FEMALE Bertha

Wife of Thibaud of Arles and Adalberto of Tuscany.

Date of Birth: Unknown.
Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: 8 March 925.
Place of Burial: Lucca.
Bertha's date of death is given on her epitaph at Lucca ["Idibus octavis Martis migravit ab ista ... An dnicae incarnationis DCCCCXXV indic. XIII obiit de mundo." Epitaphia Lucensia, MGH Poet. Lat. 4: 1008; see also RHF 9: 105; see below for more of the epitaph].

Father: Lothair II, d. 869, king of Lorraine, 855-869.
Bertha's epitaph at Lucca shows that she was of Carolingian descent, daughter of Lothair ["Hoc tegitur tumulo comitissae corpus humatum, / Inclita progenies Berta benigna pia. / Uxor Adalberti ducis Italiae fuit ipsa, / Regalis generis quae fuit omne decus. / Nobilis ex alto Francorum germine regum, / Karolus ipse pius rex fuit eius avus. / Quae specie speciosa, bono speciosor actu, / Filia Lotharii, pulchrior ex meritis. / ..." Epitaphia Lucensia, MGH Poet. Lat. 4: 1008; see also RHF 9: 105]. That this Lothair was Lothair II is indicated by chronology and by the fact that Thibaud was mentioned as a sororius of Hugues, son of Lothair II in Annales Bertiniani ["Quo venientes, quia Hugonem non invenerunt, sororium illius Teutbaldum bello adgressi sunt, et multis interfectis, illum in fugam verterunt." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 880, 151]. Other sources falsely make Bertha a daughter of the emperor Louis II (see below in the Commentary section).

Presumed mother: Waldrade, mistress and (unrecognized) wife of Lothair.
For Waldrade, see the page of Lothair II. Bertha's mother is not directly documented.

Spouses:

(1) before 880, Thibaud, living June 887, count of Arles.
As indicated below, Bertha's son Hugo mentions the names of his parents as Thibaud and Bertha in charters.

(2) Adalberto II, d. 17 August, no later than (and probably in) 915, margrave of Tuscany.
["... Adelbertus, illustris Tuscorum marchio, ... Huic erat uxor nomine Berta, Hugonis, nostro post tempore regis, mater; ..." Liudprand, Antapodosis, i, 39, Dümmler (1877), 21-2] His epitaph indicates that he died on 17 August ["Noster Adelbertus dux pius atque bonus ... In sesto decimo Septembre notante Calendas" Epitaphia Lucensia, MGH Poet. Lat. 4: 1007]. He was succeeded as margrave of Tuscany by his son Guido (Wido) [Liudprand, Antapodosis, ii, 55, Dümmler (1877), 47], no later than 915, because Guido appears as margrave on 8 December 915 [Dümmler (1871), 39, n. 2]. [For the ancestry of Adalberto II, see Hofmeister (1907), 290; for more on Adalberto II, see ibid., 388-400]

Children:
[Dates not otherwise documented are from Werner (1967), table]

(by Thibaud)

MALE Hugo/Hugues/Ugo, d. 10 April 947; count of Vienne; marquis of Provence; king of Italy, 926-947;
m. (1) 912, Willa,
perhaps the widow of Rudolf I, king of Burgundy.
m. (2) ca. 924, Hilda/Alda.
m. (3) ca. 932, Marozia,
daughter of Theophylakt, Roman senator.
m. (4) 12 December 937, Bertha,
daughter of Burchard, duke of Schwaben (Swabia), and widow of Rudolf II, king of Burgundy.
In a charter of about 924, count and marquis Hugo mentions his father Thibaud, mother Bertha, former wife Willa, present wife Hilda, and unnamed brothers and sisters ["... ego Hugo humilis comes et marchio, ... memoriale patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthæ, simul et uxoris quondam meæ Willæ, necnon et præsentis conjugis meæ Hildæ, atque fratrum et sororum mearum, ..." RHF 9: 689-690 (#1). Also, in a joint charter with his son Lothario of 8 March 934, king Hugo again mentioned his parents ["Hugo et Lotharius, gratia Dei reges. ... remedioque animarum nostrarum seu patris et matris nostræ, Teubaldi scilicet et Berte, ..." Cart. Cluny, 1: 403 (#417)]. The Willa mentioned as his deceased wife in the charter of ca. 924 has been identified as the widow of Rudolf I, king of Burgundy. This identification, suggested by Manteyer, comes from the fact that Willa is called regina in one source, but died before Hugo became king of Italy. This identification suffers from the difficulty (not conclusive) that it would have Hugo married to the widows of both Rudolf I and Rudolf II, father and son [see Poupardin (1907), 28, n. 2; (Brandenburg (1964), 88, n. 7]. His second, third, and fourth marriages are all mentioned by Liudprand ["Hic ex Francorum genere Teutonicorum uxorem acceperat nomine Aldam, quae filium ei genuerat nomine Lotharium." (Hic refers to Hugo) Liudprand, Antapodosis, iii, 20, Dümmler (1877), 62; "Marozia, scortum impudens satis, nuntios suos post Widonis mariti sui mortem Hugoni regi dirigit, eumque invitat, ut se adeat Romamque nobilissimam civitatem sibi adsumat. Hoc autem non aliter posse fieri testabatur, nisi eam rex Hugo sibi maritam facerat. ... Quod recte esse actum, ..." ibid., iii, 44, p. 73; "Burgundionum praeterea rex Rodulfus mortem obiit; cuius viduam nomine Bertam rex Hugo, Alda, Lotharii regis filii sui matre, defuncta, maritali sibi coniugio sotiarat." ibid., iv, 13, p. 85]. Hugo became king of Italy on 7 July 926 ["Hugo, filius Bertae, rex Romae super Italiam constituitur, ..." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 926, 35], and died on 10 April 947 ["Die sabati, quod est decimo die mensis Apreliis et fuit in eo die secundum pasce, civitate Arlenda migravit ab ac die Ugo rex, abead regnatum annos 20 expletos et menses 9 et dies 3; ..." Regum et imperatorum catalogi. MGH SS 3: 216].

MALE Boso, d. after 936; count of Avignon, 911-931; count of Arles, 926-931; margrave of Tuscany, 931-6;
m.
Willa.
Liudprand states that Hugo and Boso had the same father ["Boso denique, ex eodem patre regis Hugonis frater, ..." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iii, 47, Dümmler (1877), 75]. Flodoard also states that they were brothers ["Hugo rex Italiae ..., repertisque quibusdam fratris sui Bosonis contra se, ut fertur, insidiis, eundem fratrem suun dolo capit atque in custodia mittit." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 936, 65], and this is also confirmed by several charters [e.g., "... quod Ugo dux et gloriosus comes, necnon et Bozo frater suus, ..." RHF 9: 685 (#16)]. For the suggestion that Boso was a son of Thibaud by a woman other than Bertha, see the page of
Boso.

(by Adalbert)
["Haec, ut rumor est, tres ex viro suo genuerat, Widonem quem prediximus, atque Lambertum, qui nunc usque lumine privatus superest, Ermengardam etiam gnatam suam sibi Afroditi dulcedine coequalem, quam Adelberto Eporegiae civitatis marchioni ... copularet." Liudprand, Antapodosis, ii, 56, Dümmler (1877), 47-8]

MALE Guido (Wido), d. 928×9, margrave of Tuscany, 915-928×9;
m. Marozia,
daughter of Theophalakt, Roman senator.
["Hoc in tempore Adelbertus Tuscorum potens marchio moritur, filiusque eius Wido a Berengario rege marchio patris loco constituitur." Liudprand, Antapodosis, ii, 55, Dümmler (1877), 47; "Quo tempore Berta matre regis ipsius Hugonis mortua, Wido filius eius, quem ex Adelberto genuerat sicut prediximus, Tussciae marcam tenebat, qui Maroziam scortum Romanam sibi uxorem acceperat." ibid., iii, 18, p. 61; "... Widone, fratre Hugonis regis, ..." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 928, 41]

MALE Lambert, d. after 958; margrave of Tuscany, 928×9-931, blinded 931.
["Lambertus, qui post Widonis fratris sui mortem Tusciae marcam tenebat, vir erat bellicosus et ad quodlibet facinus audax." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iii, 46, Dümmler (1877), 75; "... rex Hugo ... Consilio autem accepto, eundem Lambertum tenuit et custodiae tradidit. Timuerat enim, ne, si se dimitteret, regnum illi auferret. Hoc igitur capto, Bosoni fratri suo Tusciae marcam contradidit; et non multo post Lambertum lumine privavit." ibid., iii, 46, p. 76]

FEMALE Ermengard, d. after 29 February 932, m. ca. 915;
Adalberto, d. 922×4, margrave of Ivrea.
["Hoc eodem tempore defuncto Adelberto, Eporegiae civitatis marchione, uxor eius Hermengarda, Adelberti prepotentis Tuscie marchionis et Bertae filia, totius Italiae principatum obtinebat." Liudprand, Antapodosis, iii, 7, Dümmler (1877), 58]

Daughter of Thibaud, either by Bertha or by an earlier wife:

FEMALE Theutberge, d. before September 948;
m. Garnier (Warnerius), d. 924, viscount of Sens and count of Troyes.
Theutberge's case is discussed on the page of Thibaud.



Commentary

Falsely attributed father (in fact her uncle): Louis II, emperor.
This parentage is given in a series of genealogical tables from the eleventh century on [MGH SS 2: 314; MGH SS 6: 32, 176; see also Schmid (1994)], of which some later versions also confuse Louis II with his grandson Louis the Blind [e.g., MGH SS 6: 176]. The earliest versions of this table were evidently compiled in the reign of emperor Heinrich II (1002-1024) with the purpose of showing the Carolingian ancestry of his wife Cunégonde, so the branch of the family to which Bertha belonged was evidently of lesser interest to the original compilers of the table. That, and the fact that the tables are not contemporary, show clearly that we should not accept these tables with regard to Bertha's parentage when the evidence placing her as a daughter of Lothair is earlier and better.

Conjectured daughter by Thibaud: Ermengarde, m. Bérillon, viscount of Vienne.
[Chaume (1925), 1: 545 (table 9)]


Bibliography

Ann. Bertin. = G. Waitz, ed., Annales Bertiniani (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1883).

Brandenburg (1964) = Erich Brandenburg, Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen (Frankfurt, 1964).

Cart. Cluny = A. Bernard & A. Bruel, Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny, 6 vols., (Paris, 1876-1903).

Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).

Dümmler (1871) = Ernst Dümmler, Gesta Berengarii Imperatoris (Halle, 1871).

Dümmler (1877) = Ernst Dümmler, ed., Liudprandi episcopi Cremonensis opera omnia (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1877).

Flodoard, Annales = Ph. Lauer, ed., Les Annales de Flodoard (Paris, 1905).

Hofmeister (1907) = Adolf Hofmeister, "Markgrafen und Markgrafschaften im Italischen Königreich in der Zeit von Karl dem Grossen bis auf Otto den Grossen (774-962)", Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 7 (1907): 215-435.

MGH Poet. Lat. = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Poetae latini aevi carolini.

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Poupardin (1907) = René Poupardin, Le royaume de Bourgogne (888-1038) - Étude sur les origines du royaume d'Arles (Paris, 1907).

RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.

Schmid (1994) = Karl Schmid, "Ein verlorenes Stemma Regum Franciae", Frühmittelalterliche Studien 28 (1994), 196-225 (& tables 1-14).

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Werner (1967) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)", Karl der Große 4 (1967): 403-483.


Compiled by Stewart Baldwin

First uploaded 20 September 2008.

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