. He was lay-abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours and of Marmoutier from the death of abbot Fridugisus and of Theoton, in 834 [Lot (1908a), 187]. In 843, he was still lay-abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours ["... venerabilis Adalardus abba monasterii S. Martini patroni nostri ..." RHF 8: 438 (#14)], but by 844 these abbacies were in the possession of count Vivien (Saint-Martin) and of Rainaud (Marmoutier), brother of Vivien [Lot (1908a), 188]. Between December 846 and 849, he left the service of Charles and entered the service of the emperor Lothair I [Lot (1908a), 190]. He was lay-abbot of Echternach from 849 to 856, serving under Lothair I and his son Lothair II ["... et 10. anno Lotharii imperatoris, filii Ludovici Pii, incarnationis vero Domini 849, indict. 12, nescimus quo ordine vel quo eventu, Adelardus comes suscepit nomen abbatis, ... Adelardus comes et abbas prefuit huic loco 7 annis, id est a 10. anno Lotharii imperatoris usque ad annum 2. Lotharii regis, filii eius, qui est annus incarnationis Domini 856, indict. 4." Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium, catalogue 1, MGH SS 13: 738]. He also appears as lay-abbot of Saint-Vaast d'Arras (before 852), Saint-Maximin de Trèves (853, 855), and Stavelot (857) [Lot (1908a), 191]. Adalard was still in favor with Lothair II in September 860 [Lot (1908a), 192]. Soon afterward, he returned to the service of Charles in the company of three propinqui from Germany, count Udo, count Berengar, and abbot Waldo (see below), arriving with them at the court of Charles in about April 861 [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 861, 55; Lot (1908a), 192]. At about that time Adalard became lay-abbot of Saint-Symphorien in Autun (where he was abbot on 16 June 866) and probably of other abbeys [Lot (1908a), 193; Lot (1908b), 242-5]. Adalard's last known appearance was as count of the palace in the Capitulary of Quierzy on 14 June 877 ["Adalardus comes palatii remaneat cum eo cum sigillo." MGH Leg. 1: 540].

Nithard states that Ermentrude, daughter of Eudes, was a neptis of Adalard (see above). Annales Bertiniani confirm this ["Ermendrud, neptem Adalardi comitis" Ann.Bertin., s.a. 842, 29] and also state that Adalard was an avunculus of Ermentrude ["... cum Adalardo, Yrmintrudis reginae avunculo, ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 861, 55]. This makes Adalard a sibling of either Eudes or Engeltrude, with a literal reading of the term avunculus (maternal uncle) favoring Engeltrude as Adalard's sibling. Since any attempt to make Adalard and Eudes into brothers would involve significant complications (for example, trying to fit Eudes and his brother Guillaume into the family of the counts of Paris, or abandoning the connection of Adalard with that family), the usual identification of Adalard and Engeltrude as siblings can be accepted. For other probable siblings of Engeltrude, see the page of her probable father Leuthard.

Presumed relatives (propinqui):
Udo
, fl. 861, count.
Berengar
, fl. 861, count.
Waldo
, fl. 861, abbot.

The Annales Bertiniani, under the year 861, state that Adalard, avunculus of queen Ermentrude, was also a propinquus of the nepotes of Arnustus (i.e., Ernst, duke of Bavaria) ["Hlodowicus socerum Karlomanni, filii sui, Arnustum honoribus privat et nepotes ipsius a regno suo expellit. Qui cum Adalardo, Yrmintrudis reginae avunculo, suo autem propinquo, quem Hlotharius patrui sui Hludowici factione insequebatur, Karolum adeunt." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 861, 55]. These nepotes can in turn be identified with the three brothers count Udo, count Berenger, and abbot Waldo, by reference to the Annales Fuldenses for the same year ["Hludowicus rex conventum habuit in Reganesburg tercia septimana post sanctum pascha, in quo Ernustum, summatem inter omnes optimates suos, quasi infidelitatis reum publicis privavit honoribus. Utonem quoque et Berengarium fratrem eius atque Sigihartum comites Waldonemque abbatem cum aliis nonnullis quasi conplices infidelitatis eius similiter exauctoravit; e quibus Uto et Berengarius cum Waldone fratre suo in Gallias ad Karlum regem secesserunt, caeteris infra patriam in proprietate sua remanentibus." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 861, 55]. These three brothers are known to be sons of count Gebhard of Lahngau [see Hlawitschka (1980), 38-9; Hlawitschka (2006), 2: 14-5]. As propinqui of Adalard, they would presumably also be propinqui of Engeltrude. The suggestion that these brothers were grandsons of Engeltrude is an unlikely conjecture (see the page of Eudes for further details).



Commentary

Conjectured son (unconvincing):
MALE Gebhard, fl. 832-845, count of Lahngau, probable ancestor of the "Konradiner".
Gebhard's sons were the propinqui listed above. The unconvincing theory that Gebhard was a son of Eudes and Engeltrude is discussed on the page of Engeltrude's husband Eudes.

Conjectured daughter:
FEMALE NN, m. Robert "le Fort", d. 866, ancestor of the Capetian kings of France.
[Werner (1997), 21-2, 53 n. 77] This conjecture is discussed on the page of Robert le Fort.


Bibliography

Ann. Bertin. = G. Waitz, ed., Annales Bertiniani (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1883).

Ann. Fuld. = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Annales Fuldenses (MGH SRG 7, Hannover, 1891).

Depoin (1912) = Joseph Depoin, "Les comtes de Paris sous la dynastie carolingienne", Mémoires de la société historique et archéologique de l'arrondissement de Pontoise et du Vexin 31 (1912): 83-117.

Hlawitschka (1980) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Wer waren Kuno und Richlint von Öhningen? Kritische Überlegungen zu einem neuen Identifizierungsvorschlag", Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 128 (1980), 1-49. (includes Konradiner genealogy with documentation at end, pp. 36-49).

Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).

Lot (1908a) = Ferdinand Lot, "Note sur le sénéchal Alard" (Mélanges carolingiens, V), Le Moyen Age 21 (1908): 185-209.

Lot (1908b) = Ferdinand Lot, "Date d'un diplôme de Charles le Chauve en faveur de l'abbaye de Saint-Symphorien d'Autun" (Mélanges carolingiens, VII), Le Moyen Age 21 (1908): 233-245.

MGH Leg. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leges series.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Parisot (1898) = Robert Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (1898, reprinted Geneva, 1975).

Poupardin (1900) = René Poupardin, "Les grandes familles comtales à l'époque carolingienne", Revue historique 72 (1900), 72-95.

Sickel (1867) = Th. Sickel, Acta regum et imperatorum Karlinorum digesta et enarrat. Die Urkunden der Karolinger (Zweiter Theil: Urkundenregesten, Vienna, 1867).

RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.

Werner (1997) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Les premiers Robertiens et les premiers Anjou (IXe siècle - début Xe siècle)", in Guillot & Favreau, eds., Pays de Loire et Aquitaine de Robert le Fort aux premiers Capétiens (Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de l'ouest et des Musées de Poitiers, 5th ser., vol. 4), 9-67.


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 26 July 2008.

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