Of Frankish origin, Eberhard was duke of Friuli in Italy ["Ea igitur tempestate fuit vir nobilissimus Francorum natalibus oriundus, nomine Euerardus, qui ducatum Foro-Juliensem divina ordinatione sub glorioso principe Lothario, Ludovici piissimi imperatoris filio, ac in gubernaculis successore nobiliter administravit ..." Translatio S. Calixti, c. 4, AASS Oct., 6: 444]. He appears in May 836 as a legate of Lothair I from Italy to the emperor Louis the Pious ["Anno vero regni sui 23. habuit imperator colloquium cum fidelibus suis in praedio regali Theodonis mense Maio. Et ibi venerunt legati Hlutharii a partibus Italiae, Walach qui erat abbas, et Rihhardus perfidus, et Ebarhardus fidelis cum ceteris nonnullis, nunciantes eum libenter venire ad patrem, si pacifice potuisset. ..." Addition to one manuscript of Thegan's Vita Hludowici, MGH SS 2: 603]. In addition to being duke of Friuli, Eberhard had numerous possessions in the northwestern part of the Carolingian empire, as shown by his testament, probably written about 863×4 ["Ego Evrardus, comes, cum conjuge mea Gisla ... Primogenitus namque noster Unroch ... Secundus quoque Berengharius ... Tertius Adalardus ... Quartus Rodulphus ... De filiabus vero nostris ... Ingeltrud ... Judith ... Heiliwich ... Ego, in Dei nomine, Evrardus, comes, cum conjuge Gisla, hujus testamentum divisionis fieri inter infantes nostros institui, quorum hec sunt nomina: Unroch, Berengharius, Adalardus, Rodulphus, Engeldrud, Judith, Heilwich, coram fidelibus nostris qui interfuerunt, quorum nomina sunt hec: Adalroch, nepos noster, ..." Cart. Cysoing, 1-5 (#1); see the Commentary section for the date]. Eberhard left to his eldest son Hunroch all of his property in Lombardy and Germany except Balguinet and its dependencies; to his second son Bérenger, Anappes near Lille (with all appurtenances except Grecina), Hildin in Hesbaye, and all that he had in Condrost; to his third son Adalard, Cysoing, Camphin, and Somain in Ostrevant; to his fourth son Raoul, Vitry near Douay, Vicis, Mestucha, Scelleburg near Anvers, and all that he held in Campine; to his eldest daughter Engeltrude, Ermen and Maresham; to his daughter Judith, Balingham with Heliwsheim; and to his daughter Heilwig/Hélvide, Hostrenheim (Ostreham?), Luisinga, Wendossa (Vendegies-au-Bois?), and a parcel at Engerestheim [ibid., 1-5 (#1), 816; Grierson (1938), 264-6]. Eberhard was succeeded as duke of Friuli by his eldest son Hunroch ["Multa fatigatio Langobardi et oppressio a Sclavorum gens sustinuit, usque dum imperator Foroiulanorum Ebherardo principem constituit. Eo defuncto, Unhroch filio suo principatum suscepit." Andreus Bergomatis, Chronicon, c. 13, MGH SS 3: 235]. [For the family of Eberhard, see further in Favre (1896), Depoin (1899), Grierson (1938)].
Date of birth: Unknown.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Date of death: 865×6 (16 December?).
See the detailed discussion in the Commentary section below.
Place of death: Unknown.
Father: Hunroch, d.
13 November, 844×852, count of Ternois.
Eberhard is called a child of Hunroch by a poem of Sedulius Scottus ["Hunroci proles ..." Sedulius Scottus, Carmina, ii, 67, Ad Everhardum comitem MGH Poet. Lat. 3: 221; Dümmler (1861), 185].
See the Commentary section.
Spouse: Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious, emperor.
As noted above, Eberhard refers to his wife Gisela in his testament. Gisela also refers to herself as the widow of Eberhard in some of her own charters [Cart. Cysoing 7 (#3), 8 (#4), 10 (#5)].
As indicated above, the testament of Eberhard names most of his children. A charter of Gisela (ca. 874) mentions all of her known children except Eberhard, in apparent order of birth ["Ego, in nomine domini, Gisla, ..., et pro prole mea videlicet: Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Heilwich, Gilla, Judich, necnon et pro omni cognatione mea. ..." Cart. Cysoing, 11 (#6)]. The poems of Sedulius Scottus show that Eberhard had two sons born before the death of their grandfather Louis the Pious on 20 June 840, first a son named Eberhard who died in infancy, and a second son whose name is not given, but is assumed to be Hunroch, the eldest son to attain adulthood [Sedulius Scottus, Carmina, ii, 37-8, MGH Poet. Lat. 3: 201-2; Dümmler (1861), 180-1]. The relative order of birth of Eberhard and Engeltrude is unknown.
Eberhard, b. ca. 837, d. before 20
Eberhard died as an infant, before his grandfather Louis the Pious ["... Natus Eberhardi patrio cognomine dictus ..." Sedulius Scottus, Carmina, ii, 37, Epitaphium de filio Eberhardi comitis, MGH Poet. Lat. 3: 201; Dümmler (1861), 180].
Engeltrude, b. say 837×840, d. after
2 April 870.
Engeltrude was still living on 2 April 870, when her mother Gisela confirmed and augmented donations to Cysoing toward the burial of her and Engeltrude ["... ea ratione ut a die presenti idem locus ad quietem meam vel filie mee Ingeltrudis preparatus, ..." Cart. Cysoing, 8-9 (#4)]. See the Commentary section below for a conjectured (but doubtful) marriage of Engeltrude.
Hunroch, b. before 20 June 840, living
1 July 874, d. 874×5?, duke of Friuli, 865-874×5;
m. Ava, daughter of duke Liutfrid.
Hunroch succeeded his father as duke of Friuli in 865×6. He was still living on 1 July 874, when he was mentioned by his mother in a donation to Cysoing [" ... ut pignora corporis senioris et conjugis mei dulcis memorie Evrardi per coadjutoris filii mei Unroch solatia, ab Italicis partibus delata mihi conferens, ..." Cart. Cysoing, 10-11 (#5)]. Although his date of death is not documented, his death has generally been placed soon after his last appearance, because his brother Bérenger/Berengario was playing a major role in Italian politics from 875 [see the page of Berengario I, king of Italy]. Hunroch is known to have had a daughter, who in 887 was carried off from a nunnery in Brescia and married by force by Liutward, bishop of Vercelli to his nepos [".. ut monasterium puellarum in Brixia civitate situm invaderet et per quosdam amicos suos filiam Unruochi comitis propinquam imperatoris vi raperet suoque nepoti in coniugium daret." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 887, 105; Werner (1967), 452, n. 26 cites Hirsch (1910), 87 for the marriage of Hunroch]. For the false identification of Hunroch with marquis Heinrich, see the Commentary section.
Bérenger/Berengario I, b. say 840×5, d. 7 April 924, duke of Friuli,
874×5-881; king of Italy, 881-924; Emperor, 915-924;
m. (1) say 880×890, Bertila, daughter of Suppo, duke of Spoleto;
m. (2) before December 915, Anna, d. after May 936.
Adalard, d. after 1 July 874, held
Cysoing (as abbot?).
Adalard received Cysoing from his father as part of his share of the inheritance. Favre quotes from an undated charter which calls Adalard lord (senior) of that place, and supposes that he had an ecclesiastical career ["actum Cisonio regnante Karolo rege gloriosissimo. Sig. Adelardi ejusdem loci senioris." Favre (1896), 158 & n. 1; no source is cited for this quote]. Adalard was still alive on 1 July 874, when he was mentioned in a charter by his mother Gisela [Cart. Cysoing, 10-11 (#5)]. For the false identification of Adalard with another man of that name, see the Commentary section.
Raoul/Rudolf, d. 5 January 892; held
Cysoing (as abbot?); abbot of Saint-Vaast and Saint-Bertin,
According to Flodoard, Raoul inherited Cysoing from his father Eberhard ["Adnotat etiam, qualiter Evrardus marchio sancti Calixti papae et martiris venerabile corpus a Romana sede impetraverit atque in eius honore monasterium in predio suo constituerit. Quod predium post eius obitum ad filium ipsius Rodulfum abbatem hereditario iure devenerit; ..." Flodoard, Historia Remensis ecclesiae, iv, 1, MGH SS 13: 558]. Since Flodoard was writing in the next century, and the testament of Eberhard shows that it was Adalard who inherited Cysoing, the most likely interpretation of Flodoard's evidence is that Raoul inherited Cysoing after Adalard's death. In early 883, when abbot Foulques was chosen as archbishop of Reims, Raoul became abbot of Saint-Bertin ["Itaque Folcone ad archiepiscopatum sublimato, Rodulfus abbatiam suscepit in eodem anno." Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 89, MGH SS 13: 623; Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 59 (p. 127)], and Raoul also became abbot of Saint-Vaast d'Arras at about the same time ["Rodulfus abbas ordinatur." Chronicon Vedastinum, s.a. 883, MGH SS 13: 709]. Raoul died at Saint-Vaast on 5 January 892, and was buried there ["Deinde anno post haec altero Rodulfus abbas apud Atrebatis in diebus octavarum Domini sanguinem minuans, 2. Nonas Ianuarii circa mediam noctem brachium eius cepit turgescens inflari; paulatimque dolore ad precordia properante, obiit die inlucescente anno Domini 892." Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 97, MGH SS 13: 623-4; Cart. S.-Bertin, ii, 67 (p. 133); "Rodulfus abba et levita obiit Nonis Ianuarii sepultusque in aecclesia beati Petri, in sinestra parte altaris, in monasterio sancti Vedasti." Ann. Vedast., s.a. 892, 70; "Rodulfus obiit, Baldwinus successit." Ann. Bland., s.a. 892, 15; "Obiit Rodulfus abbas Atrebatensis. Atrabatenses Balduinum Flanderensem suscipiunt." Ann. Elnonenses, s.a. 892, 148]. It has sometimes been claimed that Raoul was also count of Ternois and Artois, and abbot of Saint-Pierre de Gand [e.g., Vanderkindere (1902), 45-6, 49, 288, 331]. However, Grierson argued convincingly that Raoul was a cleric who did not hold these offices [Grierson (1938), 241-255, passim].
Heilwig/Hélvide, d. after 894;
m. (1) Hucbald, d. after 894, count of Ostrevant;
m. (2) after 894, Roger I, d. 926, count of Laon, lay-abbot of Saint-Amand.
For the details of her marriages, see the page of Heilwig. See the Commentary section for a falsely attributed marriage.
Gisela, nun in Brescia.
["Eberhardus dux tradidit filiam suam Gislam" Brandenburg (1964), 86, n. 32; Hlawitschka (1960), sketch of Unroch (I)]
Judith, d. after 863×4.
See the Commentary section for several conjectures regarding her marriage.
The death date of Eberhard
There is an obituary for Eberhard in Annales Alamannici under the year 864 ["Ebarhart, Liutolf, Erchanker, Liutfrid, Ruodolf regni principes obierunt." Annales Alamannici (continuatio Sangallensis prima), s.a. 864, MGH SS 1: 50; cf. Annales Weingartenses, MGH SS 1: 66]. There is also an obituary for a certain "Everwinus" in Annales Xantenses under the date 866 ["Liudolfus comes a septentrione et in Italia Everwinus, gener Ludewici regis, magnifici viri, ed hac luce subtracti sunt." Ann. Xant., s.a. 866, 23]. Here, the words "gener Ludewici regis" make it obvious that "Everwinus" was a mistake for "Everhardus" and that we have here an obituary of Eberhard of Friuli. Not only do these dates not agree, but there is reason to distrust each of them. In those cases where the death dates of the five individuals listed in Annales Alamannici can be checked in other sources, the deaths appear to have occurred in 865 or 866. Also, the chronology of Annales Xantenses is generally off by one year during the period 853-870, so that their testimony actually favors 865 as the correct year, and not 866.
Of the five men appearing under the year 864 in Annales Alamannici, Rudolf/Raoul died in 866 [Hlawitschka (2006), 17-8; Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 80; Annales Floriacenses, s.a. 866, MGH SS 2: 254]. Liutfrid died in 865 or early 866 [Hlawitschka (1960), 223, n. 18], as he is mentioned in 865 in Annales Bertiniani [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 865, 75], and he was deceased by 19 March 866 [Mühlbacher #1310 (1275)]. At the very least, this shows that the date of 864 is unreliable. Can the Annales Alamannici at least be trusted to tell us that the five individuals listed all died in the same calendar year? That is not certain. It is difficult to rule out the possibility that the five names were collated from two or more other annals used as a source by Annales Alamannici.
The Annales Xantenses have a chronological dislocation during the period 853-870, so that in most cases the event listed actually occurred in the year prior to the year listed in the annals. This dislocation is clearly evident in the supposed year "866" in the sentence immediately preceding the death notice of Liudolf and Eberhard ("Everwinus"), which lists the death of St. Ansgar ["... et sanctissimus episcopus Bermensis Ansger de hac luce migravit." Ann. Xant., s.a. 866, 22-3], which actually occurred in the year 865 [Dümmler (1862-88), 2: 121, n. 2]. As another example, Robert the Strong died in 866, but his death appears in Annales Xantenses under the year 867 [Ann. Xant., s.a. 867, 25; see the page of Robert the Strong]. Based on the testimony of Annales Xantenses, 865 seems like the most probable date, but it is difficult to rule out 866, based on the argument that Eberhard died in the same year as Raoul.
Dümmler states that 16 December was later celebrated as Eberhard's date of death [Dümmler (1861), 176, n. 24, citing Auberti Miraei, 1: 20 (not seen by me)]. Schrörs places Eberhard's death on 14 December 864, but this is probably a misprint, as Dümmler's article seems to be his main source of information [Schrörs (1884), 565].
The date of Eberhard's testament
In his edition of the cartulary of Cysoing, Ignace de Coussemaker dates Eberhard's will between 15 June and 16 December in 867 [Cart. Cysoing, 1 (#1)]. The reason for this range is that the testament is dated in the 24th year of the reign of the emperor Louis (II) ["... imperante domino Ludovico Augusto, anno vero regni ejus, Christo propitio, XXIVº." ibid., 5 (#1)], which Coussemaker assumes to be dated from the coronation of Louis as king of Italy on 15 June 844, and thus dated between 15 June 867 and the death of Louis on 16 December of the same year [ibid., 817]. However, this dating is obviously not feasible. Dümmler suggests that the 24th year of the testament should be emended to the 14th year (assuming that an extra "X" has crept into the Roman numerals), which would give 863×4 as a date for the testament if dated from 850, the year that Louis became (co-)emperor [Dümmler (1861), 176, n. 24]. Hofmeister notes that if the 24th year is correctly given, then it must have been calculated from a starting point of 840, which would also give 863×4 as the date for Eberhard's testament [Hofmeister (1907), 326, n. 2; for the occasional use of 840 as a starting point in dating the years of reign of Louis II, see Mühlbacher #1177 (1143) d]. Thus, in either case, 863×4 seems like the likely date for Eberhard's testament.
Conjectured mother: Engeltrude,
daughter of Bego, count of Paris.
See the discussion on the page of Hunroch.
Falsely attributed father: Bérenger, d. 835, count of Toulouse, before 819-835.
[Mühlbacher #962 (931) a] See the page of Hunroch, count of Ternois.
Supposed father: Hunroch, fl. 802-814, count.
Supposed brother (in fact his father): Hunroch, d. 13 November, 844×852, count of Ternois.
Dümmler makes Eberhard a son of the older count Hunroch, and states that Eberhard could have been the brother of the Hunroch who was father of abbot Adalard (i.e., Hunroch of Ternois) [Dümmler (1861), 172-3]. Thus, Dümmler is identifying the Hunroch who was father of Eberhard as a different individual from Hunroch of Ternois. The identification of the men named Hunroch who appear in various records is discussed on the page of Hunroch, count of Ternois.
Supposed daughter (source
unclear, existence doubtful):
Alpaïs, d. young.
[ES 2: 188A, source not clear]
Conjectures involving various children
Three of Eberhard's children have been falsely identified with other individuals who appear in the records. In addition, there are several dubious marriages which have been attributed to daughters of Eberhard.
Conjectured identification of son Hunroch (false):
Heinrich (of "Babenberg"), d. 28 August 886, dux Austrasiorum, marquis in Neustria.
A vassal of Louis/Ludwig the Younger and his brother Charles/Karl the Fat, Heinrich was prominent in fighting the pretensions of Hugues of Alsace, illegitimate son of king Lothair II, and in fighting against the Vikings. He was killed by the Vikings in 886, when he was called dux Austrasiorum by Annales Vedastini and marchensis Francorum by one continuation of Annales Fuldenses, which also state that he held Neustria ["Heinricum dictum ducem Austrasiorum" Ann. Vedast., s.a. 886, 61; "Occiso ibi Heimrico marchensi Francorum, qui in id tempus Niustriam tenuit, ..." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 886, 114; For the date of death of Heinrich, see Dümmler (1862-88), 3: 269, n. 2]. There is no justification for calling him duke of Lorraine, as has sometimes been done [see Parisot (1898), 469-70]. In 1899, Depoin conjectured that Heinrich was the same person as Eberhard's son Hunroch [Depoin (1899), 50-1], but this identification is not possible, for Heinrich was the brother of Poppo, duke of the Thuringians ["Poppone fratre Heimrici" Ann. Fuld., s.a. 882, 109; "Heimricus, frater Popponis scilicet" ibid., s.a. 883, 110], and enough is known about Eberhard's children to be sure that Poppo was not among them.
Conjectured identification of son Adalard (false):
Adalard "von Burc", fl. 854? (843?);
Decker-Hauff identifies Eberhard's son Adalard with an Adalard who appears in a document of St. Gallen, donating his possessions in Alamannia and elsewhere to St. Verena in Burc [Decker-Hauff (1955), 279-293; against this, see Schwarz (1956), 281-2; Tellenbach (1956), 181-3]. Decker-Hauff makes this Adalard a grandfather of Bérenger, count of pagus Lomacensis, probable ancestor of the counts of Namur, from whom Decker-Hauff would also derive the counts of Dettingen, Urach, and Achalm. Krüger also conjectured Eberhard's son Adalard to be the ancestor of the counts of Namur [Krüger (1893), 50, 60]. For Adalard as the falsely conjectured father of Wigeric of Bidgau, see the page of Wigeric.
Conjectured identification of daughter Heilwig (false):
Hadwig/Hathui, m. Otto "der Erlauchten", duke of Saxony.
(parents of Heinrich I, king of Germany)
Originally due to Eckhart in the eighteenth century, this theory was later revived by others, most notably Krüger [Krüger (1893)]. The life of Hathumod, abbess of Gandersheim (sister of Otto), states that Hathumod's brother married a neptis regum ["... quod frater eius regum neptem in matrimonio habet, ..." Agius, Vita Hathumodae, c. 2, MGH SS 4: 167]. Although the brother of Hathumode in the passage is not otherwise identified, he has usually been assumed to be Otto, and the neptis regum has thus been generally identified with Otto's wife Hedwig/Hathui. Krüger would identify the kings in question as Louis/Ludwig the German and Charles the Bald, and would interpret the word neptis to mean niece in the strict sense, thus making Hedwig/Hathui a daughter of a sibling of these two kings [Krüger (1893), 32]. Placing Otto's wife as a daughter of Eberhard of Friuli and his wife Gisela would satisfy this restriction, and thus Krüger identifies Hedwig/Hathui with Eberhard's similarly named daughter Heilwig. However, Hedwig and Heilwig are not the same name, and the identification has little to recommend it. Dümmler argued convincingly against it in the same year that Krüger's article appeared [Dümmler (1893)]. The identification must in any case must be false if Hirsch's convincing outline of Heilwig's marriages is correct. See further on the page of Heilwig.
Conjectured husband of daughter Engletrude or Judith (unlikely):
Heinrich (of "Babenberg"), d. 28 August 886, dux Austrasiorum, marquis in Neustria.
For Heinrich, see above. This hypothesis is based partly on the commonly stated theory that Heinrich was the father-in-law of Otto "der Erlauchten", duke of Saxony, and partly on the above mentioned passage in Vita Hathumodae, and is similar to the conjecture of Eckhart and Krüger, but with an added generation and a different daughter of Eberhard, i.e., either Judith [Decker-Hauff (1955), 292-309] or Engeltrude [Eckhardt (1963), 50ff., not seen by me, but outlined by Werner (1967), 452, n. 25]. Decker-Hauff supports this by an onomastic argument that Heinrich had a son Adalard, as did Eberhard, and he conjectures another son Berengar for Heinrich as additional support [Decker-Hauff (1955), 301]. Eckhardt noted that the confraternity book of Reichenau contains an entry naming a Heimirichi and an Engildrud adjacent to one another [MGH Libri Confrat., 267 (#396, lines 15-16)]. This descent of the German king Heinrich I from Eberhard of Friuli has benn accepted by some [e.g., Keats-Rohan (1997), 196-7, 201-2; Jackman (2000), 131-2], but there is no shortage of other explanations for the royal descent of Heinrich which is apparently indicated by the Vita Hathumodae. Metz pointed out that none of the names given to children of Eberhard appear among the children of Heinrich I of Germany, and suggested that the Carolingian ancestry of Heinrich I came via an otherwise unknown daughter of either Charlemagne or Louis the Pious [Metz (1964), 286]. Geldner would make marquis Heinrich's wife a conjectured daughter of a count Adalard (different from Eberhard's son of that name) and descendant of Louis the Pious [Geldner (1971), table]. Hlawitschka conjectures a remoter descent of marquis Heinrich's wife from king Carloman, brother of Charlemagne [Hlawitschka (1974), 146-165; Hlawitschka (2006), 44-52].
There are other reasons to be skeptical about the theory. Heinrich I of Germany was born about 876 [he was aged about 60 at his death in 936, Widukind, i, 41, MGH SS 3: 435-6]. Since Heinrich had two elder brothers who died young, his parents are unlikely to have been married after 873, and they were probably married a few years earlier. Allowing 30 years for two 15-year generations, we see that it is very unlikely that Heinrich's maternal grandmother was born later than 843, with a significantly earlier date being much more probable. Gisela could not have been any older than 24 in 843, and she was probably younger. Since Judith appears to have been the youngest of at least nine children of Gisela, it is very improbable that she was born by 843. It is true that in his outline of the family of Gisela, Decker-Hauff provides estimated dates which would give Gisela seven children by 840, but he does this by placing her birth late in 819 (the earliest possible) and by giving her one child in each of the years 834 through 840. However, such extremes are far from probable. Unless major reshuffling of the order of the children is required compared to the order in which they were listed by Gisela, the eldest daughter Engeltrude is the only one who would make a chronologically feasible candidate for this conjecture. However, as pointed out by Werner and Hlawitschka, there is a good reason to doubt that Engeltrude was the wife of Heinrich "of Babenberg". As noted above, on 2 April 870, Engeltrude's mother Gisela gave donations to Cysoing toward the burial of her and Engeltrude ["... ea ratione ut a die presenti idem locus ad quietem meam vel filie mee Ingeltrudis preparatus, ..." Cart. Cysoing, 8-9 (#4)]. It is very unlikely that Gisela would have been making arrangements for Engeltrude's future burial if she were then married to Heinrich. It is much more likely that Engeltrude was either unmarried or widowed at the time and living with Gisela [Werner (1967), 452, n. 5; Hlawitschka (1974), 163, n. 275]. Thus, the wife of Heinrich "of Babenberg" is unlikely to have been a daughter of Eberhard of Friuli.
husbands of daughter Judith:
In addition to the above supposed marriage to Heinrich, there are at least four other marriages that have been attributed to Eberhard's daughter Judith at one time or another. There does not seem to be any convincing evidence for any of them.
Guido, count of Camerino.
This marriage was suggested by Wüstenfeld, and accepted by Poupardin [Wüstenfeld (1863), 406, table after p. 432; Poupardin (1901), 389, 391]. A similar marriage was given by Chaume (with the wife called "Yuta", daughter of Eberhard) [Chaume (1925), 535 (table #4)]. There are significant differences between Wüstenfeld and Chaume as to the placement of this Guido in the "Widonid" family.
Adalbert "der Erlauchte",
fl. 854-894?, count in Thurgau.
Hlawitschka attributed this theory to Dungern and others [Hlawitschka (2006), 132].
Liuto, fl. 878, advocate in
Hlawitschka, who attributed this theory to Bühler, preferred this alternative [Hlawitschka (2006), 132].
Conrad, count of Auxerre.
[ES 2: 188A, source not clear]
AASS = Acta Sanctorum.
Ann. Bertin. = G. Waitz, ed., Annales Bertiniani (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1883).
Ann. Bland. = Annales Blandinenses, Grierson (1937), 1-73.
Ann. Elnonenses = Annales Elnonenses, Grierson (1937), 132-175.
Ann. Fuld. = Friedrich Kurze, ed., Annales Fuldenses (MGH SRG 7, Hannover, 1891).
Ann. Vedast. = B. de Simson, ed., Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini (MGH SRG 12, 1909), 41-82.
Ann. Xant. = B. de Simson, ed., Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini (MGH SRG 12, 1909), 1-33.
Auberti Miraei = Auberti Miraei, Opera Diplomatica, et Historica ..., 4 vols. (Louvain, 1723-48). [I have not seen this work]
Brandenburg (1964) = Erich Brandenburg, Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen (Frankfurt, 1964).
Cart. Cysoing = Ignace de Coussemaker, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Cysoing et de ses dépendances (Lille, 1883).
Cart. S.-Bertin = M. Guérard, Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Collection des cartulaires de France, 3, Paris, 1840).
Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).
Decker-Hauff (1955) = Hansmartin Decker-Hauff, "Die Ottonen und Schwaben", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 14 (1955), 233-371.
Depoin (1899) = Joseph Depoin, "Le duc Ébrard de Frioul et les trois comtes Matfrid", Annales de la société archéologique de Bruxelles 13, 1 (1899): 5-20.
Dümmler (1861) = Ernst Dümmler, "Fünf Gedichte des Sedulius Scottus an den Markgrafen Eberhard von Friaul", Jahrbuch für vaterländische Geschichte 1 (1861): 167-188.
Dümmler (1862-88) = Ernst Dümmler, Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches (Leipzig, 1862-88).
Dümmler (1893) = Ernst Dümmler, critique of Krüger (1893), Deutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 9 (1893): 319-321, with response by Krüger, ibid., 321-2.
Eckhardt (1963) = K. A. Eckhardt, Genealogische Funde zur allgemeinen Geschichte (1963). [I have not seen this work.]
ES = Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln (neue Folge), (Marburg, 1980-present).
Favre (1896) = Édouard Favre, "La famille d'Évrard marquis de Frioul dans le royaume franc de l'ouest", in Études d'histoire du Moyen Age dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), 155-162.
Geldner (1971) = Ferdinand Geldner, Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte der "Alten Babenberger" (Meisenbach, 1971).
Grierson (1937) = Philip Grierson, ed., Les Annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand (Brussels, 1937). [Annales Blandinenses, Annales Elmarenses, Annales Formoselenses, Annales Elnonenses]
Grierson (1938) = Philip Grierson, "La maison d'Evrard de Frioul et les origines du comté de Flandre", Revue du Nord 24 (1938): 241-266.
Hirsch (1910) = Paul Hirsch, Die Erhebung Berengars I von Friaul zum König in Italien (Strasbourg, 1910). [I have not seen this work.]
Hlawitschka (1960) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Franken, Alemannen, Bayern und Burgunder in Oberitalien (774-962) (Freiburg, 1960).
Hlawitschka (1974) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Zur Herkunft der Liudolfinger und zu einigen Corveyer Geschichtsquellen", Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 38 (1974): 92-165.
Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).
Hofmeister (1907) = Adolf Hofmeister, "Markgrafen und Markgrafschaften im Italischen Königreich in der Zeit von Karl dem Grossen bis auf Otto den Grossen (774-962)", Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 7 (1907): 215-435.
Jackman (2000) = Donald C. Jackman, "Cousins of the German Carolingians", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 117-139.
Keats-Rohan (1997) = K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, "Poppa of Bayeux and her Family", The American Genealogist 72 (1997): 187-204. Also available in French as "Poppa 'de Bayeux' et sa famille", in Keats-Rohan & Settipani, eds., Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval (Oxford, 2000), 140-153.
Krüger (1893) = Emil Krüger, "Ueber die Abstammung Heinrich's I. von den Karolingern", Deutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 9 (1893): 28-61. [see also Dümmler (1893)]
Metz (1964) = Wolfgang Metz, "Die Abstammung König Heinrichs I." Historisches Jahrbuch 84 (1964): 271-287.
MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.
MGH Libri Confrat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Libri Confraterintatum Sancti Galli Augiensis Fabariensis (Berlin, 1884).
MGH SRG = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum (separate editions).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Mühlbacher = Johan-Friedrich Böhmer & Engelbert Mühlbacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (2nd ed., vol. 1, Innsbruck, 1889).
Parisot (1898) = Robert Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (1898, reprinted Geneva, 1975).
Poupardin (1901) = René Poupardin, Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1901).
Schrörs (1884) = Heinrich Schrörs, Hinkmar Erzbischof von Reims - Sein Leben und seine Schriften (Freiburg, 1884).
Schwarz (1956) = Wilhelm Schwarz, "Die Ottonen und die Schwaben", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 15 (1956), 281-4.
Tellenbach (1956) = Gerd Tellenbach, "Kritische Studien zur großfränkischen und alemanniscen Adelsgeschichte", Zeitschrift für Württemburgische Landesgeschichte 15 (1956), 169-190.
Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).
Werner (1967) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)", Karl der Große 4 (1967): 403-483.
Wüstenfeld (1863) = Ch. Wüstenfeld, "Ueber die Herzoge von Spoleto aus dem Hause der Guidonen", Forschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte 3 (1863): 383-432.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
First uploaded 20 September 2008.
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