MALE Eadmund I

King of the West Saxons (Wessex) and Mercia, 939-946.

Eadmund succeeded at the death of his brother Æthelstan on 27 October 939 ["Her Æþelstan cyning forðferde ... & Eadmund æþeling feng to rice. & he wæs þa .xviii. wintre." ASC(A) s.a. 941 (orig. 940) ("Here King Athelstan passed away ... And the ætheling Edmund succeeded to the kingdom; and he was then 18 years old." ASC(Eng), 110); "Her Æðelstan cyning forðferde. & feng Ædmund to rice his broðor." ASC(E) s.a. 940; "Strenuus et gloriosus rex Anglorum Æthelstanus ... decessit, ... cui frater suus Eadmundus, XVIIIº. ætatis suæ anno, in regnum successit." John Worc., s.a. 940 (1: 132-3); on 939 as the year of Æthelstan's death, see Beaven (1917); Vaughan (1954)]. Eadmund was assassinated on 26 May 946 [see below], and was succeeded by his brother Eadred. [On the chronology of Eadmund's reign, see Beaven (1918).]

Date of birth: ca. 922.
Place of birth:
Unknown.
John of Worcester states that Eadmund succeeded to the kingdom in his eighteenth year ["Eadmundus, XVIIIº. ætatis suæ anno, in regnum successit." John Worc. s.a. 940 (1: 133)]

Date of death: 26 May 946.
Place of death: Pucklechurch.
Place of burial: Glastonbury.
["Her Eadmund cyning forðferde ón Scs. Agustinus mæsse dæge. & he hæfde rice seofoþe healf gear; & þa feng Eadred æþeling his broþor to rice, ..." ASC(A) s.a. 946 ("Here King Edmund passed away on St. Augustine's Day; and he had the kingdom six and a half years. And then his brother the ætheling Eadred succeeded to the kingdom, ..." ASC(Eng), 114); "... þ. wæs wide cuð. hu he his dagas geendode. þ. Liofa hine ofstang æt Puclancyrcan." ASC(D) s.a. 946 ("It was widely known how he ended his days, that Liofa stabbed him at Pucklechurch." ASC(Eng), 112); "Magnificus rex Anglorum Eadmundus, die festivitatis S. Augustini, Anglorum doctoris, dum in regia villa, quæ Anglice Pucelecirce dicitur, suum dapiferum e manibus pessimi cleptoris Leovæ, ne occideretur, vellet eripere, quinque annis septemque mensibus regni sui peractis, indictione IV., septimo kal. Junii, feria III., ab eodem interficitur, et Glæstoniam delatus, a B. Dunstano abbate sepelitur." John Worc. s.a. 946 (1: 134); "Edmundus rex Transmarinus defungitur." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 946, 101; "26 [May] Hic obiit Eadmund rex." Lib. Vit. Hyde, 271]

Father: Eadweard "the Elder", d. 17 July 924, king of Wessex.

Mother: Eadgifu, living 966, daughter of Sigehelm, ealdorman of Kent.

Spouses:

(1) St. Ælfgifu, d. 18 May ca. 944.

(2) Æthelflæd, of Domerham, daughter of Ælfgar, ealdorman of the Wilsætas.
["... & Æþelflæd æt Domerhame, Ælfgares dohter ealdormannes, wæs þa his cwen." ASC(D) s.a. 946; on her family, see Searle (1899), 411] Æthelflæd's will gave numerous bequests to ealdorman Beorhtnoth and her sister, and also gave legacies to, among others, her kinsman Sibriht, her kinsman Ælfgeat, and her kinswoman Crawe [Cart. Sax. 3: 600 (#1288); Thorpe (1865), 519-522 (includes modern English translation)]

Children:
["... & Eadwig feng to West Seaxena rice, & Eadgar his broþor feng to Myrcena rice. & hi wæron Eadmundes suna cyninges. & Sce. Ælfgyfe." ASC(D) s.a. 955; "Magnifico regi Eadmundo cum sua regina sancta Ælfgiva filium peperisset Eadgarum, ..." John Worc., s.a. 943 (1: 133); see also below]

MALE Eadwig, d. 1×2 October 959, king of England, 955-7, king of Wessex, 957-9;
m. Ælfgifu, divorced 958.
Eadwig succeeded his uncle Eadred in 955 ["Her forþferde Eadred cining. ... & þa feng Eadwig to rice. Eadmundes sunu cinges." ASC(A) s.a. 955 ("Here King Eadred passed away, ... and then Eadwig, the son of King Edmund, succeeded to the kingdom." ASC(Eng), 112)]. In 957, the Mercians and Northumbrians renounced their allegiance to Eadwig, and chose his brother Eadgar as king in his place ["Her Eadgar æþeling feng to Myrcna rice." ASC(B,C) s.a. 957 ("Here the ætheling Edgar succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia." ASC(Eng), 113); ASC(D) s.a. 955 (incorrectly); "Rex Anglorum Eadwius, quoniam in commisso regimine insipienter egit, a Mercensibus et Northhymbrensibus contemptus relinquitur, et suus germanus, clito Eadgarus, ab eis rex eligitur" John Worc., s.a. 957 (1: 137)]. Eadwig and his wife were divorced because of consanguinity in 958 ["Her on þissum geare Oda arcebiscop totwæmde Eadwi cyning & Ælgyfe. forþæm þe hi wæron to gesybbe." ASC(D) s.a. 958 ("Here in this year Archbishop Oda divorced King Eadwig and Ælfgifu because they were related." ASC(Eng), 113)]. When Eadwig died, apparently in 959, he was succeeded by Eadgar in the entire kingdom ["Her forðferde Eadwig cing. & Eadgar his broðor feng to ríce." ASC(B,C) s.a. 959; ASC(E) s.a 959; "kl. Octobr." ASC(A) s.a. 958; "Rex West-Saxonum Eadwius, IV. annis regni sui peractis, defunctus, Wintoniæ in Novo Monasterio est sepultus" John Worc., s.a. 959 (1: 138); "2. [Oct] Hic obiit Eadwig rex." Lib. Vit. Hyde, 272]. In favor of 959 as the year of Eadwigs death, we have the nearly contemporary testimony of the chronicler Æthelweard that Eadwig reigned for four years [Æthelweard, 55], a kinglist (in two related MSS) that he reigned for 3 years, 36 weeks, and 2 days [Dumville (1986), 29], and a kinglist that he reigned for 4 years minus 7 weeks [ibid., 30]. Besides the Parker Chronicle, 958 is supported by a kinglist giving Eadwig a reign of two and a half years ibid., 29].

MALE Eadgar, d. 8 July 975, king of England 959-975;
m. (1) Æthelflæd, alias Candida or Eneda,
daughter of ealdorman Ordmær.
m. (2) Wulfthryth, nun, bur. Wilton.
m. (3) 965,
Ælfthryth, daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman, dux of Devon, widow of Æthelweald/Æthelwold, ealdorman of East Anglia.



Commentary

Falsely attributed daughter (in fact a sister):

FEMALE Eadgyth, m. Otto I "the Great", d. 7 May 973, emperor.
Thietmar of Merseburg mistakenly makes Eadgyth a daughter of Eadmund ["Otto, coniugem suam Editham, Ethmundi regis Anglorum filiam" Thietmar, Chron., ii, 1, MGH SS 3: 744]. Liudprand makes "Otgith" a daughter of an unnamed brother of Æthelstan ["Duxerat idem rex Otto ante regni susceptionem ex Anglorum gente nobilissima regis Hadelstani fratris filiam sibi uxorem, nomine Otgith; ..." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iv, 17, Dümmler (1877), 88]. Widukind makes Otto's wife incorrectly a daughter of "Ethmundus" but correctly a sister of Æthelstan ["Nam rex dedit filio suo Oddoni coniugem filiam Ethmundi regis Anglorum, sororem Adalstani, ..." Widukind, i, 37, MGH SS 3: 434]. She was in fact a sister, as seen on the page of Eadweard "the Elder".


Bibliography

Æthelweard = A. Campbell ed., Chronicon Æthelweardi/The Chronicle of Æthelweard, (New York, 1962).

ASC = Charles Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles parallel, based on the earlier edition by John Earle, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1892-9). ASC(A) indicates the "A" manuscript of the chronicle, and similarly for the other manuscripts.

ASC(Eng) = Michael Swanton, ed. & trans., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (London, 2000).

Beaven (1917) = Murray L. R. Beaven, "The Regnal Dates of Alfred, Edward the Elder, and Athelstan", English Historical Review 32 (1917): 517-531.

Beaven (1918) = Murray L. R. Beaven, "King Edmund I and the Danes of York", English Historical Review 33 (1918): 1-9.

Cart. Sax. = Walter de Gray Birch, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum, 4 vols. (1885-99).

Dümmler (1877) = Ernst Dümmler, ed., Liudprandi episcopi Cremonensis opera omnia (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1877).

Dumville (1986) = David N. Dumville, "The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List: Manuscripts and Texts", Anglia 104 (1986): 1-32.

Flodoard, Annales = Ph. Lauer, ed., Les Annales de Flodoard (Paris, 1905).

John Worc. = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis, 2 vols., (London, 1848-9). (The work formerly attributed to Florence of Worcester is now generally attributed to John of Worcester.)

Lib. Vit. Hyde = Walter de Gray Birch, Liber Vitae: Register and Martyrology of New Minister and Hyde Abbey Winchester (London, 1892).

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Onom. Anglo-Sax. = William George Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cambridge, 1897). Spellings of Anglo-Saxon names on this page have been standardized according to this source.

Searle (1899) = William George Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles (Cambridge, 1899).

Thorpe (1865) = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Diplomatarium Anglicum Ævi Saxonici (London, 1865).

Vaughan (1954) = Richard Vaughan, "The Chronology of the Parker Chronicle, 890-970", English Historical Review 69 (1954): 59-66.


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 20 June 2010.

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