Arnulf I succeeded as marquis of Flanders on the death his father Baldwin II in 918 [Folcwine, Gesta abbatum S. Bertini Sithiensium, c. 103, MGH SS 13: 627]. A number of Arnulf's acts survive, showing that he usually used the title of "marquis" [e.g., "S. Gloriosi Marchisi Arnulphi" Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 22 (#15); see also ibid., 23-36 passim]. Count Adalelm of Artois was killed at Noyon in 932 [Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 932, 52], and that is when Arnulf appears to have obtained possession of Artois ["Arnulfus comes cepit castellum sancti Vedasti." Ann. Bland. (in margin, year not stated, placed by Grierson in 932), Grierson (1937), 17 & n.7; "Arnulfus comes Flandrie cepit castellum sancti Vedasti Atrabatis." Ann. Elmarenses, s.a. 931, ibid., 84; "Arnulfus comes adquisivit Attrabatum castrum." Ann. Elnonenses ("minores"), s.a. 932, ibid., 150]. On the death of his brother Adalolf in 933, Arnulf succeeded as count of Boulogne and Ternois and Abbot of St. Bertin [Folcwine, c. 105, MGH SS 13: 627]. Arnulf also appears as lay-abbot of Saint-Pierre de Gand in a diploma of 8 July 941, having evidently succeeded king Robert I in that position in 923 [Grierson (1939a), 315 (where the misprint "841" appears instead of the correct "941"); see also Sabbe (1935), 52-5; Sabbe (1937)], and in another diploma of 10 July 953, during a brief period between the abbacies of Gérard de Brogne (941-953) and Womar (953-980) [Grierson (1937), 19; Grierson (1939a), 315]. As a result of Arnulf's reform of these monasteries, Gérard de Brogne became abbot of Saint-Pierre de Gand in 941 ["Abbas Gerardus receptus est ab Arnulfo in Blandinio" Ann. Bland., s.a. 941, 18], and of Saint-Bertin in 945 ["Hoc anno Gerardus abbas ordinatus est in monasterio Sancti Bertini." Ann. Bland., s.a. 945, 18; see also Folcwine, c. 107, MGH SS 13: 628-9]. On 1 January 962, Arnulf's son and heir Baldwin III died [Folcwine, c. 110, MGH SS 13: 632], leaving an infant son Arnulf. In the same year, with the intervention of king Lothair, Arnulf made peace with his nepos, also named Arnulf, whose brother (name unknown) he had previously killed. ["Rex Lotharius cum Arnulfo principe locutus, pacem fecit inter ipsum et nepotem ipsius omonimum eius; quem infensum hic comes habebat ob necem fratris eiusdem, quem de infedelitate sua deprehensum idem comes interimi fecerat. Tunc ipse princeps omnem terram suam in manu regis dedit, ita tamen ut ipse in vita sua inde honoratus existeret." (Translation: King Lothair, having spoken with princeps Arnulf, made peace between him and his nepos of the same name; [the latter count] had offense because of the killing of his brother, whom the same count had caused to be killed, caught in the act of disloyalty. Then this princeps gave all of his lands into the hands of the king, on the condition that he should thence honorably hold them during his life.) Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 962, 152-3]. It has generally been assumed that this nepos Arnulf was a son of Adalolf, the younger brother of Arnulf I who had died in 933, and that the peace between Arnulf I and his nepos involved the restoration of Adalolf's inheritance to the latter [see, e.g., Dunbabin (1989), 54], although this is not directly documented. The bargain made with king Lothair involved the loss of Artois, and on Arnulf's death in 964 or 965, he was succeeded by his grandson Arnulf II, under the guardianship of Baldwin alias Balzo (d. 973), who was an illegitimate son either of Arnulf's brother Adalolf ["Hic etenim Baldzo filius fuit Adalulfi, qui erat uterinus frater Arnulfi magni eundemque Baldzonem ex concubina genuit, ...", De Arnulfo comite, MGH SS 9: 304] or of Arnulf's uncle Raoul, brother of Baldwin II ["Obiit Balzo, filius Rodulfi comitis" Ann. Bland., s.a. 973, Grierson (1937), 21; Ann. Formos., s.a. 973, ibid. 126].
Date of Birth: Unknown.
Place of Birth: Unknown.
Date of Death: 27 March 964×5.
The date of 27 March is confirmed by a number of independent sources. Annales Blandinienses give 27 March 964 ["Magnus Arnulfus, restaurator huius Blandiniensis coenobii, obiit VI kal. Aprilis." Ann. Bland., s.a. 964, Grierson (1937), 20]. The obituary of Saint-Donatien gives 27 March [Grierson (1937), 20, n. 3, citing Obituaire de Saint-Donatien, BCRH, 4th se., 16 (1889): 319], as does the obituary of Saint-Magloire ["VI cal. Ob. Arnulfus comes" Obit. Sens 1 (part 1): 390]. He was also presumably the "Ernaldus com" who appears in the necrology of St. Michaels, Lüneburg, under 27 March [Althoff (1984), 394 (G 32), who regards the identity with Arnulf I as uncertain because Arnulf II died on 30 March]. Due to contradictory evidence, the year is less certain. As indicated above, Annales Blandinienses gives 964 as the year [his obituary (year only) also appears in Ann. Elmarenses (s.a. 964, ibid., 86), Ann. Formos. (s.a. 963, ibid., 126), and Ann. Elnonenses (s.a. 964, ibid., 511)]. However, Flodoard mentions his death under the year 965 ["Arnulfo quoque principe decedente, terram illius rex Lotharius ingreditur, et proceres ipsius provintiae, mediante Roricone praesule Laudunensi, eidem subiciuntur regi." Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 965, 156]. The charter evidence is also contradictory. A charter of count Dirk/Thierry and three others, dated 28 March 964, mentions Arnulf as deceased ["Qua propter Ego in Dei nomine Thodericus, gratia Dei Comes, et Baduuinus et Ericus et Eueruuinus, ex voluntate et iussu senioris mei Arnulfi defuncti, ..." (reading "nomine" for the obvious misprint "nonime"), Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 39 (#36)], fitting very well with the date of 27 March 964 given by Annales Blandinienses. Against this, we have two charters from later in the year 964 in which Arnulf is evidently still alive [2 July 964, Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 40 (#37); 1 October 964, Dipl. belgica 1: 158 (#61) (not p. 179, #71 as cited by Dunbabin (1989), 56)]. These sources seem irreconcilable, making it difficult to decide between 27 March 964 and 27 March 965 as Arnulf's date of death.
Place of Death: Unknown, buried at Saint-Pierre de Gand.
["Obiit magnus Arnulfus, reparator Blandiniensis cenobii, et in Blandinio sepelitur." Ann. Elmarenses, Grierson (1937), 86]. His claimed epitaph reads as follows: "Jus subiens mortis, Arnulphus marchio fortis / Legerat hic requiem judicis atque diem. / Hic patre Balduino generatur, principe divo; / Balduinum genuit, quem cita mora rapuit. / Laudis in exemplum statuens hoc nobile templum, / Huc Wandregisilum transtulit iste pium. / Ergo diu sospes patriam regit et premit hostes, / Post, quia contrahitur, curribus invehitur. / Sed nonagentenus cum jam quater et sedecenus / Post natale Dei volvitur annus ei, / Carnis fine saevas praecessit Aprilis habenas, / Cui prece solamen lector adoptet Amen." [Adrien de Budt, Chronicon Flandriae, Corpus Chron. Fland. 1: 272]
Baldwin II "Calvus", d. 918, count of Flanders.
[Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 931, 48; Witger, Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis, MGH SS 9: 303; Folcwine, c. 103, MGH SS 13: 627; Æthelweard, 1-2]
(Elftrude), d. 929, daughter of Ælfred
"the Great", king of
[Witger, Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis, MGH SS 9: 303; Æthelweard, 1-2]
[(1) possible earlier spouse] (existence uncertain)
If Hildegarde, wife of Dirk II of Holland, was in fact a daughter of Arnulf, then she would almost certainly have to be by an unknown earlier marriage, as discussed below.
[perhaps (2)] m. 934 ["Arnulfus de Flandris filiam Heriberti, olim
sibi juramentis alterutro datis depactam, sumit uxorem."
Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 934, 59]
Adèle (Attala), d. 960 ["Et Adala comitissa obiit" Ann. Bland., s.a. 960, Grierson (1937), 19; Ann. Elmarenses, s.a. 960, ibid., 85; Ann. Formos., s.a. 959, ibid., 126], daughter of Heribert II, count of Vermandois ["Ipse namque iam predictus comes venerabilis Arnulfus accepit coniugum nomine Adelam, domni Heriberti comitis filiam atque duorum Francorum regum, Odonis scilicet atque Rotberti, neptem." Witger, Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis, MGH SS 9: 303; "... abbatis et comitis Arnulfi nobilissima coniunx Attala, ..." Folcwine, c. 106, MGH SS 13: 627].
by Adèle de
Baldwin III is explicitly called a son of Adèle by both Witger and Folcwine. Since Adèle had a sister named Liutgard, it is probable that Arnulf's daughter Liutgard was by Adèle, but that is not directly documented. Evidently younger than Baldwin (as suggested by the list in the Liber Memorialis of Remiremont, mentioned below), Egbert would be by Adèle. All three of these children are mentioned in a charter of marquis Arnulf dated 10 July 953, when Egbert (Hecbertus) was already deceased ["... pro uxore mea, que vocatur Adala, atque pro filio meo Balduino et filia mea Lietgardis nominata, et pro defunctis Balduino genitore meo et Elstrudis genetrice mea, atque Hecberto filio meo ..." Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 29 (#22)]
Baldwin III, d. 1 January 962, joint-count of Flanders, m. Mathilde, d. 1009, daughter of Hermann, duke of Sachsen (Saxony).
[Witger, Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis, MGH SS 9: 303-4; Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 957, 144; "... markisus Arnulfus ... ipse videlicet et uxor sua supra memorata Attala filiusque eorum Baldwinus, ..." Folcwine, c. 106, MGH SS 13: 628]. See the page of Baldwin III for further details.
Liutgarde, d. 15 October 962,
m. Wichmann, count.
Liutgarde's obituary appears in the same year as her brother Baldwin III ["Obiit Baldwinus filius Arnulfi marchisi, et soror eius Liutgardis" Ann. Bland., s.a. 962, Grierson (1937), 20; Ann. Elmarenses, s.a. 962, ibid., 86]. Of the contradictory death dates given for her, the date of 15 October given by the necrology of Elten seems the most likely [(idus Oct.) "It. obiit Lutgardis uxor Wichmanni Comitis" Nec. Elten, 96]. An epitaph given by J.-J. de Smet in a note to Adrien de Budt's chronicle gives 1 October as the date ["Mors minus optata satis omnibus exstat amara / Qua veniente, vacat quod sibi mundus amat. / Arnulphi proles tegit hic quam sapea moles / Lutgiret dicta fuit, nupta puella ruit. Quae, prius Octobrem peteret quam Scorpio solem, / Terna luce cadit, debita mortis agit. / Dic, precor, ista legens: Domino sit spiritus haerens, / Fulsit ut unde fides splendeat et requies." Corpus Chron. Fland. 273, n. 1]. Joseph Depoin gave 29 September 962 as the date [Depoin (1907), 318, apparently citing Van de Putte, Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint Pierre du Mont Blandin, 159]. Liutgarde was definitely deceased by 18 October 962, when her husband made a donation to Saint-Pierre de Gand, in a charter which was witnessed by her father Arnulf ["Quapropter Ego in dei nomine Wicmannus, gratia Dei, non meis meritis, Comes, ... , pro remedio anime mee et coniugis mee defuncte Lietgardis, ...; Signum ipsius Wicmanni comitis qui hanc traditionem fecit et illustrium virorum testimonio firmari petiit - S. illustris Comitis Arnulfi, patris supradicte Lietgardis comitisse - ..." Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 35-6 (#32)]
d. bef. 10 July 953.
[Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 29 (#22); see above]
(undocumented, evidence primarily onomastic):
(but unlikely to be a daughter of Adèle even if she was a daughter of Arnulf)
Hildegarde, living 2 October 974; m. Dirk
II, d. 988, count of Holland.
Hildegarde was still living on 2 October 974, when she and her husband gave a donation to Saint-Pierre de Gand which was witnessed by their two sons Egbert (Hecbertus) and Arnulf ["... Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis ...; Actum publice Blandinio monasterio VIº non. octobris coram his testibus: Arnulfo juniore marchyso, Ingelberto advocato, Hecberto et Arnulfo filiis ipsius Theoderici, ..." Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 46 (#48)]. Dirk was still living on 1 April 988, when he signed an act of marquis Baldwin IV [Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 57 (#64)], and his death is recorded in the same year in Annales Egmundani ["988. obiit Theodericus comes." MGH SS 16: 446].
No direct evidence is known for the suggestion that Dirk's wife Hildegarde was Arnulf's daughter. The main evidence is onomastic, based on the fact that Dirk and Hildegarde had sons named Arnulf (count of Holland) and Egbert (archbishop of Trèves), an unusual combination (with an evidently "Carolingian" name Arnulf and the uncommon name "Egbert") that fits well with Arnulf's family. To this can be added the frequent appearances of Dirk (Theodericus) in the cartulary of Saint-Pierre de Gand both during during Arnulf's lifetime and during the minority and reign of Arnulf's grandson, the younger Arnulf [Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, 1: 33 (#28, 29 June 960), 34 (#30, 5 May 962), 35 (#32, 18 October 962), 39 (#36, 28 March 964), 43 (#41, 11 April 969, signing before both count Godefroid [stepfather of the young Arnulf] and the marquis Arnulf junior), 44 (#43, 15 & 26 October 970, with his own son Arnulf), 45 (#45, 31 January 972), 46 (#48, 2 October 974, see above), 51 (#53, 4 March 981), 52 (#54, 5 March 981), 53 (#58, 29 June 983), 54 (#59, 2 October 983), 54 (#60, 9 January 984), 57 (#64, 1 April 988, under Baldwin IV)]. In addition, the history of the church at Trèves has an interesting remark about a noble English origin for archbishop Egbert and his parents Hildegarde and Dirk: "Hic [i.e. archbishop Ekbertus], de Brittannia ortus, patre Theoderico comite et matre Hildegarda nomine, divitiis et nobilitate Anglorum primoribus, divinatus, ut credimus, huic sedi est praedestinatus." (Translation: He [Egbert] sprang from Britain, with father count Theoderic [Dirk] and mother Hildegarde by name, [who were] foremost among the richness and nobility of the English, prophesied, as it is believed, to be predestined for this seat.) [Gesta Treverorum, MGH SS 8: 169]. This would fit well with the fact that Arnulf's mother was of the West Saxon royal family. The reason that Hildegarde has generally been placed as a daughter of an unknown earlier marriage is chronological. Archbishop Egbert of Trèves became archbishop in 977, which would put his birth at 947 or before if he had reached the canonical age of 30 for archbishops. This calculation, if correct, would in turn make it virtually impossible for Hildegarde to come from a marriage occuring in 934, where the contemporary chronicler Flodoard places the marriage of Arnulf and Adèle [see Werner (1967), 469-70]. Thus, if the suggestion that Hildegarde was a daughter of Arnulf is correct, she would be by an unknown earlier marriage. Although there is no direct evidence for such an earlier marriage, there is sufficient chronological room that such an earlier marriage cannot be ruled out. The Liber Memorialis of Remiremont, on folio 24v, has the names "Arnulfus, Balduinus, Adela, Leudgart, Hildigart, Ecbert" across the top of the page [then, in the same hand, the names Rainsuuida and Hageno on the next line, and Harcker, Leuui, and Berkard along the left margin, Lib. Mem. Remiremont, 1: 50; 2: 24v; all other names on the page are in other hands]. Although such lists of names do not directly document any relationships, the first four names on this top line would appear to be those of Arnulf, his son Baldwin, wife Adèle, and daughter Liutgard, and the sixth appears to be Arnulf's son Egbert. The identity of Rainsuuida, Hageno, Harcker, Leuui, and Berkard is unknown.
If the Hildegarde listed between Liutgard and Egbert was indeed another child of Arnulf, then the situation is not so straightforward as it might first appear. Let us assume for the moment that the Hildegarde of the Liber Memorialis was a daughter of Arnulf. Then there are several possibilities. If, as seems likely, Dirk's wife Hildegarde was older than Arnulf's daughter Liutgard, then there are two possibilities (ruling out the very improbable scenario that Arnulf had two daughters named Hildegarde):
If, as seems rather unlikely, Arnulf's daughter Liutgarde was older than Dirk's wife Hildegarde, then we would have two additional (but significantly less likely) possibilities:
The latter of these two possibilities would be especially unlikely unless Flodoard's date for the marriage of Arnulf and Adèle is incorrect (and there is no reason to believe that Flodoard is wrong on this point). Thus, the evidence does not lead us to a definitive conclusion. While the case for making Dirk's wife Hildegarde a daughter of Arnulf has often been overstated, it remains a reasonable possibility.
Supposed daughter (doubtful, possibly mythical):
Elftrude, said to have been impregnated
by Siegfried "the Dane" (Sifridus
Dachus), ruler in Guînes (also possibly mythical).
Lambert of Ardres, writing at the end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century, in his very legendary account of the counts of Guînes, gives count Baldwin III of Flanders a sister Elstrude (i.e., Elftrude) who was impregnated by Siegfried, a relative of the king of Denmark who was then said to be ruling in Guînes ["Habuit autem iam dictus comes Balduinus mire pulchritudinis sororem, a Balduini Ferrei quondam uxore Elstrude nominatam Elstrudem, cuius Sifridus nimio languebat amore; cui post multi amoris colloquia furtivaque ardoris oblectamenta demum nolenti velle, immo nolle volenti, sine vi ludendo vim intulit et eam clanculo impregnavit." Lambert of Ardres, Historia Comitum Ghisnensium, c. 11, MGH SS 24: 568]. This supposedly resulted in the birth of a son, baptised by Arnulf II under the name of Ardolf, who was later first count of Guînes ["... Peperit autem Elstrudis filium, quem Arnoldus Flandrie comes de fonte levavit et nomen ei Ardolphum indidit et imposuit, eiusque omnimode curam egit et matris." ibid., c. 12, MGH SS 24: 568].
There are good reasons to question Lambert's reliability on these claims. Not only was he writing well over 200 years after these alleged events (which are not confirmed by sources independent of Lambert), but he makes some serious mistakes (e.g., having Baldwin III survive his father and having his own reign, having Arnulf II be an adult at his succession) which indicate that he was not well informed about the history of Flanders in the middle of the tenth century. In addition, Lambert's story about Siegfried and Elftrude looks suspiciously similar to the story of Baldwin I of Flanders and Judith of France.
Falsely attributed children:
NN, m. Isaac, count of
Isaac had a son named Arnulf, and this appears to be nothing more than an onomastically based conjecture [Tanner (2004), 54 (n. 143), 292 (table)]. However, count Isaac was active as early as 924 [Flodoard, Annales, s.a. 924, 21-2], and his son Arnulf was signing with him as early as 941 [see Werner (1967), 471], so this conjecture must be rejected as chronologically improbable. The common placement of Isaac as a son-in-law of Arnulf's uncle Raoul is also no more than a conjecture [see Brandenberg (1964), 89; Werner (1967), 471 (both of whom indicate doubt)].
Berthe, m. Aymar,
count of Genève.
[Vanderkindere (1902), 1: 288, citing L'Art de vérifier les dates, with a comment that no count of Genève of that name is known.] This is a variation of the error in which Berthe is falsely attached as a daughter of Baldwin III. See the page of Baldwin III's wife Mathilde for a discussion of this error.
Heribert (existence doubtful - probably an error for Hecbert,
Anselme lists this supposed son, said to have died before 951, without giving a source [Anselme 2: 714]. Since Anselme does not list Egbert among Arnulf's children, and Egbert is known only from a charter in which his name is spelled Hecbert[us], it is likely that the name Heribert is the result of a misreading.
Mathilde (existence doubtful).
Adrien de Budt names a Mathilde among the children of Arnulf ["Arnulphus Vetulus ..., genuitque ex Athela filia Heriberti, comitis Viromandiae ..., Balduinum juvenum, Ludgardem et Mathildem." Adrien de Budt, Chronicon Flandriae, in Corpus Chron. Fland., 1: 271]. Later, after mentioning an otherwise unknown daughter of Baldwin III also named Mathilde, he provides a claimed epitaph for a Mathilde who was evidently the daughter of an Arnulf. This supposed daughter appears to be an error for Mathilde, a known daughter of count Arnulf II.
Eldegarde, m. Valeran,
count of Crêpy.
This false link was never anything more than a conjecture. As pointed out by Grierson, it is chronologically impossible for Eldegarde, the mother of Gautier I of Amiens, Valois, and Vexin, the latter of whom was probably born about 925, to be a daughter of Arnulf and Adèle [Grierson (1939b), 103ff.]. Since those who made the original suggestion were looking for a Vermandois connection for Eldegarde, there would be no point to trying to make her a daughter of a hypothetical earlier marriage of Arnulf.
Æthelweard = A. Campbell ed., Chronicon Æthelweardi/The Chronicle of Æthelweard (New York, 1962).
Althoff (1984) = Gerd Althoff, Adels- und Königsfamilien im Spiegel ihrer Memorialüberlieferung (Munich, 1984).
Anselme = Père Anselme, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, 9 vols (Paris, 1726-33).
Brandenburg (1964) = Erich Brandenburg, Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen (Frankfurt, 1964).
Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand = A. Van Lokeren, Chartes et documents de l'abbaye de Saint-Pierre à Gand, 2 vols. (Gand, 1868-71).
Corpus Chron. Fland. = J.-J. de Smet, Corpus Chronicorum Flandriae, 4 vols. (Brussels, 1837-1865).
Depoin (1907) = Joseph Depoin, "Wicman II, comte du Hamaland, bienfaiteur de Saint-Pierre de Gand au Xe siècle", in Paul Bergmans, ed., Annales du XXe Congrès (Gand, 1907), 2 vols. (Ghent, 1907), 2: 315-351.
Dipl. belgica = Maurits Gysseling & Anton CF Koch, eds., Diplomata belgica ante annum millesimum centesimum scripta, 2 vols, Bouwstoffen en Studiën voor de Geschiedenis en de Lexicografie van het Nederlands I (Brussels or Tongres, 1950). [Citation from this source is courtesy of Peter Stewart]
Dunbabin (1989) = Jean Dunbabin, "The reign of Arnulf II, count of Flanders, and its aftermath", Francia 16 (1989): 53-65.
Flodoard, Annales = Ph. Lauer, ed., Les Annales de Flodoard (Paris, 1905).
Grierson (1937) = Philip Grierson, ed., Les Annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand (Brussels, 1937). [Annales Blandinenses, Annales Elmarenses, Annales Formoselenses, Annales Elnonenses]
Grierson (1939a) = Philip Grierson, "The translation of the relics of St. Amalberga to St. Peter's of Ghent", Revue benedictine 51 (1939): 292-313.
Grierson (1939b) = Philip Grierson, "L'origin des comtes d'Amiens, Valois et Vexin", Le Moyen Age 49 (1939): 81-125.
Lib. Mem. Remiremont = Eduard Hlawitschka, Karl Schmid, & Gerd Tellenbach, eds., Liber Memorialis von Remiremont (MGH Libri Memoriales 1, 1970) [Part 1: text; part 2: photographic copy of original manuscript]
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Nec. Elten = N. C. Kist, ed., "Het Necrologium en het Tynsboek van het Adelijk Jufferen-stift te Hoog-Elten", Nieuw Archief voor kerkelijke geschiedenis inzonderheid van Nederland 2 (1854): 1-216.
Obit. Sens = Obituaires de la Province de Sens (2 vols. in 3, Paris, 1902-6).
Sabbe (1935) = Étienne Sabbe, "Deux points concernant l'histoire de l'abbaye de St-Pierre du Mont-Blandin (Xe-XIe siècles)", Revue bénédictine 47 (1935): 52-71.
Sabbe (1937) = Et. Sabbe, "Étude critique sur le diplôme d'Arnoul Ier comte de Flandre, pour l'abbaye de Saint-Pierre à Gand (941, juillet 8)", in Études d'histoire dédiées à la mémoire de Henri Pirenne par ses anciens élèves (Bruxells, 1937).
Tanner (2004) = Heather J. Tanner, Families, Friends and Allies - Boulogne and Politics in Northern France and England, c. 879-1160 (Leiden, Boston, 2004).
Vanderkindere (1902) = Léon Vanderkindere, La Formation Territoriale des Principautes Belge au Moyen Age (2 vols., 2nd ed., Brussels, 1902, reprinted 1981).
Werner (1967) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)", Karl der Große 4 (1967): 403-483.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
Uploaded 27 May 2002
Major revision uploaded 12 October 2006 (with thanks to Peter Stewart, for comments on the previous version).
Revision (adding data from Cart. S.-Pierre de Gand, among other changes) uploaded 25 November 2007 (with thanks again to Peter Stewart, for comments on the previous version, and for providing references not available to me).
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