Kings of Osraige (Ossory)

The purpose of this web page is to give an account of the kings of Osraige (Ossory) in Ireland from the earliest historical times until the Norman invasion, along with a detailed genealogical account, and with documentation from the primary sources. The early medieval kingdom of Osraige comprised very roughly the modern diocese of Ossory, that is, the parish of Seir-Kieran in the King's county (Offaly), three baronies in the Queen's county (Leix), and most of the county of Kilkenny [Carrigan (1905), 1: 3 (second pagination)]. It is named after the early Irish tribe of the Osraige, which means "deer-people" [Mac Niocaill (1972), 3].

The origin of the monarchy in Osraige is lost in obscurity. Complicating the picture is the layer of myth and legend which has been superimposed upon the earlier part of the "history", and which has been accepted as historical by the less critical historians. For example, Shearman and Carrigan both wrote their histories as if Óengus Osrithe, the mythical eponym of Osraige, was a real individual [Shearman (1876-8), 337-8; Carrigan (1905), 1: 27-8]. In the more sober reality, Óengus was an invention of the medieval Irish pseuohistorians, and nothing is known prior to the fifth century. Even for the fifth century and most of the sixth we have nothing but vague traditions of uncertain reliability, and it is only from the late seventh century that the list of kings of Osraige is reliably documented. Sources of the eighth century suggest that toward the end of the fifth century, the Osraige lost a significant amount of their territory to the Déisi, and it may have been as a result of this that the Osraige came under the domination of the rival tribe of the Corcu Loígde, a situation which seriously complicates the history of Osraige during a period when the documentation is extremely thin.

The three most important sources for our purposes are the annals, of which the earliest contemporary entries occur in the sixth century, the genealogies, of which an early version for Osraige can be traced to about the 760's (see below), and the king lists (and Synchronisms), of which an early version for Osraige existed perhaps in 888×894 (see below). However, none of these sources survive in such early forms, and what we do have has generally gone through an unknown number of copyings, revisions, and interpolations. This makes interpretation of the evidence difficult, especially in the early period when there is no consistent pattern. Despite these difficulties, we get some significant glimpses of the sixth and early seventh centuries, and we have a reasonably well documented succession of kings of Osraige from the late seventh century until 1103, followed by a confused situation from there until the Norman Conquest in the late twelfth century.

The King List and Synchronisms

A list of the kings of Osraige appears in the Book of Leinster [LL 40e-41b]. Also important are the Synchronisms, appearing in three different recensions (see below), from which king lists for the earlier period can be reconstructed. These sources are most conveniently compared by a table, which also shows kings appearing in the annals and other sources. The fact that the period before Scandlán Mór is confused emerges clearly from this comparison, which shows that the King List and the Synchronisms have no overlap in that period. In his article on the political history of Munster, Liam Ó Buachalla stated that "In LL 40 the names of seven kings of Corca Laigde who ruled over Ossory are given as follows: Cúchraide mac Duach (of the Uí Duach Argetrois according to the genealogies LL 321, etc); Feradach mac Duach (who died 582, AU) apparently brother of Cúcraidhe; Colman son of Feradach; Cennfaeladh; Aedh Osraighe; Nuata, and Scannlan son of Cennfaeladh." [Ó Buachalla (1951-6), 57: 70, n. 17; see also ibid., 59: 117, n. 14] Although that part of the Osraige king list is partly illegible, it is still clear that Ó Buachalla's list is a very innacurate portrayal of the list in the Book of Leinster. Ó Buachalla's list appears to have been based on the list of Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige which was given by William Carrigan in his History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory [Carrigan (1905), 30-2]. With one minor exception noted below, each column shows the order in which the kings are listed. In the early period where the lists were not helpful in determining the order of the kings, the order of the above list by Carrigan and Ó Buachalla was used, with the understanding that it need not be the correct order. The content of the columns of the table are as follows.

Column 1: This column contains the Osraige king list in the Book of Leinster [LL 40e-41b (vol. 1, pp. 189-190)]. Although this list goes through the twelfth century, the first table below only gives the list through Riacán mac Dungaile (888-894), the place where the Synchronisms stop. (Later kings are covered further below.) For the earlier kings, the list is partly illegible.

Columns 2-4: These columns give three different versions of the Synchronisms, which included an Osraige king list extending from Colman to Fiachan mac Dungaile (corresponding to Riacán mac Dungaile in the list in LL), suggesting the possibility that an early version of the Osraige king list was drawn up in the latter reign. Included are the published lists of Thurneysen and Boyle (who used different manuscripts witnessing different rescensions) [Thurneysen (1933), Boyle (1971)], and also a similar list taken from the Synchronisms which appears in the Annals of Clonmacnoise [Ann. Clon., 81, 97, 101, 115]. The manuscripts used by Thurneysen switched the order of Tuaim Snáma and Scandlán Mór (shown in red in the table). One of the two manuscripts of Boyle's rescension switched the order of Fáelán mac Forbassaig and Máel Dúin mac Cummascaig (marked with an "*" in the table).

Column 5: This column notes the kings of Osraige who appear in the annals and other sources. In most cases, only one annal reference is given in the table for each king, and a more complete list of annalistic references can be found in the main list of kings which occurs further down on this page. Names in parentheses indicate that the individual was not called king of Osraige in the entry cited. In cases where the king appears in neither the lists nor the annals, another source is given. For more details in these cases, see the discussion below.

King List in Book of Leinster Synchronisms Annals and other sources
Thurneysen Boyle Ann. Clon.
        Concraid son of Dui (Life of St. Ciaran)
Feradach Find mac Duach       Feradhach m. Duach, d. ca. 583×4 (AU)
  Colman Mor Colman Colman Colman mac Aedha, d. ca. 605 (AT)
Colman mac Fearadhoigh (AFM)
  Cenn Faelad Cendfhaeladh Ceanfoyla  
        Aed Find (Ban Senchus)
Nuadu mac Colmain        
Ronan Rígflaith mac Colmain        
Scandlán Mor mac ind Faelaid .xi. Tuam Snama Scandlan Mor mac Cindaeladh Scanlan mcKinley Scandlan Mór m. Cind Faelad, d. ca. 646 (AI)
        Faelan, d. ca. 660 (AT)
Tuaim Snama .xxxi. Scannlan Mor mac Cinn Faelad Tuam Snama Twaymsnawa Toim Snamho, d. ca. 678 (AU)
  Faelchar Faelcar mac Fardlach Foylcha (Faelcar nepos Maele Odræ, d. ca. 693) (AU)
Cu Cherca mac Faelain .xix.   Cu Cherca Cowkearky Cu Chercæ, d. 713 (AU)
  Faelan mac Con Cercca Faelan Foylan  
Fland mac Congaile Flann Fland Feann  
Ailill mac Faelain Ailill Ailill Oillill  
Cellach mac Flaind Cellach mac Faelchair Cellach mac Faelchirr Ceallach Ceallach m. Faelchair, d. 735 (AU)
Forbasach mac Ailella Forbasach mac Ailella Forbasach mac Aililla   Forbusach mac Aillelo, d. 740 (AT)
Anmchaid mac Con Cerca Anmchad mac Con Cercca Anmcadh mac Con Cerca Anmcha (Anmchadh mac Con Cerca, fl. 750) (AT)
Tomína mac Flaind Tuaim mac Flainn Tuaim mac Flaind Twamsnawa Tóim Snamha m. Flainn, d. 770 (AU)
Dungal mac Cellaig .iii. Dungal mac Cellaig Dungal mac Cellaigh Dungal Dunghal mac Cellaigh, d. 772 (AFM)
Faelan mac Forbasaig .xi. Faelan mac Forbasaig Faelan mac Forbosaigh* Foylan (Faelan m. Forbasaigh, d. 786) (AU)
Mael Duin mac Cummascaig .u. Mael Duin mac Cumascaig Maelduin mac Cumasgaigh* Moyldeyn (Maeldúin mac Cumasccaigh, d. 790) (AFM)
Fergal mac Anmchada .u.   Fergal mac Anmcadha Fergall Fergal m. Anmcadha, d. 802 (AU)
Dungal mac Fergaile .xl. Dungal mac Fergail Dungal mac Fergaile Dunlen Dungal m. Ferghaile, d. 842 (AU)
Cerball mac Dungaile .xl. Cerball mac Dungail Cerball mac Dungaile Karvell Cerball m. Dungaile, d. 888 (AU)
Riacan mac Dungaile Fiachan mac Dungaile Fiachan mac Dungaile Fiaghna (Riaccán, mac Dunghaile, fl. 892) (AFM)

As can be seen from the table, the agreement of the king lists, the Synchronisms and the annals is quite good from Cellach mac Fáelchar to Riacán mac Dungaile, reasonably good from Scandlán Mór to Ailill mac Fáelán, and weak before Scandlán Mór. This is not unexpected, as it is quite natural for the earlier period to be more poorly documented. Thurneysen's recension of the Synchronisms has the interesting statement that the kings of Osraige were first enumerated from Scandlán Mór ["Ni airmiter rig Osairgi sunn ar chuimri co Scannlan Mor mac Cinn-Faelad." Thurneysen (1933), 84-5]. Since Scandlán is not the first king of Osraige appearing in the list, we have an apparent contradiction here. One possibility is that the names Colmán and Cenn Fáelad were not originally on the list. On the other hand, Boyle's manuscripts, which are partly illegible, appear to state that the lists began with Colmán, mentioning Scandlán later in the same sentence ["Ni hairmiter righ (. . . .) go Colman mac C(. . . .) ge go Sgandlan Mor mac Cindaeladh." Boyle (1971), 171-2]. In any case, we shall see that the most serious problems are with the period prior to the middle of the seventh century.

After Riacán ("Fiachan") mac Dúngaile, the Synchronisms cease to name the kings of Osraige. However, the king list in the Book of Leinster continues to list kings until shortly before the Norman invasion. The next table gives the list down to 1103, overlapping with the table above to start with Dúngal mac Cellaig, when the list resumes giving reign lengths. (The list from 1103 on will be given verbatim below.) These are compared to the reign lengths given by the annalistic evidence (given in more detail further below).

Name as given
in the king list
Reign length as
given in the list
Period of reign
in the annals
Reign length in the
annalistic framework
Discrepancy
(col. 2 minus col. 4)
Comments
Dungal mac Cellaig .iii. 770-772 2 +1  
Faelan mac Forbasaig .xi. 772-786 14 -3  
Mael Duin mac Cummascaig .u. 786-790 4 +1  
Fergal mac Anmchada .u. 790-802 12 -7  
Dungal mac Fergaile .xl. 802-842 40 0  
Cerbal mac Dungaile .xl. 842-888 46 -6  
Riacan mac Dungaile   888-894 6    
    894-905 11   First reign of Diarmait mac Cerbaill
Cellach mac Cerbaill   905-908 3    
Diarmait mac Cerbaill .xx. 908-928×9 20/21 0/-1 Second reign
Culen mac Cellaig .u. 928×9-933 5/4 0/+1  
Dondchad mac Cellaig .xxxi. 934-976 42/43 -11/-12 Reign starts in year after death of predecessor
Gilla Patraic mac Dondchada .xxi. 976-996 20 +1  
Cellach mac Diarmata .uii. 996-1003 7 0  
Dondchad mac Gillai Patraic .xxxi. 1003-1039 36 -5  
Gilla Patraic mac Dondchada .xxii. 1039-1055 16 +6  
Domnall mac Gillai Patraic   1055-1087 32    
Dondchad mac Domnaill   1087-1089 2    
Gilla Patraic Rúad .xiiii. 1089-1103 14 0  

The most notable complications in the annals are the two reigns of Diarmait mac Cerbaill (only the second of which is shown in the list), and the appearance of a leth-rí Muirchertach, who died in 1041 (not in the list). Otherwise there is good agreement between the list and the annals regarding the number and order of reigns. With regard to the lengths of the reigns, the list either agrees with or is one year off from the annals in eight cases. In six other cases, there is a disagreement of between 3 and 12 years, none of which can be explained by the most common scribal slips with Roman numerals. The claimed sixteen year reign of the second Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada could be explained by suggesting that he began to reign as joint king when his father became king of Leinster in 1033, and that his reign was counted from 1033. This assumption would also reduce the discrepancy in his father's reign to one year. The other errors do not seem to admit such obvious explanations.

The Genealogies

The Osraige Tribal Genealogies

The earliest Osraige genealogies appear in the twelfth century, in the manuscript Rawlinson B. 502, and in the Book of Leinster. The earliest of these seem to be a group of genealogies which appear with minor variations in Rawlinson B. 502, the Book of Leinster, and the Book of Lecan, and are edited on pages 101-116 in Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae. This group of genealogies will be referred to below as the "Osraige Tribal Genealogy." The Osraige Tribal Genealogy differs from other Osraige genealogies in that they show much branching and include many members who were not closely related to the ruling family, while the other Osraige genealogies generally appear as a single stem which enumerates only the ruling dynasty. The Osraige Tribal Genealogy includes a pedigree of Cellach Raigni (d. 735), king of Osraige, but has no mention of Cellach's son Dúngal (d. 772), who was also king of Osraige. Also, a Tuaim Snáma mac Flainn, king of Osraige, who, judging from his patronymic was intended to be the second Tuaim Snáma (d. 770), is mentioned by his title (rare in the genealogies), suggesting that an early version of the genealogies was composed during his reign. A further updating of the genealogies seems to have been done in the ninth century, for there is a genealogy of Cerball mac Dúngaile (d. 888). The overwhelming majority of individuals in the genealogies in CGH 101-116 cannot be adequately dated because they cannot be identified in the annals. However, no individual later than Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1039) is known to appear in this part of the Rawlinson genealogies, and the genealogy of Cerball mac Dúngaile at Rawl. 129b47 (CGH 111) was not updated beyond the ninth century, suggesting strongly that the Osraige Tribal Genealogy is the earliest surviving version of the Osraige genealogies. The genealogies of Tuaim Snáma, Cerball, and Cellach are given as follows, along with information about their supposed ancestry.

"Laignech Fáelad m. Eochada m. Imchada m. Con-brotha m. Fir-Chorb m. Cormaic m. Coirpri meic Niad-Coirp." [R128b32, CGH 101]

"Trí meic Bicne m. Laignich Faílad .i. Colmán, Énán, Garb. Cethri meic Colmáin Móir .i. Scandlán Mór, Rónán Rígflaith, Máel-aithchén, Bran." [R129b42, CGH 110]

"Tuaim Snáma [rí Osairgi mac Flaind] m. Congaile m. Máele-aithgén meic Colmáin." [R129b44, CGH 110 (the corresponding genealogy in LL 340 omits the part in brackets)]

"Cerball m. Dúngaile m. Fergaile m. Anmchada m. Con-cercca m. Fáeláin m. Crundmaíl m. Rónáin m. Colmáin Móir." [R129b47, CGH 111]

"Cellach Raigni m. Fáelchair m. Forandla m. Máelodráin m. Scandláin Móir." [R129b49, CGH 111]

When these genealogies are compared with the annals and king lists, one thing that stands out is that there seems to be a problem with the genealogy of Tuaim Snáma. The genealogy in the Book of Leinster omits a generation compared to the genealogies in Rawlinson B. 502 and the Book of Lecan, and there were two kings of Osraige named Tuaim Snáma, ruling about 100 years apart. To which one does the genealogy refer? If the extra generation is left out, as in the Book of Leinster, then the chronology would seem right for the first Tuaim Snáma (whose patronymic is not known). If we accept the extra generation (as in two out of the three genealogies), that would put the Tuaim Snáma of the genealogy in the same generation as Cú Cercca (d. 712×3) and Fáelchar (d. ca. 693), each four generations removed from Colmán Mór. Although this would give the right patronymic for the second Tuaim Snáma, the chronology seems too long unless either some longer than average generations were involved (not at all uncommon in Irish genealogies) or one or two generations were accidently skipped between Congal and Máel Aithchén through miscopying (also not uncommon). I think that the latter is probably what happened, although it is difficult to rule out the possibility that the shorter genealogy was originally intended for the earlier Tuaim Snáma and that someone who knew the name of the father of the second Tuaim Snáma "corrected" this by adding the name Flann.

If the Colmán Mór and Scandlán Mór who appear in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy were intended to be identified with the kings of Osraige of that name, then their patronymics from the king lists and annals have changed. However, these genealogies have a Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad who is perhaps to be identified with the king of that name ["Ceinnétich m. Flaithnén m. Scandláin m. Cind-fáelad m. Cuanu m. Fáebargaile m. Odorchon m. Fairchellaich m. Doborchon." R129a24, CGH 105]. This will be discussed in more detail below.

Other Osraige Genealogies

Rawlinson:
Eventually, the kingship of Osraige came to be dominated by one branch of the royal family, and only that branch received updates to its genealogy. In addition, as the genealogies were updated, various novelties appeared in the earlier part of the genealogy. In addition to the Osraige Tribal Genealogy, Rawlinson B. 502 also has another isolated genealogy of the ruling dynasty, ending with Domnall, a son of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1039), king of Osraige and Leinster, which introduces an interesting variation in the earlier part of the genealogy: "Domnall mac Donnchada m. Gillai-Pátraic m. Donnchada m. Cellaig m. Cerbaill (cuius filius Diarmait) m. Dúngaile m. Fergaile m. Anmchada m. Con-cercca m. Fáeláin m. Crunnmaíl m. Rónáin Rígflatha m. Colmáin (cuius filius Scandlá(i)n) m. Bicne Cáech m. Laignich Fáelad m. Rumaind Duach (cuius filius Feradach) m. Conaill m. Coirpre m. Nio-Cuirp m. Buain ..." [(through many more generations to Noah) R117e39 and similarly Lec. 98Rd36, CGH 15-6].
Here, in addition to drastically altering the generations before Laignech Fáelad, three brothers of individuals in the main line are shown. See below under "Rumand Duach and Feradach mac Duach" for further discussion.

Book of Leinster:
In a genealogy which was brought up to date in the later part, the Book of Leinster had similar alterations in the earlier generations, with the new twist that Scandlán Mór and Cenn Fáelad were introduced between Rónán Rígflaith and Colmán: "Dondchad m. Gillai-Pátric m. Domnaill m. Dondchada m. Domnaill m. Gillai-Pátric m. Dondchada m. Gillai-Pátric m. Dondchada m. Cellaig m. Cerbaill m. Dúngaile m. Fergaile m. Anmchada m. Con-cercca m. Fáeláin m. Crunnmaíl m. Rónáin Rígflatha m. Scandláin Móir m. Indfáelad m. Colmáin m. Bicne Cáech m. Laignich Fáelad m. Rumaind Duach m. Conaill m. Coirpre m. Buain ..." [(with a blank space after Indfáelad and similar reference marks under Rónáin and over Colmáin) LL 337h1, CGH 15-6 (from the critical apparatus)]. It will be argued below that the genealogy has here been corrupted by the Synchronisms. However, elsewhere in the Book of Leinster, the old genealogy survived essentially unscathed, merely brought up to date by introducing more recent members of the family: "Domnall rí Ossairge & Scandlán dá mac Cerbaill m. Domnaill m. Dondchada m. Domnaill m. Gillai-Pátric m. Dondchada m. Gillai-Pátric m. Dondchada m. Cellaig m. Cerbaill m. Dúngaile m. Fergaile m. Anmchada m. Con-cercca m. Fáeláin m. Crunnmaíl m. Rónáin Rígflatha m. Colmáin Máir m. Bicne Cáech m. Laignich Fáelad m. Eochada m. Imchada m. Con-brothaig m. Fir-Chorbb m. Cormaic m. Coirpre m. Niad-Corbb m. Buain ..." [LL 339a14, CGH 15-6 (from the critical apparatus)].

Ban Shenchus:
The Book of Uí Maine contains the following short genealogy inserted into an entry of the Ban Shenchus: "Land ingen Dungaili m. Feargaili m. Athaidha m. Con Cearca m. Faelain m. Crundmail m. Ronain Rig-flaite m. Scandlain Moir m. Cind Faelad rig Oisrige, mathair Fhlaind m. Mael tSecland." [BS 225 (UM); see below]. Here, there is the name Athaid in place of Anmchaid. This should probably be attributed to scribal corruption.

Mac Firbis Book of Genealogies:
The Mac Firbis Book of Genealogies has the following genealogy: "Finghin m. Briain m. Seaain m. Finghin m. Finghin m. Domhnaill m. Domhnaill m. Seafraidh Finn m. Seafraidh Bachaigh m. Domhnaill Mhoir Muighe Laca <.i. Laoisigh> m. Sgannlain m. Giolla Phadraig m. Domhnaill tug Sioraipin <.i. Seriopun> do Mhanchaibh m. Donnchadh[a] m. Giolla Phadraig m. Domhnaill m. Donnchadha asa re na [...] Gall Saxain Erinn ar tus m. Ceallaigh m. Cearbhaill m. Dunghaile m. Fearghail m. Amhalgaidh m. Anmchaid m. Con Cerca m. Faolain m. Cronnmhaoil m. Ronain Rioghflatha m. Colmain Moir m. Bigne Caoich m. Laigne Faoladh m. Sgannlain Moir m. Cind Fhaola m. Ruamain Duach m. Conaill mc. Cairbre Caoimh m. Nia Corb m. Buain ..." [McF Gen. 480a; "[...]" indicates a word given as an abbreviated form of which I am unsure]. Several cadet lines are also shown ["Brian mac Taidhg m. Finghin m. Briain m. Briain m. Seaain m. Domhnuill Duibh m. Domhnuill m. Seafraidh Finn m. Seafraidh Bacaigh." ibid., 480ca; "Maolseachlain m. Sgannlain m. Donnchuidh m. Uilliam Clannuigh m. Domnuill Mhoir m. Laoighsigh m. Sgannlain m. Giolla Phadraig m. Domhnaill tug S. do na Manchaibh m. Donnchuidh." ibid., 480cb; "Colonel John Fitz Patrick (1666) .i. Seaan mc. Finghin m. Seaain mc. Finghin m. Briain m. Briain Oig m. Senbhriain mc. Briain ma Luirech." ibid., 480c]. The most notable features of the genealogy are the appearance an additional individual Amalgaid between Fergal and Anmchaid (shown by the annalistic evidence to be incorrect), and the appearance of Scandlán and Cenn Fáelad in a different place, this time between Laignech Fáelad and Rumand Duach. The genealogy has also evidently lost a number of names between Donnchad mac Cellaig and his alleged son Domnall, as will be discussed further below. In another place in the book, a list of the kings of Leinster includes a different pedigree of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1039): "Donnchadh mc. Giolla Phadraig mc. Donchadha mc. Ceallaig mc. Cearbhuill mc. Diarmada mc. Dunghaile mc. Fearghaile mc. Anmchada mac Con Cearca mc. Faolain mc. Crunmaoil mc. Ronain Rioghflatha mc. Sganlain Mhoir." [McF Gen., 427c]. Note that Diarmait has intruded here as an additional generation between Cerball and Dúngal. This has evidently come about because "cuius filius Diarmait" in a pedigree similar to the above Rawlinson pedigree has at some point been corrupted to "mac Diarmada".

Ó Clery Book of Genealogies:
In the Ó Clery Book of Genealogies, the following genealogy appears: "Mael sechloinn m. Scannlain m. Donnchada m. Uilliam clannuigh m. Domnaill moir maighi laóighisi m. Scandlain m. Giolla patraicc m. Domnaill tuc Siripún do manchaibh m. Donnchadha m. Gilla patraicc m. Donnchadha m. Ceallaigh m. Cerbhuill m. Diermada m. Dungaile m. Ferghaile m. Anmchadha m. Con cerca (.i. Fionnchad, 710) m. Faelain m. Crundmhail m. Ronain righflatha m. Scannlain moir m. Cinn faeladh m. Colmain m. Bigne caoich (.i. Eochaidh) m. Laighnich faeladh [m. Scannlain m. Cinn faeladh] m. Ruamain duach m. Conaill m. Cairpre m. Nia cuirp m. Eic buain m. ..." [Ó Clery Gen. #1783 (p. 134); here, the editor states that the second "m. Scannlain m. Cinn faeladh" has been enclosed in brackets]. A genealogy giving a cadet line is also included ["Finghin m. Briáin m. Briain m. Seaain m. Finghin na cúlchoilledh m. Finghin m. Finghin m. Domnaill duibh m. Sefradha find m. Sefradha bacaigh m. Domnaill moir muighi laoighisi m. Sgannlain m. Giolla patraig m. Domnaill tug Siorupun dona manchaibh." Ó Clery Gen. #1785 (p. 134)]. Here, we have the appearance of Scandlán and Cenn Fáelad in two different places (although one pair is enclosed in brackets).

Osraige Genealogies in Secondary Sources

For purposes of comparison, we also show here how two nineteenth century secondary sources show the pedigree of the kings of Osraige, starting from Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige and Leinster, d. 1039. In order to save space, what is shown in genealogical tables is indicated here with text.

O'Donovan:
Later, in the nineteenth century, John O'Donovan accepted this earlier intrusion of a Scandlán and Cenn Fáelad into the genealogy in a genealogical table: "... Donnchadh, son of Gillaphadraig, son of Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, son of Dunghal, son of Ferghal, son of Amhalgaidh, son of Anmchadh, son of Cucerca, son of Faelan, son of Crunnmhael, son of Ronan Righfhlaith, son of Colman More, son of Bicne Caech, son of Laighne Failidh, son of Scanlan More, son of Kinfaela, son of Rumann, son of Conall, son of Cairbre Caemh, son of Nia Corb, son of Buan, ..." The one side branch given during the period of interest to us is: "Scanlan, the friend of St. Columbkille, son of Colman, chief of Ossory, A.D. 601, son of Feradhach, son of Conall, son of Cairbre Caemh, etc." [O'Donovan (1849-51), 255(11)-256(12)]. O'Donovan gave the same relationship between Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad and Scandlán mac Colmáin in his notes to the Annals of the Four Masters [AFM 1: 257, note h]. However, in a note to the annal of 601, he calls Cenn Fáelad and Colmán brothers, without giving further details [ibid., 1: 230, note s]. Note the disregard for chronology in making Cú Chercca (d. 712×3) seven generations removed from Scandlán (d. ca. 643).

Shearman:
Shearman's work on the kings of Osraige also has genealogical tables. Without showing any of the branching, we indicate here how he shows the main line: "... Duncadh, son of Gilla Patraic, son of Doncadh, son of Muirchertach, son of Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, son of Diarmaid, son of Dungaile, son of Fearghall, son of Anmcadh, son of Amalgaidh(?), son of Cucerca, son of Faelan, son of Cruindmael Erbuilg, son of Ronan Righflaith, son of Scanlan Mor, son of Colman Mor, son of Bicne Caoic, son of Laighniadh Failidh, son of Faelan, son of Rumann Duach, son of Conall, son of Cairpre Dam Aircaidh, son of Cairpre Nia or Niacorb, son of Buan or Nia Buan, ..." [Shearman (1876-8), gen. tables following p. 408] In addition to the intrusion of Diarmait (seen also in the Ó Clery genealogies) and Amalgaid (but with a question mark, and in a different place than Mac Firbis's and O'Donovan's genealogy), Shearman's genealogy adds a Muirchertach between Donnchad and Cellach and a Fáelán above Laignech Fáelad. Between Rónán Rígflaith and Colmán Mór there is only Scandlán Mór, without Cenn Fáelad. Although Shearman's genealogy has no obvious chronological problems, it departs from the earlier manuscripts on a number of important points.

Rumand Duach and Feradach mac Duach

As indicated above, the long Osraige genealogy appearing in Rawlinson B.502 has a couple of features worth noting. One is the appearance of three individuals in the genealogy preceded by the words "cuius filius" to indicate sons other than the one through whom the genealogy continued. The other is the very different genealogy before Laignech Fáelad. Of the three individuals appearing under the "cuius filius" formula, Diarmait mac Cerbaill is confirmed from the annals, and Scandlán mac Colmáin appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy. The third Feradach mac Duach, is introduced as a brother of Laignech Fáelad and son of Rumand Duach at the exact point where the genealogy differs from the Osraige Tribal Genealogy. This places Feradach (d. ca. 583×4) six generations earlier than Fáelchar (d. ca. 693) and Cú Chercca (d. 712×3), which is a short a period of time for that many generations, but not impossible. However, given that Feradach seems to have been of the Corcu Loígde (see below), we can probably reject his alleged connection to this family as a later fabrication. Here, we can also note the possible influence of the pedigree of St. Ciarán of Saigir: "Ciaran Saigri m. Luaigne m. Ruanaind Duach m. Conaill m. Corpre Niad m. Buain ..." [CGSH #288]. This strongly suggests that the saint's pedigree, along with the similar names Laignech and Luaigne, has caused the corruption of Laignech's pedigree.

Scandlán and Cenn Fáelad as supposed ancestors of the "main" Osraige line

The Osraige Tribal Genealogy makes Rónán Rígflaith the son of Colmán Mór. However, one of the genealogies in the twelfth century Book of Leinster inserts the two generations Scandlán Mór and Cenn Fáelad in between Rónán and Colmán. If this longer genealogy were the correct one, it would undermine the Osraige Tribal Genealogy on a couple of important points. However, note that the first three kings of Osraige shown by two of the three versions of the Synchronisms are Colmán, Cenn Fáelad, and Scanlán Mór, which appear in the longer genealogy in the same order. Thus, with a high degree of probability, we can rule out this longer genealogy as being corrupted by the Synchronisms. Further confirmation appears from the fact that Rónán Rígflaith is listed as the son of a Colmán in the king list in the Book of Leinster (see above).

The ancestry of the late medieval Mac Gilla Pátraic family

Judging from the genealogies, all of the major late medieval branches of the Mac Gilla Pátraic family were descended from a certain Domnall Mór mac Gilla Pátraic, of Magh Lacha, son of Scandlán, son of Gilla Pátraic. As Domnall had sons named Geoffrey (Seafraidh) and William, he clearly belongs to the period after the Norman invasion. However, the genealogies of Ó Clery and Mac Firbis put Domnall Mór respectively seven and eight generations after Cellach, who died in 908. Although not impossible, this seems like too few generations, and would make the later Mac Gilla Pátraic family descend from a cadet branch only distantly related to the twelfth century kings. Thus, it appears that generations have been dropped from the genealogies. Although the Ó Clery and Mac Firbis genealogies of Domnall Mór at first glance appear to differ by only one generation, there is some reason to believe that the tables are the result of two distinct errors. The table below shows one genealogy from the Book of Leinster in the left column [LL 337h1, CGH 15-6, see above] with obituaries from the annals, and with possible correspondences to the Ó Clery and Mac Firbis genealogies shown in the other two columns.

LL, annals Ó Clery Mac Firbis
Cerball, d. 888 Cerbhull Cearbhall
Cellach, d. 908 Ceallach Ceallach
Donnchad, d. 976 Donnchadh Donnchadh*
Gilla Pátraic, d. 996 Gilla Pátraicc*  
Donnchad, d. 1039 Donnchadh*  
Gilla Pátraic, d. 1055    
Domnall, d. 1087    
Donnchad, d. 1089   *
Domnall, d. 1113   Domhnall
Gilla Pátraic, d. 1146 * Gilla Phádraig
Donnchad, d. 1162 * Donnchadh
  Domnall Domhnall
  Giolla Pátraicc Giolla Phádraig
  Scandlán Sgannlán
  Domhnall Mór Domnall Mhór

Here, if the alignments are correctly made, each of the errors in the Ó Clery and Mac Firbis genealogies could be explained as occurrences of saut du même au même (in which the eye skips from a word to the same word elsewhere), but at different points in the genealogy. The asterisks show where the copyists eyes could have skipped in each case. Such mistakes are especially common in genealogies repeating many names. Thus, it seems likely that Domnall Mór was the great-grandson of the late twelfth century king Domnall mac Donnchada.

The Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige

There are several sources which indicate that, at the beginning of the historical period, Osraige was dominated by kings from the outside, from the tribe of Corcu Loígde. It is said that there were seven kings of Osraige who were of the Corcu Loígde ["... uair do Chorca Laoighdhe d'Fearadac mc. Duach, uair seacht rígh do gabhsad Osairghe do Corco Laoigdhe, & seacht rígh do Osairghe ro ghaph righe Chorca Laoighdhe." ("... because Feradach son of Dui was of the Corcu Loígde (for seven kings of the Corcu Loígde ruled Osraige, and seven kings of the Osraige took the kingship of Corcu Loígde)" FA #4 (pp. 2-3)]. These seven kings do not appear to have been named in any early source, but modern authors have attempted to identify them from the fragmentary sources. The king of Osraige who is most clearly identified as a member of the Corcu Loígde is Feradach mac Duach [FA #4 (pp. 2-3), see above], who is said to have been killed by the Clann Connla (i.e., the Osraige) ["Tancuttar iar[a]mh Clann Connla & ro mharbhsad Fearadach, ..." ("Then Clann Connla came, and they killed Feradach, ..." FA #4 (pp. 2-3)]. Other kings can then be tentatively placed among the Corcu Loígde by association. If we accept that the Colmán who died ca. 605 was a son of Feradach by making the appropriate choice among his alternate patronymics, then he becomes a member of the Corcu Loígde, as does his apparent son Nuadu mac Colmáin, known only from the king list in the Book of Leinster.

Two other apparent kings of Osraige, who don't appear in the annals, king list, or Synchronisms, but come from other sources, appear to have Éoganacht genealogies. Conchrad mac Duach appears in a fanciful episode of the Life of St. Ciaran of Saighir as a contemporary of Óengus mac Nad Fróech, king of Munster (d. late fifth century). In the story, Eithne, wife of Óengus, fell in love with Conchrad but was cured of this by eating blackberries [Vita Sancti Ciarani de Saigir, c. 16, VS 1: 224; Plummer (1922), 2: 103, 114]. Conchrad appears in the genealogies not as a king of Osraige but as the father-in-law of king Diarmait mac Cerbaill (d. ca. 565) and a descendant of Corcc of Cashel ["... m. Óengusa Conath m. Concrath cuius filia Mugain ben Diarmata meic Cerbaill dia tá Carn Mugaine i nArgatrus. m. Duach Cliach m. Maine Munchaín m. Carpri m. Cuircc m. Luigdech." R151a25, CGH 222; "Mugain ingen Conrach m. Duach do Conachtaib, bean Diarmada, mac Aeda Slaine." BS 180 (Lec.); "Mugain umorro do Conndachtaib, (no ingen Concraid m. Duach Cliach m. Maine Muncain m. Oililla Flaind Bic) diata Carnd Mugna a nAirgeadros, mathair Aeda Slaine." BS 217 (UM)]. A further statement that Conchrad ruled Osraige can be found in Mac Firbis's book of genealogies, used as evidence by both Shearman and Carrigan ["Aré an Concraidh sin mc. Duach Cliach ro gabh an crich sin do aindeoin cloinne Connla mc. Breasail Bric, & are romarbh taoiseach Ua nDuach .i. Ó Bearga, ar rob iad priomhtaoisigh Osraighe an tan sin .i. Ó Bearga taoisioch Ua nDuach, & Ó Bruadair taoisioch Ua nErc, & Mag Bráin Ua cl-" Mac Firbis Gen., 627 (Carrigan's translation of this reads: "It is that Concraidh, the son of Duach of Cliu, who occupied that country [Osraige], in spite of the children of Condla, son of B[r]esal Breac, and it was he that killed the chief of the Ui-Duach, viz., O'Bearga. For the three principal chieftains of Osraighe at that time were O'Bearga, chief of Ui-Duach, and O'Bruadar, chief of Ui-Erc, and Mac Braen of the Clanns." Shearman's translation finishes: "... Mac Braen, of the Ui Cliach." The difference between the two translations is the expansion of the abbreviated "cl-".)]. The extent to which we should trust these sources that Conchrad was king of Osraige is unclear. There are reasons for suspicion. Ciaran is brought into contact with individuals of widely varying dates, causing doubt about the reliability of his biography, and the story of Conchrad's contact with Eithne seems fictitious. The statement in Mac Firbis's book has the severe anachronism that people with surnames are placed in Conchrad's lifetime, so that source can probably be rejected. Thus, we are left without any clearly reliable source that Conchrad actually reigned in Osraige. If we do accept his reign, a floruit in the late fifth and early sixth centuries would be consistent with the claim that he was a contemporary of Óengus mac Nad Fróech and father-in-law of Diarmait mac Cerbaill. It does not seem chronologically likely that he was a brother of Feradach mac Duach, despite having the same patronymic.

Another king of apparent Munster origin would be Áed Find, who is stated to have been a king of Osraige by the Ban Shenchus ["Croinseach ingen Aeda Find rig Osraigi, bean Mail Choba." BS 184]. The Máel Coba in question is evidently the Cenél Conaill king Máel Coba mac Áeda (d. ca. 615), who appears on the list of Uí Néill "high-kings". He has been plausibly identified with the Áed Osraige who appears in the genealogies ["... m. Carpri Riastrain m. Áeda Osrige m. Láegaire m. Crimthaind m. Echach m. Cais m. Cuircc m. Luigdech." R150a22, CGH 210; see also Byrne (1973), 294]. What little evidence we have would suggest that he belongs to the late sixth century, i.e., somewhat earlier than he is placed by Carrigan and Ó Buachalla [Carrigan (1905), 1: 32; Ó Buachalla (1951-6), 57: 70, n. 17]. This would make him an arguable father of king Colmán (depending on which patronymic we accept for that king).

This leaves the remaining two kings of Osraige whom Shearman, Carrigan, and Ó Buachalla would place in the Corcu Loígde, Cenn Fáelad and Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad. Here, the claim that these kings were of the Corcu Loígde origin would appear to depend on the claim that Cenn Fáelad was a son of Colmán. However, the only "evidence" for that appears to be those versions of the genealogies which place Scandlán and Cenn Fáelad between Rónán Rígflaith and Colmán, which, if accepted, would make Scandlán and Cenn Fáelad members of the native Osraige dynasty rather than the Corcu Loígde. In fact, the Osraige Tribal Genealogy has a genealogy which contains a Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad who could be plausibly identified with the king of that name ["Ceinnétich m. Flaithnén m. Scandláin m. Cind-fáelad m. Cuanu m. Fáebargaile m. Odorchon m. Fairchellaich m. Doborchon." R129a24, CGH 105].

For Shearman, who does not include Nuadu among the seven Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige, the seventh such king would be a Scandlán son of Colmán son of Feradach, whom he regards as a different person from Scandlán Mór son of Colmán Mór [Shearman (1876-8), 242, 250].

Thus, the attempts of historians to enumerate the seven Corcu Loígde kings who ruled over the Osraige show mixed results. That there was a period when Osraige was ruled by kings of Corcu Loígde origin and that Feradach mac Duach was one of those kings seems likely. That there were exactly seven kings of the Corcu Loígde who were kings over the Osraige, and in return exactly seven kings of the Osraige who were kings over the Corcu Loígde, looks like poetic exaggeration. However many such kings there were, it is not clear that we have the evidence today to enumerate them.

One Scandlán or two?

When the veil lifts after the obscurity of the sixth and early seventh centuries, we find what appears to be three or four family groups alternating between themselves for the kingship of Osraige. According to the Osraige Tribal Genealogy, these family groups seem to have a common ancestry going back to a certain Colmán Mór mac Bicne Cáech, branching off at his sons in what would appear to be the late sixth or early seventh century (based on a rough count by generations), at a time when Osraige was apparently being ruled by Corcu Loígde kings. Judging from his patronymic, this Colmán Mór would appear to be a different person from the king Colmán of Osraige who died in the early years of the seventh century. The same can be said of Scandlán Mór mac Colmáin Móir of the genealogies, who would at least appear from his patronym to be distinct from Scandlán Mór mac Cind Fáelad.

This brings up a number of difficult questions. To what extent, if any, was the Osraige Tribal Genealogy contaminated by Corcu Loígde traditions? Were there two different Scandláns, or did Colmán Mór acquire a son Scandlán as a distorted memory of Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad? If there were two different Scandláns, what was their chronological position with respect to each other? Similarly, were there two different Colmáns? Were any of the eighth century kings of Osraige in fact descended from one of the Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige? We should not necessarily expect to be able to answer all of these questions.

Scandlán Mór is said by both the king list and the Synchronisms to have been the son of a certain Cenn Fáelad, whom the Synchronisms list as a previous king of Osraige. All but two of the major annals also give this parentage. The exceptions are the Annals of Ulster, which do not list Scandlán Mór, and the Annals of Tigernach, which list Scandlán Mór without a patronym. Thus, even though his absence in AU means that we cannot be sure that he was present in the Old Irish Chronicle that was the common ancestor of AU, AT, CS, etc., we still have significant evidence that Scandlán Mór was a son of Cenn Fáelad. Thus, when we see the Osraige king Cellach Raigni in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy as a descendant of Scandlán Mór mac Colmáin Móir, the presence of the same epithet causes the natural suspicion that Scandlán Mór was "borrowed" from the king list for the genealogy of Cellach Raigni.

Nevertheless, there is significant evidence for a king Scandlán son of Colmán. In Adomnán's Life of St. Columba, dating from the late seventh century, there is a passage about a certain Scandlán mac Colmáin, who was held in chains by king Áed at the time of the meeting of Druim Cett ["... Scandlanum fili<um> Colmani apud Aidum regem in uinculis retentum ..." Adomnán, i, 11 (pp. 34-5)]. Adomnán states that Scandlán was visited by Columba, who told him that he would be king of his own people for thirty years, then be in exile, and then reign again for three short seasons. It is then related that Scandlán was indeed later king for thirty years, after which he was driven from the kingdom, only to return to the throne for three months after which he died. It should be noted that the kingdom ruled by Scandlán is not explicitly stated by Adomnán. The much later preface of the poem Amra Coluim Cille states that one of the purposes of the meeting of Druim Cett was to discuss the release of Scandlán Mór, son of Cenn Fáelad, king of Osraige [Amra 38-9]. Thus, if Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad and Scandlán mac Colmáin were indeed different individuals, they were confused with each other at an early time. One important record states that it was Scandlán Mór who drove the Corcu Loígde out of Osraige ["643. Conall ocus Cellach dá mac Maeilecoba ro gabsat ríge nEirenn iartain. Diarmait ocus Blathmac dá mac Aeda Sláine ro gabsat Eirinn as a naithleside. Is ina naimsirside ro innarb Scandlán Mór rí Osraide Corca Laigde co comlán de chrích Osraide." ("643. Then Maelcoba's two sons, Conall and Cellach, became kings of Ireland; after whom Diarmaid and Blathmac, Aedh of Slaine's two sons, had her. In their day Scannlan king of Osraidhe banished the entire tribe of the Corca Laighde away out of the land of Osraidhe.") Mionannala, Silva Gadelica, 1: 394; 2: 428]. This is usually assumed to have been Scandlán mac Colmáin.

All of this evidence has been interpreted in different ways by different authors. In his list of the kings of Osraige, Shearman only includes those who he regarded as being of the native race of Osraige (i.e., those whose genealogy goes back to the legendary Óengus Osríthe). Thus, he starts his list with Colmán Mór mac Bicne Cáech (supposedly d. 574, the year in which Shearman places the meeting at Druim Cett), followed by his son Scandlán Mór (the hostage at Druim Cett, supposedly 574-604, obviously calculated on the basis of a 30 year reign), his alleged son Rónán Rígflaith, his alleged son Crundmáel Erbolg, and so forth [Shearman (1876-8), 408]. So, although he mentions other kings, such as Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad (d. 642), they are apparently considered as a parallel series of kings [ibid., 346, 349-50, 353, 359]. Shearman's confused account also briefly mentions a third Scandlán (son of Colmán son of Feradach) in his parallel series of kings [ibid., 350]. According to Carrigan, Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad was the hostage at Druim Cett, and died about 620 or 630 [Carrigan (1905), 1: 32-4], and was succeeded by Rónán Rígflaith, who was succeeded by Scandlán Mór mac Colmáin, who died in 640 [ibid., 1: 35]. Similarly, according to Ó Buachalla, followed by Mac Niocaill, Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad was the last of the Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige, after which Scandlán mac Colmáin expelled the Corcu Loígde from Osraige [Ó Buachalla (1951-6), 59: 117, n. 14; Mac Niocaill (1972), 86]. Jaski states that "It appears that at some stage the name of Scandlán's father was changed from Colmán to Cenn Fáelad." [Jaski (1998), 342, n. 7] Charles-Edwards makes the Scandlán who died in 643 a son of the Colmán who died in 605, and refers to the connection between Osraige and the Corcu Loígde as an "alliance" [Charles-Edwards (2000), 488-9].

Similar confusion reigns with the Colmáns. In the genealogies Colmán Mór is the son of Bicne Cáech. King Colmán of Osraige appears in the Synchronisms (as Colmán "Mór" in Thurneysen's edition), in the annals (as son of Áed or Feradach), and in the saint's lives (as son of Feraid). Shearman lists Colmán Bicne as his first king of Osraige, mentioning Colmán mac Feradach in his parallel series of kings who were interlopers [Shearman (1876-8), 347-50, 359, 408]. Here, Colmán mac Bicne flourishes earlier than Colmán mac Feardach. For Carrigan, Colmán Mór mac Bicne Cáech and Colmán mac Feradach were both kings of Osraige, but with Colmán mac Feradaig as the earlier one, and Cenn Fáelad reigning in between [Carrigan (1905), 1: 32]. Ó Buachalla gives a reign to only one Colmán, the son of Feradaig, as one of the Corcu Loígde kings [Ó Buachalla (1951-6), 59: 117, n. 14]. Charles-Edwards makes king Colmán the father of Scandlán Mór [Charles-Edwards (2000), 488].

Let us examine some of the possible scenarios in more detail. For our first scenario, let us suppose for the sake of argument that the parentage of king Scandlán Mór of Osraige as given by the annals, king list, and Synchronisms, is wrong, that he was actually son of a Colmán, and that there was no Scandlán son of Cenn Fáelad ruling Osraige at about this time. From this, it would follow that the king Colmán of Osraige who died about 605 was probably the father of Scandlán Mór. Here, the possibilities would branch again, depending on which parentage of Colmán was accepted, but we could accept the Osraige Tribal Genealogy as it is from Colmán Mór down (with shorter than average generations between Scandlán Mór and Fáelchar, and longer than average generations between Máel Aithchén and the younger Tuaim Snáma). This scenario has the advantage of allowing a thirty year reign for Scandlán mac Colmáin as stated by Adomnán, but has the disadvantage of disallowing several important pieces of evidence, the annals, the king lists, and Synchronisms, and requires that Scandlán was very old at his death in about 643. Nevertheless, the chronology is possible, and it is not necessarily the case that the annals, the king lists, and Synchronisms are independent with regard to the parentage of Scandlán Mór.

In our second scenario, we instead suppose that the king Scandlán who died about 643 was the son of Cenn Fáelad, and that no other Scandlán was important in the history of Osraige (either as a king or genealogically) in the late sixth and early seventh centuries. In this case, we would be assuming that Adomnán was either mistaken about the parentage of his Scandlán, or that the individual involved was not relevant to the history of Osraige. Under this assumption, we would have to conclude that the Scandlán Mór who appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy was an intrusion, probably an attempt of one branch to add a king of Osraige to their ancestry. In this case, it would also follow that the Osraige Tribal Genealogy was an untrustworthy source. However, since the genealogy involving Scandlán only comes up to Cellach Raigni, it was most likely composed before his son Dúngal mac Cellaig became king in 770, and we would generally expect a genealogy composed this early to be reliable at least back to the early seventh century. Still, it is difficult to rule out this scenario.

For our next two scenarios we identify the king Scandlán who died about 643 as the son of Cenn Fáelad, but we also allow that another Scandlán, son of Colmán, played some part in the history of Osraige, and that they were sometimes confused. In what we call scenario number three, we also assume that Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad was one of the Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige. Then, if we accept the statement of Mionannala that Scandlán Mór drove the Corcu Loígde out of Osraige for good, then he would have to be Scandlán mac Colmáin, and be later than Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad. However, there is a potential chronological problem here. We would expect that the achievement of driving out the Corcu Loígde was accomplished by a vigorous king. But Scandlán mac Colmáin was an evidently adult hostage at the meeting at Druim Cett in the 590's or before, and had a great-grandson who was king in ca. 693, and could not have been young in the 640's, the earliest possible date in this scenario for driving out the Corcu Loígde. This scenario also runs into the problem that there is no room for a thirty year reign for Scandlán mac Colmáin, as Adomnán states. However, these objections are not decisive. For example, there is no guarantee that the information from Mionannala is reliable.

In our fourth scenario, we still suppose that there were two king Scandláns, but we place Scandlán mac Colmáin before Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad, getting rid of the chronological problem of the previous scenario, and allowing room (just barely) for a possible thirty year reign for Scandlán mac Colmáin (say 610-640). Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad could then either be a member of the Corcu Loígde who temporarily reasserted that tribe's dominance, or the same-named individual who appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy. Putting Scandlán mac Colmáin as a distinct king before Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad seems to be the best way to avoid contradicting the most important primary evidence, but that does not necessarily imply that this scenario is correct.

Of the four mutually exclusive scenarios discussed above, it does not seem possible to rule out any of them, and alternate scenarios not mentioned above might also be possible. These scenarios serve to show how much the history of seventh century Osraige depends on the correct identification of one vs. two Scandláns (and if two, in what order), and the fact that so many scenarios can be plausibly argued emphasizes the difficulty of regarding any single scenario as being the correct one. Thus, the overall outline of kings of Osraige is clear only from the time of the first Tuaim Snáma, and what comes before that is riddled with undertainties.

Kings of Osraige

The list given here must be regarded as uncertain before the first Tuaim Snáma. It is hard to be confident about the order of the kings, for example, when there is no overlap between the sources giving Áed Find, Cenn Fáelad, and Nuadu as kings of Osraige.

[Conchrad mac Duach, late fifth/early sixth century, king of Osraige?]
Conchrad mac Duach, king of Osraige, appears in the Life of St. Ciaran of Saighir as a contemporary of Óengus mac Nad Fróech, king of Munster, who apparently died in the late fifth century [Vita Sancti Ciarani de Saigir, c. 16, VS 1: 224; Plummer (1922), 2: 103]. He can be identified with the Conchrad who appears in the genealogies as the father of Mugain, wife of king Diarmait mac Cerbaill (d. ca. 565) [R151a25, CGH 222; BS 180 (Lec.); BS 217 (UM)]. Because all of the sources which make Conchrad a king of Osraige are of questionable reliability, the status of Conchrad as a king of Osraige is uncertain (see above). If he belongs on this list, it seems very unlikely that he was a brother to Feradach.

Feradach mac Duach, d. ca. 583×4, king of Osraige.
A story appearing in the Boroma and in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland tells how Feradach was supposed to be one of three kings who went to heaven during the lifetime of St. Columba [Boroma, Silva Gadelica, 1: 378-9; 2: 416-7; FA #4 (pp. 2-3)]. Both versions state that Feradach was of the Corcu Loígde, and that he was fighting against the Clann Connla (a name for the Osraige), who were storming his house. According to the story, Feradach's sons came to take away his treasures, which he had acquired by evil means. Feradach would not let his sons have the treasures, stating that they were ill-gotten. His sons left, and then Clann Connla came and killed Feradach while he was repenting, and took his treasures. This is a fanciful story, the details of which need not be true. Some annals merely state that Feradach died ["Mors Feradhaigh m. Duach regis Osraighi."AU 583.1, with duplicate entry at 584.3; similarly AI 585.1] Other annals state that he was killed by his own men ["Mors Fearadhaigh maic Duach ríg Osraighi, iugulatí a suis." AT 581.1; similarly AFM, s.a. 582; Ann. Clon., s.a. 584]. Radner notes that a statement that Feradach was killed by the Osraige could easily have been changed to "a suis" by a scribe not familiar with the situation in Osraige [FA, p. 185].

Áed Find, king of Osraige. (order uncertain)
Áed is known as a king of Osraige only from the Ban Shenchus, which makes him the father-in-law of Máel Coba mac Áeda (d. ca. 615) ["Croinseach ingen Aeda Find rig Osraigi, bean Mail Choba." BS 184]. His chronological placement is no more than a guess.

Colmán mac Áeda/Feradaig, d. ca. 605, king of Osraige.
The Annals of Tigernach and Chronicon Scotorum make Colmán the son of an Áed, while the Annals of the Four Masters make him the son of a Feradach ["Bass Colmain maic Aedha rígh Osraighi." AT 603.5; CS, s.a. 605; "Colman, mac Fearadhoigh, toisioch Osraighe, décc." AFM, s.a. 601 (=605)] Colmán is also mentioned in the lives of two saints, which name his father as "Feraid", perhaps an indication that the name Feradach is correct. In the Life of St. Cainnech, an incident is described in which the saint rescued Colmán when he was besieged in his fort by his enemies (named as Máelgarb and Máel Odor in one version), who wanted to take his kingdom ["Colmanus filius Fearaidhe, dux regionis Osraidhe, sancto Cainnico amicus erat; et ipse multas villas dedit ei, in quibus sanctus Cainnicus edificauit monasteria et ciuitates. Quodam tempore ille dux in suo castello vndique conclusus est ab inimicis suis, regnum tenere cupientibus." (one MS adds: scilicet Malgarb et Maelodur) Vita Sancti Cainnici, c. 39, VSH 1: 166; see also Charles-Edwards (2000), 262-3]. Colmanus filius Feraidhe, dux Osraidhi is also mentioned in the Life of St. Mochoemog ["Quodam tempore Colmanus filius Feraidhe, dux Osraidhi, putans inimicum suum, nomine Finanum, ante se fugere ad monasterium sancti Mocoemhog, ..." Vita Sancti Mochoemog, c. 28, VSH 2: 178-9].

Cenn Fáelad (mac Cuanach??), king of Osraige. (order uncertain)
Cenn Fáelad is known as a king of Osraige only from the Synchronisms, which place him after Colmán. The patronym suggested here is based on the identification of his son Scandlán with a Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad who appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy, and must be regarded as extremely uncertain ["Ceinnétich m. Flaithnén m. Scandláin m. Cind-fáelad m. Cuanu m. Fáebargaile m. Odorchon m. Fairchellaich m. Doborchon." R129a24, CGH 105]. As noted above, some genealogies would make him the son of a Colmán or of Rumand Duach, but those genealogies appear to be corrupt. For unclear reasons, Shearman makes him the son of Feradach [Shearman (1876-8), 342, 350].

Nuadu mac Colmáin, king of Osraige. (order uncertain)
Nuadu is known only from the king list in the Book of Leinster [LL 40e (vol. 1, p. 189)]. Since he does not appear among the sons of Colmán Mór enumerated in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy, it is likely that he was a son of king Colmán above.

[Rónán Rígflaith, d. ca. 624?, king of Osraige?]
The annals show the death of an otherwise unidentified Rónán mac Colmáin under ca. 624 ["Mors Ronain mac Colmain" AU 624.1; similarly AT 625.1; CS, s.a. 624; AFM, s.a. 619; Ann. Roscrea #108, Ann. Clon., s.a. 624]. The problem is that there is a contemporary namesake Rónán mac Colmáin, who appears on the king list of Leinster, and apparently also that of Uí Chennselaig (as Rónán mac Coluim) [LL 39b, 40a (vol. 1, pp. 181, 184]. Now, there is an obituary for Rónán mac Colmáin of Leinster at ca. 615 ["Bass Ronan maic Colmain, ríg Laigen, cui sucessit Suibne Mend." AT 613.4; "Mors Ronain mic Colmáin, Rí Laighen." CS, s.a. 615; AFM, s.a. 610]. However, this may be an interpolation based on a king list, so that the 624 obituary might be the genuine obituary for Rónán mac Colmáin of Leinster rather than the obituary of a different Rónán mac Colmáin. Thus, the death date of Rónán Rígflaith is uncertain. He appears in the genealogies, but as king of Osraige he appears only in the king list of the Book of Leinster [LL 40e (vol. 1, p. 189)]. Since he was an ancestor of the main Osraige dynasty from 790 on, and his status as king of Osraige is not otherwise documented, there is a natural suspicion that his appearance on the king list is a later interpolation.

Scandlán Mór, king of Osraige, d. ca. 643 [preceded or followed by a second Scandlán?].
["Bass Scannlaín Moir righ Osraige." AT 644.7; "Mors Scandlain Móir m. Cind Faelad, ríg Osraige." AI 646.1; "Bas Scanlain Móir mic [C]innfaeladh, Ri Osraighe.", CS, s.a. 641; "Scannlan mór, mac Cinnfaolaidh, toisech Osraighe, décc." AFM, s.a. 640; "Scanlan More mcKean foyle, K. of Ossory, died." Ann. Clon., s.a. 642] He is given a reign of 11 years in the Osraige king list. The problem of whether there was one Scandlán or two Scandláns ruling Osraige about this time is discussed in detail above.

Fáelán, d. ca. 660, king of Osraige.
["Guin Faelain rig Osraighi do Laignib." AT 660.5; similarly CS, s.a. 656; AFM, s.a. 658; Ann. Clon., s.a. 656] He is omitted from both the king list and the Synchronisms. He is presumed to have been the same man as the Fáelán who was father of the later kings Cú Chercca and Ailill.

Tuaim Snáma, d. ca. 678, king of Osraige.
["Toim Snamho, rex Osraighi." AU 678.4; "Tuaim Snama rí Osraighi mortuus est la Faelan Senchostal." ("Tuaim Snáma, king of Osraige, died by Fáelán Senchustul.") AT 678.5; similarly AFM, s.a. 676; Ann. Clon., s.a. 674] He is given a reign of 31 years in the Osraige king list, which is much too long if Fáelán is admitted to the list. He is given the alternate name "Cicaire" in the account of his death in the Fragmentary Annals ["Cath edir .H. Cinncilaigh & Osraighibh, in quo Tuaim Snamha, .i. Cicaire, rí Osraighe, occisus est. Faolan Seancustul, rí .H. cCinnsiolaig, uictor fuit." ("A battle between Uí Ceinnselaig and the Osraige, in which Tuaim Snáma (that is, Cicaire), king of Osraige, was killed. Fáelán Senchustul, king of Uí Ceinnselaig, was the victor.") FA #69 (pp. 32-3)]. The battle between Tuaim Snáma and Fáelán Senchustul is mentioned in the king lists of both Uí Chennselaig and Osraige (partly illegible) in the Book of Leinster [LL 40a, 40e; vol. 1, pp. 184, 189], and was the subject of a poem [CGH 347; FA #69 (pp. 32-3)]. There is some confusion here, because the Fáelán Senchustul of the Uí Chennselaig king list and the genealogies was too early to be a contemporary of Tuaim Snáma. The Osraige Tribal Genealogy shows the genealogy of a certain Tuaimmine (see Table 1) who has sometimes been identified with Tuaim Snáma [Shearman (1876-8), 359-360, 408]. Carrigan make Tuaim Snáma a great-grandson of Colmán Mór [Carrigan (1905), 1: 36], apparently using the genealogy from the Book of Leinster ["Tuaim Snama m. Congaile m. Mael Aichthen m. Colmain." LL 340bb (vol. 6, p. 1499)] which seems to be a scribally corrupt version of an intended genealogy of the second Tuaim Snáma (see above).

Fáelchar [ua Máel Odrae], d. ca. 693, king of Osraige, ca. 678-ca. 693.
["Bellum inter Osraighi & Laigniu in quo cecidit Faelchar nepos Maele Odræ." AU 693.4; similarly AT 693.4; CS, s.a. 689; AFM, s.a. 690; Ann. Clon., s.a. 688; FA #113, #123 (pp. 40-3)] There is a problem of identification here. The annals do not explicitly state that Fáelchar ua Máel Odrae was king of Osraige, but he can be identified as the Fáelchar son of Forandil son of Máel Odor who appears in the genealogies as the father of Cellach Raigni, king of Osraige. The Fragmentary Annals complicate matters by placing the death of a Fáelchar, king of Osraige, one year earlier than the battle in which Fáelchar ua Máel Odrae was killed. King Fáelchar of Osraige is omitted by the king list, but appears in the Synchronisms. However, Boyle's edition of the Synchronisms calls him Faelcar mac Fardlach. Thus, even though it seems likely that Fáelchar ua Máel Odrae was the same as the king of Osraige of that name, the possibility that they were different needs to be considered.

Cú Chercca mac Fáeláin, d. 712×3, king of Osraige, ca. 693-712×3.
Cú Chercca appears in the 47th position on the list of guarantors of Cáin Adomnáin in 697 [Ní Dhonnchadha (1982), 180, 199-200]. He died in 712 or 713 ["Cu Chercæ, rex Osraighi, moritur." AU 713.8; similarly AT 712.5; AI 713.3; CS, s.a. 708; AFM, s.a. 710, 711 (entered in both years); Ann. Roscrea #166; AT and CS both place Cú Chercca's death in a year corresponding to AU's 712, while AI appears to agree with AU's dating, and AFM gives both years]. He is given a reign of 19 years in the Osraige king list, which would appear to favor 712 over 713 as his date of death. There is an interesting story from Cóir Anmann, which states that Cú Chercca's original name was Findchad, and tells how he supposedly got his other name. In this tale, Findchad, son of king Fáelán of Osraige, was hunting when his hound killed the hound of a nun named Cerc, and the nun threatened to deprive him of heaven. Findchad offered to be a protecting hound for Cerc for a year in compensation for her hound, to which she accepted, and Findchad was called as a result Cú Chercca ("Cerc's hound") [Cóir Anmann #214 (pp. 376-7); Ó Cuív (1986), 176]. Two versions of the Synchronisms have Cú Chercca succeeded by a Fáelán, and Cú Chercca replaced by a Fáelán mac Con Chercca in the other version of the Synchronisms. Thus, either Cú Chercca was succeeded by a son Fáelán in a period when the son succeeding the father was rare, or, much more likely, the Synchronisms have corrupted the patronymic of Cú Chercca into a nonexistent king.

Flann mac Congaile, king of Osraige, 712×3-?
Flann mac Congaile is known only from the king list and the Synchronisms. He begins a series of names which have no reign lengths in the king lists, so we cannot narrow down his chronology any further. If I am wrong that Fáelán mac Con Chercca should be omitted from the list of kings, then Flann's reign would have probably started later than 712×3.

Ailill mac Fáeláin, king of Osraige, ?-before 728.
Ailill mac Fáeláin is known only from the king list and the Synchronisms. No chronological data is available on his reign, beyond the fact that Cellach was already reigning in 728. Ailill does not appear in the genealogies, but is presumed from his patronym to have been a brother of Cú Chercca. For reasons which are unclear, Shearman places Ailill between Fáelchar and Cú Chercca [Shearman (1876-8), 408].

Cellach Raigni mac Fáelchair, d. 735, king of Osraige, before 728-735.
In 728, Cellach was present at the Battle of Ailenn between two sons of Murchad, Fáelán and Dúnchad, who were fighting over the throne of Leinster. Cellach escaped from the battle ["... & Ceallach mc. Faolchair, rí Osraighe, euaserunt." FA #207 (pp. 84-5)]. He was killed in 735 in a battle between Munster and Leinster ["Bellum inter Mumain & Laigniu ubi multi di Laignibh & pene innumerabiles de Mume perierunt, in quo Ceallach m. Faelchair, rex Osraighi, cecidit, ..." AU 735.3; AT 735.3; AFM, s.a. 730] The Annals of Inisfallen mistakenly call him Fáelchar ["Cath Féle eter Cathal mc. Finguine & Foelán, ríg Laigen, i torchair Foelchar, rí Osraige, & Cathal uictor fuit." AI 735.1]. The Osraige king list mistakenly gives his father's name as Flann. His epithet comes from the genealogies and varies slightly in the different manuscripts [Raigni, Rawl.; Roigne, LL; Raidne, Lec.; see CGH 111].

Forbassach mac Ailella, d. 740, king of Osraige, 735-740.
["Guin Forbusaigh, maic Ailello, ríg Osraige." AT 740.2; similarly AFM, s.a. 735; Ann. Roscrea #186; Ann. Clon., s.a. 737] Forbassach does not appear in the genealogies, but is presumed from his patronym to have been a son of Ailill mac Fáeláin. However, Shearman makes Forbassach's father Ailill a son of Máel Odor, and thus makes Forbassach a first cousin of the previous king Fáelchar [Shearman (1876-8), 361, evidence not stated].

Anmchaid mac Con Cercca, living 761, king of Osraige, 740-761×7.
Unfortunately, Anmchaid's date of death is unknown. However, he is the first king of Osraige to make a substantial appearance in the annals. In 746, he appears fighting in the Battle of Rath Cuile against Uargus [mac Fachtna?] (see below) ["Cath Ratha Cuili ria h-Anmcadh, h-i torchair Uargus mac Fiachrach Enboth na n-Desi i n-Aird Maic Uidhir." ("The Battle of Ráith Cuile gained by Anmchad, wherein fell Uargus, son of Fiachra Enboth of the Déisi in Ard Maic Uidir.") AT 746.11; "Iomairecc Ratha cúile ria nAnmchaidh, i ttorcair hUargus, mac Fachtna." ("The battle of Rath-cuile, by Anmchadh, in which Uargus, son of Fachtna, was slain.") AFM, s.a. 741]. In 747, Anmchaid fought a battle in which Cairpre, Fergus, and Caicher, three sons of a certain Cumscrach, were killed along with sixteen kings ["Cath ria n-Anmchadh, i torchair Cairpre & Fergus & Caither mac Cumscraig, et .xui. reges léo." AT 747.16; similarly AFM, s.a. 742]. In 750, Anmchaid fought a battle at Inis Snaic ["IMairec Indsi Snaic ria n-Anmchadh mac Con Cerca." ("The combat of Inis Snaic, gained by Anmchad, son of Cú Chercca.") AT 750.10; similarly AFM, s.a. 745]. In 759, Anmchaid gained the Battle of Gabran over the men of Leinster ["Cath Gabrain re n-Anmchadh for Laignib." AT 759.6; similarly AFM, s.a. 754]. Anmchaid was still living in 761, when he was victorious againt the men of Leinster ["Cath Belaig Gabraín iter Laigniu & Osraighe, cor muid ria mac Con Cerca, in quo cecidit Dungal mac Laidhgnen, rí h-Úa Cendsilaig, et alii." ("Battle of Belach Gabrain between the men of Laigin and Osraige, and the son of Cú Chercca had the victory, and therein fell Dúngal, son of Laidcnén, king of Uí Chennselaig, and others.") AT 761.2; similarly AFM, s.a. 756; cf. AU 761.3, which mentions the battle but not the part of the "son of Cú Cercca" in it]. Shearman states that some pedigrees insert Angidh or Amalgaidh between Anmchaid and Cú Cercca [Shearman (1876-8), 364]. However, the early genealogies do not show this extra generation, and the annals of 750 and 761 would seem to verify that Anmchaid was a son of Cú Cercca, despite the rather long average generation length among his immediate descendants. (From the death of Cú Cercca in 712×3 to the death of Donnchad mac Cellaig in 976 is 255×6 years, an average of over 42 years per generation over six generations.)

Tuaim Snáma mac Flainn, d. 770, king of Osraige, 761×7-770.
Tuaim Snáma (also called Tomína [LL 40e]) first appears in 767 ["Iomairécc Aird na mBrecc ria tTuaimsnámha, mac Floinn." ("The battle of Ard-na-mBreac by Tuaimsnamha, son of Flann.") AFM, s.a. 762 (=767)]. In 769, Tuaim Snáma was victorious in a battle over the sons of his predecessor Cellach mac Fáelchar, whom he put to flight ["Coscradh inter Osrighi inuicem ubi filii Ceallaig filii Faelcair in fugam uersi sunt. Tóim Snama uictor fuit." AU 769.1; AFM, s.a. 764 (=769)]. He was killed the next year ["Tóim Snamha m. Flainn, rex Osraigi, iugulatus." AU 770.2; AFM, s.a. 763 (=768), 765 (=770) (duplicate entries)].

Dúngal mac Cellaig, d. 772, king of Osraige, 770-2.
["Dunghal, mac Ceallaigh, tigearna Osraighe, dég." AFM, s.a. 767 (=772); Ann. Roscrea #202] Dúngal does not appear in the genealogies, but is presumed from his patronym to have been a son of Cellach Raigni. Shearman erroneously places Dúngal before Tuaim Snáma [Shearman (1876-8), 408].

Fáelán mac Forbasaig, d. 786, king of Osraige, 772-786.
["Bellum inter Osraige inuicem in quo cecidit Faelan m. Forbasaigh." AU 786.4; AFM, s.a. 781 (=786)]
Fáelán does not appear in the genealogies, but is presumed from his patronym to have been a son of Forbassach mac Ailella. Shearman states that Fáelán had grandsons Forbassach abbot of "Kilkenny" and Robertach abbot of Aghabo [Shearman (1876-8), 361]. These are Forbassach mac Máel Odrae, princeps of Cell Mór of Cenn Eich, who died in 852 ["Forbusach m. Maeluidhir, princeps Cille More Cind Eich, moritur" AU 852.7; AFM, s.a. 850] and Robertach mac Máel Odrae, abbot of Achad bo Cainnig, who died in 836 ["... & Maeluidhir, abb Achaidh bó Cainnigh, décc." AFM, s.a. 835]. I do not know what evidence Shearman used to give Fáelán a son named Máel Odor.

Máel Dúin mac Cummascaig, d. 790, king of Osraige, 786-790.
["Iomaireacc Cluana Miolain, i ttorchair Maeldúin, mac Cumasccaigh, la Fearghal." ("The battle of Cluain Milain, in which Máel Dúin, son of Cummascach, was slain by Fergal.") AFM, s.a. 785 (=790)] Máel Dúin's father was perhaps the Cummascach mac Flaithgius who appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy ["Find m. Finguine m. Cumóc m. Cináeda m. Cummascaich m. Flaithgiusa m. Dúngaile." R129a48, CGH 106; see Table 2 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy].

Fergal mac Anmchada, d. 802, king of Osraige, 790-802.
Fergal attained the throne in 790 by killing his predecessor in battle [AFM, s.a. 785, see above]. He died in 802 ["Fergal m. Anmchada, rex Osraighi, moritur." AU 802.4; AFM, s.a. 797; Ann. Clon., s.a. 799], and his descendants successfully monopolized the kingship of Osraige to the exclusion of other branches.

Dúngal mac Fergail, d. 842, king of Osraige, 802-842.
["Dungal m. Ferghaile, ri Osraighe, moritur." AU 842.13; CS, s.a. 842; AFM, s.a. 841; Ann. Clon., s.a. 839] Although he is not mentioned directly by the Fragmentary Annals, they consistently refer to his son Cerball as the son of Dúnlang ["Cearbhall mc. Dunlaing, ..." FA #246 (pp. 96-7) & passim]. It is not clear whether Dúngal was called by the alternate name Dúnlang during his own lifetime, or whether this is just a mistake from a later period.

Cerball mac Dúngaile, d. 888, king of Osraige, 842-888.
Cerball first appears in 846, when he defeated the Viking leader Agonn ["Roiniudh már re Cerball m. Dungaile for Agonn in quo ceciderunt da cét déac." ("Cerball, son of Dúngal, inflicted a great rout on Agonn, in which 1200 fell.") AU 847.4; CS. s.a. 847; AFM, s.a. 845]. In 853, he slew Echthigern mac Guaire, king of Laigin Desgabair [AU 853.3; CS, s.a. 853; AFM, s.a. 851]. In 854, Cerball "mac Dúnlaing" (as he is called by the Fragmentary Annals) was sent by Máel Sechnaill into Munster to demand hostages after the death of its king Áilgenán [FA #246 (pp. 96-7)]. This is the first of many appearances by Cerball in the Fragmentary Annals (which will only be briefly covered here), apparently from a lost Osraige source. In 858, Cerball, in alliance with the Viking Ímar (Ivar), had a victory over the Cenél Fiachach [CS, s.a. 858; AFM, s.a. 856]. The Annals of the Four Masters also record that in that year Cerball, son of Dúnlang [sic], plundered Leinster and took their hostages, together with Cairpre mac Dúnlaing and Suithenen mac Artúir [AFM, s.a. 856; see FA #260, #262 (pp. 102-5)]. In 859, together with the Viking leaders Amlaíb and Ímar, Cerball led a great army into Mide [AU 859.2; AFM, s.a. 857; FA #265 (pp. 104-5)]. Then, in the same year, a royal conference was held at Ráith Áeda Meic Bric, and as a result of that meeting the Osraige were alienated to Leth Cuinn (from Leth Moga), with the warrant of Máel Guala, king of Munster ["Righdhal mathe Erenn oc Raith Aedho m. Bricc im Mael Sechnaill rig Temhra, & im Fethghna comurba Patraicc, & im Suairlech comurba Finnio, ic denum sidha & caincomraicc fer nErenn, conidh asin dail-sin du·rat Cerball, ri Osraighi, oghreir samtha Patraic & a comurba, & conidh and do-dechaidh Osraighi i ndilsi fri Leth Cuinn, & ad·rogaidh Mael Gualai, ri Muman, a dilsi." ("A royal conference was held at Ráith Aeda Meic Bric of the nobles of Ireland, including Mael Sechnaill, king of Temair, and Fethgna, successor of Patrick, and Suairlech, successor of Finnia, to make peace and amity between the men of Ireland, and as a result of that meeting Cerball, king of Osraige, gave his full dues to Patrick's congregation and his successor, and the Osraige were laienated to Leth Cuinn, and Mael Guala, king of Mumu, warranted the alienation.") AU 859.3; CS, s.a. 859; AFM, s.a. 857; FA #268 (pp. 106-7)]. The Annals of Inisfallen report that late in that year, with the men of Munster, Cerball went on a hosting in Uí Néill territory, and the the north of Ireland submitted to him [AI 859.2]. In 860, Cerball gained a victory over the fleet of Port Lairge (Waterford) [AFM, s.a. 858; cf. FA #277 (pp. 108-9)]. In 861, Cerball led an army into Mide to assist Máel Sechnaill against Áed mac Néill and Amlaíb, and in the same year he renewed the fair of Roigne [AFM, s.a. 859]. In 862, with his sister's son Cennétig mac Gáethíne, he defeated the fleet of the Viking Rodolb ["Deargár do thabhairt do Chearbhall mhac Dunlaing & do Cinnedigh mhac Gaithine, .i. mc. deirbhseathar Chearbhaill, for longus Rodlaibh, ..." (Cerball son of Dúnlang and Cennétig son of Gáethíne (i.e. the son of Cerball's sister) defeated Rodolb's fleet, ...") FA #308 (pp. 114-5); cf. AFM, s.a. 860]. In 864, Cerball plundered the Éoganacht and took the hostages of the Aithech tuatha of Munster [AFM, s.a. 862]. In 870, Cerball invaded Leinster [AU 870.2; AFM, s.a. 868; FA #314 (pp. 116-7), #387 (pp. 140-3)], and plundered the Déisi [AFM, s.a. 868; FA #318 (pp. 116-7)]. In 871, he plundered Connacht with Dúnchad, king of Cashel, and he also plundered Munster, and slew a certain Buachail mac Dúnedaig [AFM, s.a. 869; FA #398-9 (pp. 144-5)]. In 873, Cerball and Dúnchad plundered Connacht again [CS, s.a. 873; AFM, s.a. 871]. In 874, he plundered the Déisi [AFM, s.a. 872]. In 879, there was a victory by Cerball and the Déisi over the men of Munster [AFM, s.a. 876]. Cerball died in 888 ["Cerball m. Dungaile, rex Osraighi, subita morte periit." AU 888.6; AI 888.1; AFM, s.a. 885; CS, s.a. 888 (called Cerball mac Dúnlainge)]. There does not appear to be any good evidence that he was ever king of Dublin, as is claimed by some Icelandic sources [e.g., "... en Ciarvall at Dyflinni ..." Landnámabók I.1.1, Orig. Island. 1: 14]. Several Icelandic families claimed descent from him (see below).

Riacán mac Dúngaile, d. 894?, king of Osraige, 888-894.
Riacán appears in 892, when he had a victory over the Vikings ["Maidhm ria Riaccán, mac Dunghaile, for Ghallaibh Puirt Lairge, Locha Carman, & Tighe Moling, i farccbhadh dá chéd ceann." ("A battle was gained by Riagan, son of Dunghal, over the foreigners of Port-Lairge, Loch-Carmen, and Teach-Moling, in which two hundred heads were left behind.") AFM, s.a. 888 (=892)]. He is presumed to have reigned until 894, when the Annals of Inisfallen state that Diarmait mac Cerbaill took the kingship of Osraige [AI 894.1]. Shearman erroneously omits Riacán from the list of kings of Osraige [Shearman (1876-8), 408].

Diarmait mac Cerbaill, d. 928×9, king of Osraige, 894-905, 908-928×9.
As noted above, in 894, Diarmait mac Cerbaill took the kingship of Osraige [AI 894.1]. In 896, the "son of Cerball", with the Osraige, made a slaughter of the Éoganachta [AFM, s.a. 891]. In 899, Diarmait renewed the fair of Tailltin [AFM, s.a. 894]. In 905, Diarmait was expelled from the throne, and his brother Cellach became king ["Diarmaid, mac Cearbhaill, do iondarbadh a ríghi Osraighe, & Ceallach, mac Cearbhaill, do rioghadh tar a éis." ("Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, was driven from the kingdom of Osraighe; and Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, was made king in his place.") AFM, s.a. 900]. In 908, after the death of his brother Cellach in the Battle of Belach Mugna, Diarmait was reinstalled as king of Osraige by Flann Sinna, king of Ireland [FA #423 (pp. 156, 159)]. Perhaps in 911, along with Áed mac Duib Gilla, king of Uí Dróna [d. 911, AFM, s.a. 906 (=911)], Diarmait devastated the sount of Mag Raigne, and they destroyed Cell na gCaillech ("the church of the nuns") [FA #431 (pp. 174-5)]. In an uncertain year, perhaps about 912, Diarmait killed his kinsman Domnall mac Bráenáin, precipitating a civil war in which his kinsman Máel Mórda was apparently the leader [FA #443 (pp. 176-9)]. In 916, Bran mac [Echtigern], tanist of Uí Chennselaig, was killed by Diarmait and the Norsemen [AFM, s.a. 914]. Diarmait died in 928 or 929 ["Diarmait m. Cerbaill, rí Osraighi, mortuus est." AU 928.6; CS, s.a. 928 (=929); AFM, s.a. 927 (=929); Ann. Roscrea #272; Ann. Clon., s.a. 924 (=929)].

Cellach mac Cerbaill, d. 13 September 908, king of Osraige, 905-8.
Cellach apparently began to contend for the kingship of Osraige as early as 898, when, along with the Déisi, he led an army over Osraige as far as Gabran, where Máel Morda mac Máel Muaid was slain [AFM, s.a. 893]. In 905, his brother Diarmait was expelled, and Cellach was chosen king in his place [AFM, s.a. 900, see above]. Later in the same year, Cellach and the Osraige gained a battle over the Eili and the Muscraigi [AFM, s.a. 900]. Cerball was killed in the Battle of Belach Mugna on 13 September 908 ["Bellum eter firu Muman & Leith Cuinn & Laighniu ... in quo occisus est ... Ceallach m. Cerbaill, ri Osraighi; ..." AU 908.3; a later hand gives Tuesday, 13 September as the date; AI 908.2; CS, s.a. 907; AFM, s.a. 903; Ann. Clon., s.a. 897]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland have a long account of the Battle of Belach Mugna, and state that Cellach's son (name not given) was also killed there [FA #423 (pp. 150-9, at pp. 156-7)].

Cuilén mac Cellaig, d. 933, king of Osraige, 928×9-933.
["Cuilen m. Cellaigh, rex Osraighi, optimus laicus, mortuus est." AU 933.2; AI 933.1; AFM, s.a. 931; Ann. Clon., s.a. 922 (=927, misplaced)] Chronicon Scotorum gives his father's name as Ogran ["Cuilén mac Ograin, Rí Osraighe, moritur." CS, s.a. 932].

Donnchad mac Cellaig, d. 976, king of Osraige, 934-976.
Although his brother Cuilén died in 933, the Annals of Inisfallen state that Donnchad took the kingship of Osraige in 934 [AI 934.3]. In 947, Donnchad gained a battle over the men of Leinster, in which Bróen mac Máel Mórda, king of Leinster, was killed [CS, s.a. 946; AFM, s.a. 945]. He died in 976 ["Donnchad m. Cellaig ri Osraigi, ... mortui sunt." AU 976.2; "Dondchad mac Cellaig, rí Osraigi in senili étate mortuus est." AT 976.1; AI 976.2; AFM, s.a. 974].

Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 996, king of Osraige, 976-996.
In 983, Gilla Pátraic was captured by Brian Boruma, king of Munster ["Aurgabad Gillai Patraicc meicc Dondchada, ríg Osraige, & indred Osraige la Brian mc. Cennetich & a n-géill do gabáil." ("The capture of Gilla Pátraic, son of Donnchadh, king of Osraige, and the harrying of Osraige by Brian, son of Cennétig, and the taking of its hostages.") AI 983.4]. He was released the next year [AI 984.2]. In 993, Gilla Pátraic went to Mide, and the churches and forts of Mide were devastated [AI 993.4]. Gilla Pátraic was killed in 996 by Donndubán mac Ímair, son of the Viking king of Luimnech (Limerick), and by Domnall mac Fáelán, king of Déisi ["... Gilla Patraicc m. Donnchada rí Osraigi, ... mortui sunt." AU 996.2; "Bás Gilla Phatraicc m. Donnchada, ríg Osraige, & Cellach mc. Diarmata do gabail ríg dara h-ésse." ("... and Cellach, son of Diarmait, took the kingship after him.") AI 996.3; "Gilla Padraic mac Donnchadha, Rí Osraighe, do marbadh do Donnduban mac Imair." CS, s.a. 994 (=996) (plus duplicate entry s.a. 996 (=998)); "Gilla Patraic mac Donchada, rí Ossraighe, do marbad do Donnaman mac Imuir & do Domnall mac Faelan ríg na n-Déisi." AT 996.3; similarly in AFM, s.a. 995 (=996) (plus duplicate entry s.a. 997 (=998)); Ann. Clon., s.a. 991].

Cellach mac Diarmata, d. 1003, king of Osraige, 996-1003.
["Cellach m. Diarmata rí Osraighi, ... occisi sunt." AU 1003.3; AI 1003.2; "Ceallach mac Diarmata, rí Osraige, do marbad do mac a brathar a athar .i. do Dondcadh mac Gilla Patraic." ("Cellach, son of Diarmait, king of Osraige, was killed by the son of his father's brother, that is, by Donnchad son of Gilla Patraic.") AT 1003.3; this record reveals that Cellach's father Diarmait was the man of that name who died in 974 (see below); similarly in CS, s.a. 1001 and AFM, s.a. 1002].

Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1039, king of Osraige, 1003-1039, king of Leinster, 1033-9.
In 1003, he killed his cousin, king Cellach [see above]. In 1016, Donnchad killed Donn Cuan mac Dúnlaing, king of Leinster, and Tadc ua Riain, king of Uí Drona [AU 1016.6; ALC 1016.4; CS, s.a. 1014; AFM, s.a. 1015]. In 1022, the king of Osraige (unnamed, but certainly Donnchad) killed Sitriuc mac Ímair, king of Port Lairge (Waterford) [AT 1022.2; CS, s.a. 1020; AFM, s.a. 1022]. In 1026, Donnchad spent Easter with the coarb of Patrick and Donnchad mac Briain [AI 1026.3]. In 1027, he blinded Tadc mac Gilla Pátraic [AU 1027.2 (see below); ALC 1027.2; AT 1027.2; AFM, s.a. 1027; Ann. Clon., s.a. 1027]. In 1033, Donnchad also took the kingship of Leinster ["Aenach Carmain la Donnchad mc. Gilla Patraicc iar ngabail righi Laigen." ("The Fair of Carman was held by Donnchad son of Gilla Pátraic after he had taken the kingship of Laigin.") AU 1033.4; ALC 1033.3; AFM, s.a. 1033]. However, the king list of Leinster in the Book of Leinster only counts Donnchad's reign from 1036, when Donnchad blinded Donnchad mac Dúnlaing, king of Leinster, who died as a result [AU 1036.3; ALC 1036.6; AT 1036.1; CS, s.a. 1034; AFM, s.a. 1036 (plus duplicate entry s.a. 1037); Ann. Clon., s.a. 1037; "Dondchad mac Gillai Patraic .iii." (i.e., 3 years), king list in LL 39c (vol. 1, p. 183)]. In 1039, he led a hosting as far as Cnogba (Knowth) and Drogeda [AT 1039.6; AFM, s.a. 1039], and he died the same year ["Donnchad m. Gilla Patraicc airdri Laigen & Osraigi, ..." AU 1039.2; ALC 1039.2; AT 1039.7; AI 1039.7 only calls Donnchad king of Osraige; after a long illness, AFM, s.a. 1039; Ann. Clon., s.a. 1039].

Muirchertach mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1041, leth-rí of Osraige.
["Muirchertach mc. Gilla Patraicc do marbad do Hui Chaillaidhe a mebhail." ("Muirchertach son of Gilla Pátraic was treacherously killed by the Uí Chaellaide.") AU 1041.4; ALC 1041.4; "Muirchertach mac Gilla Patraic, leith-rí Osraige, do marbadh do h-Úib Caelaidhe dia muintir fen per dolum." AT 1041.1; AFM, s.a. 1041 (plus duplicate entry misplaced s.a. 1036)]

Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 1055, king of Osraige, 1039-55.
In 1042, Murchad mac Dúnlaing, king of Leinster, and Domnall mac Áeda, king of Uí Bairrche, fell by Gilla Pátraic and by Mac Ráith mac Donnchada, king of Éoganacht [AU 1042.5; ALC 1042.3; AT 1042.3; CS, s.a. 1040; AFM, s.a. 1042]. In 1053, Gilla Pátraic went to Meath with Diarmait mac Máel na mBó and carried off captives and spoils [AFM, s.a. 1053]. In 1054, Diarmait, Gilla Pátraic, and the Norsemen led an army into Munster [AT 1054.8; AFM, s.a. 1054]. He died in 1055 ["... Gilla Patraic ri Osraighi, ... - omnes in Domino dormierunt." AU 1055.2; ALC 1055.2; "Gilla Padraic rí Osraige do éc." AT 1055.7; AI 1055.6; CS, s.a. 1053; AFM, s.a. 1055; Ann. Clon., s.a. 1055]. The list of kings of Osraige in the Book of Leinster gives him a reign of 22 years. This may be an indication that he became joint king of Osraige in 1033, the same year his father became king of Leinster.

Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1087, king of Osraige, 1055-1087.
The Annals of Inisfallen refer to Diarmait mac Máel na mBó of Leinster as king of Leinster and Osraige at his death in 1072 [AI 1072.1]. However, he is not called king of Osraige in the other annals or in the king list of Osraige. In 1067, Domnall with the men of Osraige went on a hosting with Diarmait mac Máel na mBó of Leinster and Tairdelbach ua Briain of Munster into Connacht ["Sluaíged la Diarmuit mac Mail na mbo co nGallaib & Laignib & la Domnall Húa Gilla Patraic co n-Osraigi & la Tairrdelbach Húa mBriain co feraib Muman uile co hAedh Húa Concobair a Con[n]achtaib, ..." AT 1067.5]. In 1072 (evidently after the death of Diarmait), he was one of those who submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain, king of Munster as high-king [AI 1072.6]. Domnall died in 1087 ["Domnall mac Gilla Patraic ri Osraighi do ec." AU 1087.1; ALC 1087.1; AFM, s.a. 1087]

Donnchad mac Domnaill, d. 1089, king of Osraige, 1087-1089.
["Donnchadh H. Gilla Patraic ri Osraighi a suis occisus est." AU 1089.6; "Donncadh mac Gilla Padraic, rí Osraige occisus est." AT 1089.4; ALC 1089.4; "Donnchadh Ua Giollaphattraicc, .i. mac Domhnaill, tighearna Osraighe, do mharbhadh do mhacaibh mic Brain Bric." ("Donnchadh grandson of Gillaphadriag (i.e. the son of Domnall), was killed by the grandsons of Bran Breac.") AFM, s.a. 1089; "... and alsoe Donnogh mcDonnell mcGillepatrick prince of Osserie, was killed." Ann. Clon., s.a. 1087] Donnchad is omitted from the list of kings of Osraige by Shearman [Shearman (1876-8), 408].

Gilla Pátraic Ruad mac Domnaill, d. 1103, king of Osraige, 1089-1103.
["... ár Osraighi im Gilla Patraic ruadh .i. ri Osraigh[i] & im rigraidh Osraighi archeana; ..." ("a slaughter of the Osraige, including Gilla Pátraic Ruad, king of Osraige, and the royal family of Osraige also") AU 1103.5; ALC 1103.3; AT 1103.4; AI 1103.4; CS, s.a. 1099 (=1103); AFM, s.a. 1103]. The identity of Gilla Pátraic's father is not directly documented, but it can be deduced from the entry in the Ban Shenchus which identifies his mother: "Dearbail ingen Tairrdelbaig hI Briain, mathair Gilli Padraic Ruaid rig Osraidi, & Conchobair hUi Fhocarta; & Saidbi ingene Domnaill; & Gilli Padraig; & Chaisin ingen Fhocartaig ..." [BS 194; see Jaski (1997), 147] This can be compared to the entry of "Sadb ingen Domnaill hUi Gilla Padraig" [BS 195, see below] to show that Gilla Pátraic's sister Sadb was a daughter of Domnall "Ua" Gilla Pátraic. (Members of this dynasty are regularly called "Ua Gilla Pátraic" rather than "Mac Gilla Pátraic" in the Ban Shenchus. Surnames were still in the process of development when it was written.)

After 1103: a period of confusion
After the death of Gilla Pátraic Ruad, it is not possible to give an orderly list of the kings of Osraige. The Osraige king list in the Book of Leinster has the following to say about the kings following Gilla Pátraic Ruad. Since I can't read Irish, and I do not have a translation [except for certain pieces which are translated by Carrigan (1905), 1: 52-5], I apologize in advance for any misinterpretations I might have committed. Kings (or joint-kings) of Osraige are in bold-face.

[MS folio 40e 40]"Cerball <solus prius> & Domnall & Find Hua Caellaide. insimul.
Domnall mac Dondchada.
Domnall Mac Gillai Patraic. In Goll mac Cerbaill ros marb.
e.
Find Hua Caellaide.
Dondchad Bálcg Mac Gillai Patraic. A marbad don gilla (. . .) do Mac Raith Hua Branain & don gilla Scellain Hui Fergaile
Dondchad Dub acht is tri lar flatha Dondchada Bacaig ar ro gabad Dondchad Bacach la Tairdelbach Hua Conchobuir
Murchad mac Murchada & Conchobor mac Cerbaill.
Gilla Patraic mac Domnaill meic Dondchada
xx. bliadan a marbad la Hú Broenain tre fill & mebail ina tig fein i Cill Chainnich
Cerball mac Domnaill
. coro innarbad la Diarmait Mac Murchada.
Murchad Hua Caellaide
& Dondchad Mac Gillai Patraic insimul
[41a] Cerball mac Domnaill iterum tenuit regnum. & Murchad Hua Caellaide uincto Dondchado la Diarmait rig Lagen. postea Cerball & Dondchad insimul.
Dondchad solus iar n-innarba Cerbaill la Mac Murchada ríg Lagen.
Domnall Mac Gillai Patraic
a marbad la Laigis
Domnall mac Cerbaill meic Domnaill."

Indeed, it appears that for much of the following period Osraige was divided among more than one king. Coordinating the information given in the annals and in other sources such as the king list becomes difficult. The repeated use of very common names (particularly Domnall and Donnchad) and the appearance of surnames makes it sometimes difficult to determine the genealogical affiliations of individuals. Although the surname later stabilized as Mac Gilla Pátraic, it also commonly appears as Ua Gilla Pátraic in early examples of surname usage.

Cerball mac Domnaill, d. 1105, king of south Osraige.
The Annals of Inisfallen state that Cerball was the son of Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, and call him king of south Osraige ["Cerball mc. Domnaill m. Gillai Patraic, rí descirt Osrage, mortuus est." AI 1105.3]. Following Gilla Pátraic Ruad, the king list in the Book of Leinster states that Cerball, Domnall, and Find Ua Cáellaide reigned at the same time, apparently after Cerball reigned alone for a time ["Cerball <solus prius> & Domnall & Find Hua Caellaide. insimul."].

Domnall Ruad mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1109, king of Osraige.
["Domnall ruadh m Gilla Patraic ri Osraighi do marbadh do maccaeb aile ic cor cloche." ("Domnall Ruad son of Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige, was killed by another youth casting a stone.") AU 1109.9; "Mac Gillapatraic, [rí] Osraighe .i. Domnall ruadh, do mharbadh do macaoibh uile ag cur Chluice." ALC 1109.5; "Domhnall mac Meic Giollaphattraig ..." AFM, s.a. 1109] Chronology and the epithet "Ruad" suggest that he was a son of Gilla Pátraic Ruad. While it is tempting to identify him as a son of Gilla Pátraic's wife Órlaith, based on the Ban Shenchus [BS 198], this is uncertain because of the problematic textual history of Órlaith's Ban Shenchus entry [see below].

Find Ua Cáellaide, fl. 1103, leth-rí of Osraige.
He was probably the same person as the Find Ua Cáellaide who was a son of Dunlaing Ua Cáellaide by his wife Derborgaill, which would make him a great-grandson of king Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada (d. 996) through his mother. Thus, it was evidently he who blinded Donnchad, son of Enna of Leinster in 1103 ["Donnchadh, mac Enna, do dhalladh do mac Dúnlaing, I Chaellaighi." ("Donnchadh, son of Enna, was blinded by the son of Dunlaing Ua Caellaighi.") AFM, s.a. 1103]. Without specifying a source, Carrigan states that Find and the two other members of the Ua Cáellaide family listed below were rulers in the far north of Osraige, in Magh Lacha and Uí Fairchelláin [Carrigan (1905), 1: 53]. According to the king list in the Book of Leinster, Find died a natural death. Find was perhaps a descendant of the Cáellaide who was the father of Cellach mac Cáellaide, d. 939, prior of Saigir ["..., Ceallach, mac Caellaidhe, prióir Saighre, dég." AFM, s.a. 937 (=939)]. A topographical poem written by O'Heerin, who died in 1420, states that the Ua Cáellaides were kings of Uí Berchon ["Ui Bearrchon an bhruit bhuidhe- / Rí na críche O'Caolluidhe, /..." ("Ui-Bearrchon of the yellow mantle - King of that territory is O'Caelluidhe, ...") O'Donovan (1849-51), 252-3 (8-9)].

Domnall mac Donnchada Ua Gilla Pátraic, d. 1113, king of Osraige.
["Domnall m. Donnchadha H. Gillai Patraic do marbadh do Gull Gabrain" AU 1113.6; "Mc. Dondchada Ú Gillai Phatraic do marbad do Goll Gabráin, .i. dia bratha(i)r." ("The son of Donnchad Ua Gilla Pátraic was slain by Goll Gabráin, i.e. by his kinsman.") AI 1113.4] Domnall was the son of Donnchad mac Domnaill (d. 1089). He is not identified as king in the annals. After the simultaneous reign of Cerball, Domnall, and Find, the Osraige king list lists Domnall mac Donnchada, Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, and Find Ua Cáellaide, and assigns to Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic the same death that the annals attribute to Domnall mac Donnchad. The annals are to be preferred here. Perhaps the king list should be interpreted here as saying that the two Domnalls and Find reigned at the same time, and that one of the Domnalls replaced Cerball in south Osraige.

Donnchad Balc mac Gilla Pátraic Ruaid, d. 1123, king of Osraige, before 1119-1123.
In 1119, he was present in the fleet of Tairdelbach Ua Conchobair [AT 1119.5; AFM, s.a. 1119]. In 1120, Ua Gilla Pátraic (first name not given), king of Osraige, submitted to Tadc Mac Carthaig, and was imprisoned by the Dál Cais [AI 1120.4]. He was killed by his own men in 1123 ["Donnchadh m. Gilla Patraic ruadh ri Osraighi a suis occisus est." AU 1123.5; similarly in ALC 1123.3; CS, s.a. 1119; AFM, s.a. 1123; "Dondchadh h-úa Gilla Padraic, rí Osraige, do marbad." AT 1123.6; "Macc Gilli Phatraic Ruaid, rí Osergi, occisus est a suis." AI 1123.5].

Donnchad Dub and Donnchad Bacach (1120's?).
Little is known of these two individuals beyond what the Osraige king list says, summed up by Carrigan as follows: "On the death of Donnchadh Balc there were two competitors for the kingship, viz.: Donnchadh Dubh, or the Black, and Donnchad Bacach, or the Lame. King Turlough O'Connor, however, solved the difficulty by throwing in the weight of his influence in favor of Donnchadh Bacach, whose suit, was accordingly brought to a successful issue." [Carrigan (1905), 1: 54] Donnchad Bacach would seem to make an appearance in the Ban Shenchus [see below under Órlaith ingen Murchada], where he is the son of a certain Gilla Brigte Ruad, apparently an error for Gilla Pátraic Ruad. This is very uncertain. The only otherwise unidentified Donnchad was a son of Donnchad mac Domnaill [see below under Sadb ingen Lorcáin]. Could this be Donnchad Dub?

Murchad Mac Murchada, d. 1172, leth-rí of Osraige.
["Murchadh Mac Murchadha & Murchadh hUa Br[i]ain occisi sunt." AU 1172.10] The Osraige king list has him reigning at the same time as Conchobar mac Cerbaill. The tables in A New History of Ireland identify him as a son of Donnchad mac Murchada (d. 1115), king of Leinster, which seems likely [NHI 9: 134, 202-3]. The same source places the reigns of Murchad and Conchobar at ca. 1123-ca. 1126, evidently on the basis of a calculated 20-year reign for the following king Gilla Pátraic [ibid., 9: 202].

Conchobar mac Cerbaill, leth-rí of Osraige.
Conchobar is known only from the Osraige king list, which states that he ruled at the same time as Murchad. Carrigan suggests the possibility that he was the same person as Goll Gabráin, the killer of Domnall mac Donnchada [Carrigan (1905), 1: 53].

Gilla Pátraic mac Domnaill Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1146, king of Osraige, ca. 1126?-46.
["Giollapadraig mac Donnchadha .H. Gillepadraig, Ri Osraighe do marbadh do mhacaibh Conghalaigh Uí Braonáin i cCill Cainnigh." ("Gillapadraig, son of Donnchadh Ua Gillapadraig, king of Osraighe, was slain by the sons of Conghalach Ua Braenain, in Cill-Chainnigh.") CS, s.a. 1146; "h-Ua Donnchada Gilla Padraic rí Osraigi do Uib Braenan occisus est." AT 1146.3; "Giollapháttraicc mac mic Donnchadha, ..." AFM, s.a. 1146] The Osraige king list and the genealogy in the Book of Leinster [see above for both] call him son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, and this agrees with two out of three annal accounts which call him a grandson of Donnchad. Chronicon Scotorum calls him a son of Donnchad, an apparent error. He is the only king after Gilla Pátraic Ruad to receive a reign-length (20 years) in the king list.

Cerball mac Domnaill Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1163, king of south Osraige.
Cerball appears in the Osraige king list as Cerball mac Domnaill. His father is shown to be Domnall mac Donnchada (d. 1113) by one of the Osraige genealogies in the Book of Leinster [LL 339a, CGH 15, see above]. According the the Osraige king list, Diarmait Mac Murchada of Leinster expelled Cerball, who was replaced by Murchad Ua Cáellaide and Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic. Next, Diarmait imprisoned Donnchad (apparently in 1151, see below), and Cerball reigned with Murchad. Then Cerball ruled jointly with Donnchad, after which Cerball was expelled [Carrigan (1905), 1: 55; NHI 9: 203, n. 4]. The annals are silent about virtually all of this, but call Cerbal king of south Osraige at his death in 1163 ["Cerball hUa Gilla-Patraic, rí Deisce[i]rt Osraighi, mortu[u]s est." AU 1163.2].

Murchad Ua Cáellaide, leth-rí of Osraige, fl. 1151?.
Murchad was presumably related to Find, but the nature of the relationship is unknown. His reign overlapped with the reigns of Cerball and Donnchad.

Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1162, leth-rí of Osraige.
Donnchad was a son of Gilla Pátraic mac Domnaill [LL 337h1, CGH 15-6, see above; BS 232 (UM), see under Cacht ingen Loígsig below]. As noted above, Donchad's reign had a complicated series of overlaps with the reigns of Cerball and Murchad. Donnchad's capture probably took place in 1151, for in that year "mac mic Donnchadha uí Ghiollaphattraicc, tighearna leithe Osraighe" was taken prisoner by Diarmait Mac Murchada, king of Leinster [AFM, s.a. 1151]. Donnchad died in 1162 ["Donncadh Mac Gilla Padraig, rí Osraigi mortuus est." AT 1162.6; "Donnchadh, mac mec Giollapatraicc, tighearna Osraighe, décc." AFM, s.a. 1162; "Donnogh mcGillepatrick mcDonnogh king of Ossery, died." Ann. Clon., s.a. 1164]

Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1165, king of north Osraige.
["Domhnall hUa Gilla-Patraic, ri Tuaisce[i]rt Osraighi, & ... do mharbadh do Ma[c] Craith hUa Mordhai & do Laichis tria drochfatha." ("Domnall Ua Gilla-Patraic, king of the north of Osraige, and ... were killed by Mac Craith Ua Mordhai and by the Laichsi for evil causes.") AU 1165.2; "Maidm ria Laighes Ua Mordha & ría Mac Craith h-Úa Mordha for Osraigi, du a torchair Domnall Mac Gilla Padraic, rí Osraigi, & h-Úa Bróich, et ailii multi." ("A defeat (inflicted) by Laiges Húa Mórdha and by Mac Craith Húa Mórda, on the people of Osraige, wherein fell Domnall Mac Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige, and Húa Bróich, and many others.") AT 1165.2; "Domhnall Mac Giollapháttraicc, tighearna Osraighe, do mharbhadh lá Laoighis Uí Mhórdha." ("... was slain by the people of Laeighis-Ui-Mordha.") AFM, s.a. 1165] Domnall was a son of Gilla Pátraic mac Domnaill [BS 232 (UM); see under Cacht ingen Loígsig below]. For the identifications of the Domnalls who were king of Osraige about this time, see the comments below.

NN Mac Gilla Pátraic, fl. 1166-8, king of Osraige (probably the same as one of the following).
In 1166, Mac Gilla Pátraic submitted to [Ruaidri] Ua Conchobair and received 240 cows from him ["Mac Gilla Padraic & Osraige do thecht a tech I Choncobair, & tucsad a m-braighde dó, & tuc O Concobair da fiched dég bó doib-siun." ("Mac Gilla Pátraic and the (men of) Osraige submitted to Húa Conchobair and gave him their hostages, and Húa Conchobair gave them twelve score cows.") AT 1166.1]. Later in the year, at a convention at Athlone, Mac Gilla Pátraic was given twenty five horses by Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, king of Ireland ["Do-rat .u. eich fichit do Mac Gilla Padraic do ríg Osraigi" ("Five and twenty horses he gave to Mac Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige.") AT 1166.20]. In 1168, Ua Gilla Pátraic again gave hostages to Ruaidri Ua Conchobair [AU 1168.3]. This Mac Gilla Pátraic (or Ua Gilla Pátraic) was presumably the same person as either the Donnchad or the Domnall following next in the list.

Donnchad, fl. 1168, king of Osraige.
["Enda Mac Murchada, rígdamna Laigen, do dallad la Donnchadh Mac Gilla Padraic la ríg Osraigi." ("Énna Mac Murchada, crown prince of Laigin, was blinded by Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige.") AT 1168.2; "Enda mac Murchadha, rioghdhamhna Laighean, do dhalladh lá hUa nGiollapháttraic .i. Donnchadh, tighearna Osraighe." AFM, s.a. 1168] Donnchad does not appear in the Osraige king list. His place in the family is unknown. Shearman identifies Donnchad's father as Domnall Ruad, but without giving a source [Shearman (1876-8), 386-7, 408, table after 408]. Carrigan emends the annal to say Domnall instead of Donnchad, and identifies the present king with Domnall mac Donnchada below [Carrigan (1905), 61].

Diarmait Ua Cáellaide, d. 1172, leth-rí of Osraige.
["Diarmoid hUa Caellaidhe occisus [est.]" AU 1172.12; "h-Úa Caellaidhi, leth-rí Osraigi, do marbadh la Domnall mac n-Donncadha Maic Gilla Padraic." AT 1172.13; "Diarmaid ua Caedhlaighi do ecc." AFM, s.a. 1172] Diarmait does not appear in the Osraige king list. His relationship to the two other Ua Cáellaides in this list is unknown.

Domnall mac Donnchada Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1176 or 1185, king of Osraige, before 1170 - 1176×85.
Domnall does not appear in the Osraige king list, the compilers of which were possibly confused by the appearance of so many Domnalls as kings in Osraige. Domnall was king by 1170, when he was banished into Connacht by Diarmait Mac Murchada, king of Leinster ["[Mac Murcadha] ... & ro índarb didiu Domnall Mac Gilla Padraic ríg Osraigi a Connachtaib." ("... and he also banished Domnall Mac Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige, into Connacht.") AT 1170.11; "Mac mic Faoláin, & mac Donnchaidh Mic Giollapháttraicc do ionarbadh lá Mac Murchada." ("The son of Mac Fhaelain and the son of Donnchadh Mac Gillaphadraig were banished by Mac Murchada.") AFM, s.a. 1170]. The next year, he killed Domnall Ua Fogartaig, king of southern Éile ["Domnall Ua Focarta, rí Éile Desceirt, do marbad la Domnall mac Donncaidh Maic Gilla Padraic, ríg Osraigi, co n-ár adbal aile." ("Domnall Húa Focarta, king of the southern Éili, was killed by Domnall, son of Donnchad Mac Gilla Pádraic, king of Osraige, with other great slaughter.") AT 1171.5; "..., do mharbhadh lá Domhnall mac Donnchadha Osraighe, ..." ("..., was slain by Domhnall, son of Donnchadh of Osraighe ...") AFM, s.a. 1171]. In 1172, Domnall mac Donnchada Mac Gilla Pátraic slew Diarmait Ua Cáellaide, leth-rí of Osraige [AT 1172.13, see above]. In 1175 or 1176, at the invitation of Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, a king Domnall of Osraige (possibly this one) went with the Norse of Dublin and Waterford to Limerick, which they plundered [AT 1175.16; probably the same event described at AI 1176.3, where Domnall is called just Ua Gilla Pátraic]. Domnall mac Donnchada may have died in 1176 ["Domnall Mac Gilla Padraic, rí Osraigi, do ég." AT 1176.12; "Domhnall mac Giollapatraicc tighearna Osraighe do écc." AFM, s.a. 1176], but it is also possible that the 1185 obituary is his (see the next king). For the identifications of the Domnalls who were king of Osraige about this time, see the comments below.

Domnall mac Cerbaill Mac Gilla Pátric, d. 1185 or 1176, king of Osraige.
Domnall is the last king listed in the Osraige king list ["Domnall mac Cerbaill meic Domnaill" LL 41a (p. 190)]. He is also called king of Osraige in his genealogy in the Book of Leinster [LL 339a, CGH 15, see above]. He may have died in 1185 ["Domnall .H. Gillapatraic, ri Osraidhe, mortuus est." ALC 1185.15; "Domhnall mac Giolla Pattraicc tighearna Osraighe do écc." AFM, s.a. 1185], but it is also possible that the 1176 obituary is his (see the previous king). For the identifications of the Domnalls who were king of Osraige about this time, see the comments below.

Máel Sechlainn, d. 1193×4, king of Osraige.
["Moelsechlainn mac Donnchada, ri Osraighe, do ég." ALC 1193.13; "Maolseachlainn mac Domhnaill ui Ghiollapatraicc ticcearna Osraighe do ecc." AFM, s.a. 1194]

The problem of identification of the three kings Domnall, d. 1165, 1176, 1185.

The annals show kings of Osraige named Domnall dying in each of the three years 1165, 1176, and 1185 (see the list above). Genealogically, three individuals from the same period can be identified as kings of Osraige:

The problem before us is to attempt to correctly match the three individuals on the genealogical table with their corresponding obituaries. Different authors have identified these individuals in different ways. Shearman placed the death of Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic in 1165, Domnall mac Donnchad in 1176, and Domnall mac Cerbaill in 1185 [Shearman (1876-8), 408]. Carrigan had Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic dying in 1165, Domnall mac Cerbaill in 1176, and Domnall mac Donnchada in 1185 [Carrigan (1905), 1: 57-9, 66]. Neither of these authors discussed the reasons for their identifications. The editors of A New History of Ireland tentatively identified Domnall mac Donnchada as the king who died in 1165, and suggested that the king who died in 1176 was Domnall mac Cerbaill (both qualified by question marks), evidently overlooking both the 1185 obituary and the kingship of Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic [NHI 9: 135, 203].

Since Domnall mac Donnchada is shown by the annals as being active in the years 1170-2, he cannot be the Domnall who died in 1165. Also, according to the annalistic accounts of his death, the Domnall who died in 1165 was killed by the Loíchsi, and the Osraige king list shows Domnall mac Cerbaill to be distinct from the Domnall who was killed by the Loíchsi, who is called "Domnall Mac Gillai Pátraic" in the king list. Thus, by elimination, it must have been Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic who died in 1165. Now, the capitalized "Mac" in the king list is editorial, and most of the Osraige kings are given in the king list by patronymics, even in the period when surnames became common. In fact, it appears that "Mac Gilla Pátraic" has been used in the Osraige king list only when the individual really was the son of a Gilla Pátraic, so that these instances are true patronymics, and the Osraige king list contains no surnames.

This leaves Domnall mac Donnchada and Domnall mac Cerbaill for the 1176 and 1185 obituaries. Neither of the obituaries clearly identify the Domnall to whom they refer, and there do not appear to be any records of these men between 1176 and 1185. Thus, if we allow the possibility that Domnall mac Donnchada and Domnall mac Cerbaill had overlapping reigns, then there does not appear to be any way to tell which Domnall had which obituary. On the other hand, if we assume that one reigned after the other, then the 1176 obituary would belong to Domnall mac Donnchad, leaving the 1185 date for Domnall mac Cerbaill. Thus, the evidence seems to tilt slightly in favor of this latter possibility, but neither alternative can be ruled out on the available evidence.

Supposed kings of Osraige not accepted in the above list of kings

A number of sources show supposed additional kings of Osraige beyond the ones given in the list above. They are listed here along with the reasons for not including them on the list of kings.

Crundmáel Erbolg mac Rónáin, d. ca. 656, king of Laigin Desgabair, supposed king of Osraige.
["Mors Crunnmael Erbuilc m. Ronain regis Lagenensium." AU 656.4; "Bass Crunmail Erbuilg, maic Ronain, rig Laigen Desgabair." AT 655.3; "Mors Crundmaill Erbuilg mic Ronain, Rí Laighen Desgabair." CS, s.a. 652 (=656); similarly AFM, s.a. 650] Shearman makes Crundmáel Erbolg a king of Osraige, on the theory that "Laigin Desgabair" means Osraige [Shearman (1876-8), 363-4]. In fact, Crundmáel Erbolg was a king Uí Chennselaig, and appears as such on the list of kings of Uí Chennselaig in the Book of Leinster [LL 40a (vol. 1, p. 185)]. In fact Uí Chennselaig is the usual meaning of Laigin Desgabair in the annals. Shearman has confused Crundmáel mac Rónáin Rígflaith in the Osraige genealogy with his approximate contemporary Crundmáel Erbolg mac Rónáin of Uí Chennselaig, a confusion which is made even easier by the fact that both Rónáns were the son of a Colmán.

Fáelán mac Con Chercca, supposed king of Osraige. (probable scribal slip, existence doubtful)
Fáelán is a supposed king of Osraige who appears only in the Synchronisms. In Thurneysen's edition of the Synchronisms, a Fáelán mac Con Chercca replaces Cú Chercca mac Fáeláin (d. 712×3) in the list. In Boyle's edition and the version from the Annals of Clonmacnoise, Cú Chercca is followed by a Fáelán, neither with patronymics. Here, it seems likely that Cú Chercca's patronym "mac Fáeláin" has been scribally corrupted into the name of a supposed additional king.

Cellach mac Flainn, d. 770, supposed king of Osraige, actually a man of Leinster.
A supposed king of Osraige named Cellach mac Flainn is placed by Shearman with a death of 765 immediately after Anmchaid [Shearman (1876-8), 408], but the man of that name whose death was entered under the year 765 in AFM was a Leinster man [AFM, s.a. 765 (=770)]. Shearman apparently included this alleged king because of the Cellach mac Flainn who appears on the king list in the Book of Leinster as an error for Cellach mac Fáelchair.

Matudán mac Cellaige, supposed king of Osraige. (scribal slip, did not exist)
A supposed king of that name appears in the Book of Lecan version of the Ban Shenchus ["Echrad ingen Madadain m. Cellaig rig Osraidi, mathair Dondchada m. Aeda, & mathair Muirchertaig m. Domnaill hUi Neill." BS 188 (Lec.)]. However, this entry is corrupt, as can be seen by comparison with Echrad's entry in the Book of Uí Maine version ["Ingean Madadain m. Aeda .i. Eachrad, mathair Muircertaig m. Domnaill Arda Macha, athair Flaitbertaig in Trostán." BS 227 (UM); see Baldwin (2001) for a discussion of this textual error].

Áed Allán mac Fergaile, d. 969, "lord" of Osraige.
See below under relatives of the king of Osraige.

Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, supposed king of Osraige. (existence doubtful)
Shearman introduces an otherwise unknown Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic and the known relative Tadg mac Gilla Pátraic (blinded 1027) to the list of kings of Osraige between Cellach mac Diarmata (d. 1003) and Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1039) [Shearman (1876-8), 408]. They are not on the king list, and no justification is known for including them among the kings of Osraige.

Tadc mac Gilla Pátraic, blinded 1027.
See the previous entry and the list of relatives below.

Other minor kings in Osraige

According to the usual model of Irish kingship, it would be expected that at any given time, the king of Osraige would be overlord to a number of petty kings who ruled in the same region. While some of the otherwise unknown individuals who appear in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy were probably such petty kings, it is rare to have explicit mention of these minor kings in the sources. The lists below show a handful of petty kings in Osraige who appear in the annals, only one of whom appears in the genealogies. The Annals of the Four Masters, source for most of these, typically refers to such petty kings by the title lord ("tighearna"), but the two notices which we have in the Annals of Ulster, which is much more likely to reflect contemporary usage, use the title of king ("rex" or "").

Cenn Caille

Cenn Caille was Galmoy barony, in the county of Kilkenny [AU-index, 63].

Conchobar Ua Broigte, d. 1165, king of Cenn Caille.
["Domhnall hUa Gilla-Patraic, ri Tuaisce[i]rt Osraighi, & Concobur hUa Broigthe, rí Cinn-caille & Paitin hUa hAedha, cainneal hUa-Ceinnselaigh uile, do mharbadh do Ma[c] Craith hUa Mordhai & do Laichis tria drochfatha." ("Domnall Ua Gilla-Patraic, king of the north of Ossory, and Conchobar Ua Broighte, king of Cenn-caille and Paitin Ua Aedha, the candle of all Ui-Ceinnselaigh, were killed by Ma[c] Craith Ua Mordhai and by the Laichsi for evil causes.") AU 1165]

Rath Tamnaig

Rath Tamnaig is now Rathdowney, a town in the district of Clandonough, barony of Upper Ossory, Queen's county [AFM 1: 520, note (x); 2: 580, note (h)]. The Annals of the Four Masters record three rulers of Rath Tamnaig, the first two of whom appear to have been father and son. [See also Carrigan (1905), 1: 7]

Flaithrí mac Máel Dúin, d. 876×7, [king] ("tighearna") of Rath Tamnaig.
["Flaithri, mac Maoiledúin, tighearna Rátha Tamhnaighe, décc." AFM, s.a. 874]

Máel Pátraic mac Flaithrí, d. 913, [king] ("tighearna") of Rath Tamnaig.
["Maelpatraicc, mac Flathrai, tighearna Ratha Tamhnaighe, dég." AFM, s.a. 909]

Gilla Molua Ua Bruaideada, d. 1069, [king] ("tighearna") of Rath Tamnaig.
["Giollumolua Ua Bruaideadha, tighearna Ratha Tamhnaighi, décc." AFM, s.a. 1069]

Uí Berchon

Uí Berchon is Ibercon, in the barony of Ida, in the county of Kilkenny [AFM 1: 485, note (l)].

Óengus mac Néill, d. 852×3, [king] ("tighearna") of Uí Berchon.
["Oengus, mac Néill, tighearna Ua mBerchon, décc." AFM, s.a. 851] Óengus appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy ["Dubcenn mac Áedáin m. Óengusa m. Néill m. Snédgaile m. Casréne m. Cromíne m. Comgaill m. Lachtchair." R129b25, CGH 109; see Table 7 on the Osraige Tribal Genealogy page].

Uí Duach of Argatros

In 1635, Uí Duach of Argatros was coextensive with the barony of Fassadineen, in the county of Kilkenny, but it was originally more extensive [AFM, 1: 484, note (e)]. The Dui after whom Uí Duach got its name would appear to be the father of Conchrad mac Duach, king of Osraige in the sixth century [CGH R151a27-30, CGH 222; see above]. In later medieval times, Uí Duach was held by the Ua Bráenáins, possible descendants of Bráenán mac Cerbaill, who died in 891 (see below).

Cathal mac Dubáin, d. 852, king of Uí Duach of Argatros.
["Cathal m. Dubaen, rex Oa nDuach Arcatrois, moritur." AU 852.6; "Cathal, mac Dubháin, tighearna Ua nDuach Argadrois, ... [décc]." AFM, s.a. 850; "Cathal, mac Dubháin, tigearna Argatt rois décc." AFM, s.a. 851]

Duibgenn mac Cuilennáin, d. 953, [king] ("tigearna") of Uí Duach.
["... & Duibhgionn, mac Cuilennáin, tigearna Ua nDuach, décc ..." AFM, s.a. 951]

Cú Dulig Ua Bergda, d. 1026, [king] ("tigearna") of Uí Duach.
["Aimhirgin Ua Mórdha, tigearna Laoighisi, & Cuduiligh Ua Beargdu, tigearna Ua nDuach, do mharbhadh la aroile, & comh ár Ua nDuach, & Laighisi, acht ro meabhaidh for Ua nDuach." ("Aimergin Ua Mordha, lord of Laeighis, and Cuduiligh Ua Beargdha, lord of Ui-Duach, were mutually slain by each other; and the Ui-Duach and Laeighisi were mutually slaughtered, but the Ui-Duach were defeated.") AFM, s.a. 1026; for a Bergda who may have been the ancestor of Ua Bergda, see Table 2 on the Osraige Tribal Genealogy page].

Uí Fairchelláin

Uí Fairchelláin is now Offerrilan, a large parish near Mountrath, in Queen's county [AFM, 1: 560, note (o)]. The genealogies in Rawlinson B.502 have a genealogy immediately following the Osraige genealogies which is labelled Uí Fairchelláin ["Finnia m. Fintain m. Conchraid m. Dairchella m. Senaig m. Diarmata Táide meicc Fergusa m. Ailella Taulduib- m. Celtchair m. Cuithechair." R130b3, CGH 116] but other genealogies in the same manuscript show this to be an Ulster genealogy [cf. "Celtchair m. Cuithechair m. Fothaid m. Fir-filed m. Glaiss m. Rosa m. Rudraigi." R156b2, CGH 271].

Furbaid mac Cuilennáin, d. 904, [king] ("tighearna") of Uí Fairchelláin.
["Furbaidhi, mac Cuilennain, tighearna Ua Foircheallain, do ghuin." AFM, s.a. 899]

Relatives (or apparent relatives) of kings of Osraige:

In this section we list individuals from the annals or other sources who were (or appear to be) members of the Osraige dynasty or who can be identified in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy, in roughly chronological order.

Máelgarb and Máel Odor, late 6th/very early 7th century.
Máelgarb and Máel Odor are mentioned in some versions of the Life of St. Cainnech as enemies of king ("dux") Colmán of Osraige who wanted to take his throne ["Colmanus filius Fearaidhe, dux regionis Osraidhe, sancto Cainnico amicus erat; et ipse multas villas dedit ei, in quibus sanctus Cainnicus edificauit monasteria et ciuitates. Quodam tempore ille dux in suo castello vndique conclusus est ab inimicis suis, regnum tenere cupientibus." (one MS adds: scilicet Malgarb et Maelodur) Vita Sancti Cainnici, c. 39, VSH 1: 166]. The Osraige genealogies show a Máelgarb who was a first cousin of Colmán Mór who would make a chronologically plausible candidate for this Máelgarb. Two grandsons of Colmán Mór named Máel Odor were probably too late to be identified with this Máel Odor (see Table 1).

Illann mac Scandláin, d. 656.
["Mors Illaind m. Scandlain." AI 656.1] Mac Niocaill states that this Illann was a son of Scandlán mac Cind Fáelad [Mac Niocaill (1972), 86]. According to Geoffrey Keating, Illann mac Scandláin miec Cind Fáelad was chosen king of Osraige at the meeting of Druim Cett, at which his father was deposed [Keating, 3: 82-3]. Keating's unreliable account need not be taken seriously. Whatever was the date of Druim Cett, someone who was an adult at the meeting was unlikely to survive until 656. According to Liam Ó Buachalla, the old Irish tale "Scéla Cano meic Gartnáin" has an account of the slaying of Illann mac Scandláin of the Corcu Loígde [Ó Buachalla (1951-6), 59: 117, n. 14].

[Laidcnén mac Doinennaig, d. 744, abbot of Saigir.]
["Iugulatio Laidggnein filii Doinennaigh, episcopi, abbatis Saighrae." AU 744.1; AT 744.1; AFM, s.a. 739] The Laidcnén son of Doinennach of the annals is possibly the same as (or an uncle of) the Laidcnén grandson of Doinennach who appears in the genealogies as a descendant of Conchrad mac Duach ["Laidgneán m. Suibne m. Doinennaich m. Suibne m. Áeda m. Óengusa Conath m. Concrath cuius filia Mugain ben Diarmata meic Cerbaill dia tá Carn Mugaine i nArgatrus. m. Duach Cliach m. Maine Munchaín m. Carpri m. Cuircc m. Luigdech." R151a25, CGH 222].

Uargus [mac Fachtna?], d. 746.
There are two different accounts of the Battle of Rath Cuile in which Uargus was killed, of which that of the Annals of Tigernach make him a son of Fiachra Enboth of the Déisi ["Cath Ratha Cuili ria h-Anmcadh, h-i torchair Uargus mac Fiachrach Enboth na n-Desi i n-Aird Maic Uidhir." ("The Battle of Ráith Cuile gained by Anmchad, wherein fell Uargus, son of Fiachra Enboth of the Déisi in Ard Maic Uidir.") AT 746.11], and the one in the Annals of the Four Masters makes him a son of an otherwise unidentified Fachtna ["Iomairecc Ratha cúile ria nAnmchaidh, i ttorcair hUargus, mac Fachtna." ("The battle of Rath-cuile, by Anmchadh, in which Uargus, son of Fachtna, was slain.") AFM, s.a. 741]. Evidently, either AFM has changed the parentage and lost details, or AT has inadvertently combined pieces from two unrelated entries. The other annals are unhelpful at deciding which is the case. However, there is a Uargus mac Fachta in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy who could arguably have been a contemporary of Anmchaid ["Fáelán m. Longsich m. Ciabáin m. Cináeda m. Cobthaich m. h-Uargusa m. Fachtna m. Fothaid." R 129a36, CGH 105; see Table 2 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy].

Cináed mac Duinechda, d. 804.
["Cinaedh mac Duineachda, ..., dég." AFM, s.a. 799 (=804)] Cináed appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy ["Trí meic Duinechda .i. Cináed & Crimthan & Fáelchad. Buadachán mac Airén m. Cináeda m. Duinechda m. Snédgusa m. Faílbe." R130a18, CGH 113; see Table 4 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy]

[Fínnachta mac Donngaile, d. 805.]
["... & Fionnachta, mac Donnghaile, décc." AFM, s.a. 800] There is a Fínnachta mac Donngaile who appears in the Book of Leinster version of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy ["Ceithri meic Dondgaile .i. Fínnachta. Fiannamail. Móinach. Fergus." LL 339bc27 (vol. 6, p. 1496)], but whose name is Findchad in the Rawlinson B.502 and Book of Lecan versions [CGH 105; see Table 1 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy].

[Robertach mac Máel Odrae, d. 836, abbot of Achad bo Cainnig.]
["... & Maeluidhir, abb Achaidh bó Cainnigh, décc." AFM, s.a. 835] He is placed as a grandson of king Fáelán mac Forbassaig (d. 786) by Shearman [Shearman (1876-8), 361, evidence unknown].

Dúnedach mac Dúngaile, fl. 848.
In 848, Dúnedach mac Dúngaile and the Osraige defeated the Déisi ["Maidhm ria nDunadhach, mac Dungaile co nOsraighibh, fors na Déisibh." ("A defeat by Dunadhach, son of Dunghaile, and the Osraighe, to the Deisi.") AFM, s.a. 846]. Shearman would place his death in 867, and make him the father of a Buachail mac Dúnedaig who was killed in 871 by Cerball mac Dúngal [AFM, s.a. 869; Shearman (1849-51), table following 408]

[Forbassach mac Máel Odrae, d. 852, princeps of Cell Mór of Cenn Eich.]
["Forbusach m. Maeluidhir, princeps Cille More Cind Eich, moritur" AU 852.7; AFM, s.a. 850] He is placed as a grandson of king Fáelán mac Forbassaig (d. 786) by Shearman [Shearman (1876-8), 361, evidence unknown].

Uargus Ua Raithnén, d. 852, abbot of Leithglinn.
["... hUarghus Ua Raithnén, abb Leithghlinne, ... [décc]." AFM, s.a. 850] Although he does not appear in the Ua Raithnén genealogy [see Table 3 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy], he was presumably related.

Cuilén mac Cerbaill meic Dúngaile, d. 887.
["Cuilen, mac Cearbhaill, mic Dunghaile, & Maelfeabhail, mac Muircheartaigh, do mharbhadh la Nortmannaibh, ..." AFM, s.a. 884]

Sluagadach Ua Raithnén, d. 888×9, abbot of Saigir.
["... Sloghadhach Ua Raithnen, abb Saighre, ... dég." AFM, s.a. 885 (=888×9)] A Sluagadach, descendant of Raithnén, appears in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy ["Fogartach m. Sluagadaich m. Duib-Chonnacht m. Duib-dá-chell m. Cathail m. Tiblide [m.] Áilsedaig m. Éislessaich m. Raithnén m. Senaich m. Condla m. Liatháin m. Fothaid m. Droído." R129b10, CGH 108; see Table 3 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy].

Bráenán mac Cerbaill, d. 891.
["Ar Osraighe las na Déisibh, & marbadh Braonain, mic Cearbhaill, & Suibhne, mic Dúnghusa, tighearna Ua Fearghusa ann dna." ("A slaughter [was made] of the Osraighi by the Deisi, and the killing of Braenan, son of Cearbhall, and also of Suibhne, son of Dunghus, lord of Ui-Fearghusa.") AFM, s.a. 887] An item in the Fragmentary Annals indicates that Bráenán was a brother of king Diarmait mac Cerbaill of Osraige [FA #443 (pp. 176-9); see below under Domnall mac Bráenáin]. According to Shearman, Bráenán was the ancestor of the Ua Bráenáins of Uí Duach [Shearman (1876-8), 370-3]. However, according to the Mac Firbis genealogies, the Bráenán mac Cerbaill from whom the Ua Bráenáins descended was of the Leinster sept of Uí Failge [McF Gen., 478]. [For more on the Ua Bráenáins, see Graves (1849-51), 230-247].

Buadach mac Ailella, d. 900.
["Crech lá Laighnibh for Osraighibh, co ro marbhadh ann Buadhach, mac Ailella." AFM, s.a. 895 (=900)] Buadach was a distant relative of the ruling family [see CGH 112; Table 1].

[Dúngal mac Cerbaill, d. 902. (of this family?)]
Mortally wounded by the Laeighis [AFM, s.a. 897]

NN [Muirchertach??] mac Cellaig, d. 13 September 908.
In a long account of the Battle of Belach Mugna in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, an unnamed son of king Cellach mac Cerbaill of Osraige is included among the slain [FA #423 (pp. 156-7)]. Shearman gave this son the name Muirchertach and made him the father of king Donnchad (d. 976) [Shearman (1876-8), 374-5, gen. table following p. 408], stating that "Muirchertach's name is inserted between Cellach and Duncadh in a list of the kings of Leinster in MacFirbis, p. 427" [ibid., 375]. Here, Shearman is apparently referring to the genealogy of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1039), king of Osraige and Leinster, which appears on that page of Mac Firbis's genealogies, but which does not in fact insert the extra name [McF Gen., 427, transcribed above]. In his notes to the Annals of the Four Masters, O'Donovan has a quote taken from Lynch's Latin translation of Keating's History of Ireland, which states that "regulus" Muirchertach of Osraige and his son were killed ["... Morchertachus Ossiriæ Regulus cum filio occubuit, ..." AFM 2: 569, note (b), cited by Shearman (1876-8), gen. table following p. 408], at the same point in the history where the Irish version states that Cellach mac Cerbaill and his son were killed ["... do marbhadh Ceallach mac Cearbhaill ri Osruighe is a mhac." Keating, 3: 208]. Shearman's claim that an extra generation is to be inserted between Donnchad and Cellach should be strongly rejected, and the name of Cellach's son who died with him remains unclear.

Domnall mac Bráenáin, d. ca. 912.
Domnall was killed by his uncle king Diarmait, possibly about 912 ["Isin mbliadain si ro marbhadh Domnall mc. Bráonáin mc. Cearbhaill go trúagh ar lár a dhaingin fén, & gér sháoil Díarmaid gomadh fearde dhó marbad mic a bhráthar, ..." ("In this year Domnall son of Bráenán son of Cerball was killed miserably in the middle of his own stronghold, and though Diarmait had thought that he would be better for killing the son of his kinsman [sic], ..." FA #443 (pp. 176-9); TF 240-3 leaves out the name of Bráenán's son and translates bhráthar as "brother" instead of kinsman].

Máel Mórda mac Riacáin, d. 922, tanist of Osraige.
Máel Mórda was evidently the leader of a rival faction in a civil war in Osraige which flared up, perhaps about 912 [FA #443 (pp. 176-9)]. He died in 922 ["Maolmordha, mac Riacáin, tanais Osraighe, dég." AFM, s.a. 920].

Áed Ua Raithnén, d. 922.
["... Aodh Ua Raithnén, sean suí Ereann, & eccnaidh Saighre, ... dég." ("... Aedh Ua Raithnen, old sage of Ireland, and wise man of Saighir, ... died.") AFM, s.a. 920] There is an Áed descendant of Raithnén in the Osraige Tribal Genealogy, but the name Áed was common ["Áed m. Flaithnén m. Brain m. Diarmata m. Genil m. Áilsedaich m. Éislessaich m. Raithnén." R129b15, CGH 108; see Table 3 of the Osraige Tribal Genealogy; see also Sluagadach Ua Raithnén above].

Flann mac Cellaig, d. 939, tanist of Osraige.
["Flann, mac Ceallaigh, tanaisi Osraighe, décc." AFM, s.a. 937]

Fergal mac Cellaig, d. 963.
["Fearghal, mac Ceallaigh, do écc hi Saighir, iar bpeannainn." ("Fearghal, son of Ceallach, died at Saighir, after penance.") AFM, s.a. 961] As Saigir was in Osraige, it is possible that Fergal was a son of king Cellach. He was possibly the father of Áed Allán mac Fergaile (see below).

Máel Ruanaid mac Flainn, d. 967, tanist of Osraige.
["Cathraoineadh ria Mathghamhain, mac Cindeidigh, for Gallaibh Luimnigh, dú in ro ladh ar Gall, & ro loiscc a loingeas forru, & ro oircc Inis Ubtáin, & ro marbhadh Maolruanaidh, mac Flaind, tanaisi Osraidhe i frithghuin occ indradh an dúine." ("A battle was gained by Mathghamhain, son of Ceinneidigh, over the foreigners of Luimneach, where he made a slaughter of the foreigners, and burned their ships; and he plundered Inis-Ubtain; and Maelruanaidhe, son of Flann, tanist of Osraighe, was slain in the heat of the conflict, while plundering the fortress.") AFM, s.a. 965]

Áed Allán mac Fergaile, d. 969, "lord" of Osraige.
This supposed ruler appears in the Annals of the Four Masters, but he does not appear in the Osraige king list in the Book of Leinster or in any of the other annals ["Aodh Allán, mac Fearghaile, tighearna Osraighe, & Echtighearn, mac Eitigh, tighearna na cComann, décc." AFM, s.a. 967 (=969)]. Could this be a strangely misplaced and mislabelled notice of the Uí Néill king Áed Allán mac Fergaile, who died in 743 [AU 743.4]? He could have been a son of the Fergal mac Cellaig who died in 963 (see above). It is possible that he was a member of the Osraige dynasty whom the annals called rígdomna of Osraige, and that a copyist mistakenly changed that to "king" or "lord".

Diarmait mac Donnchada, d. 974, tanist of Osraige.
["Roeniudh ria nUgaire m. Tuathail for Osraighi i torchair Diarmait m. Donnchada." ("Úgaire son of Tuathal inflicted a rout on the Osraighe in which Diarmait son of Donnchad fell.") AU 974.4; AT 974.3; identified as tanist of Osraige in AFM, s.a. 972]

Muiredach mac Donnchada, d. 975, tanist of Osraige.
["Muireadhach, mac Donnchaidh, mic Cellaigh, tanaisi Osraighe, dég." AFM, s.a. 973]

Dúngal mac Donnchada, d. 980, tanist of Osraige.
["Dunghal, mac Donnchadha, tanaisi Osraighe, décc." AFM, s.a. 978]

Riacán mac Muiredaig, d. 986.
Along with the son of Cuilén, he was killed by the men of Leinster when they were plundering the north of Osraige ["Sluaigheadh la Laighnibh i nOsraighibh co ro airccseat tuaiscert nOsraighe, & gur ro marbhad ann Riacán, mca Muireadhaigh, & mac Cuiliúin." ("An army was led by the Leinstermen into Osraighe; and they plundered the north of Osraighe, and they slew there Riagan, son of Muireadach, and the son of Cuiliun.") AFM, s.a. 985]

NN mac Cuilén, d. 986.
Along with Riacán mac Muiredaig, he was killed by the men of Leinster when they were plundering the north of Osraige [AFM, s.a. 985, see above].

Tadc mac Donnchada, d. 991, rígdomna of Osraige.
["Tadhc m. Donnchada, ridomna Osraighi, o feraibh Muman, ... occisi sunt." AU 991.2; tanist in AFM, s.a. 990]

Dúngal mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1016.
["Slóigheadh lá Maolseachlainn i nOsraighibh, go ro indir Osraighe, & do rad gabhala & braitt lais, & ro marbh Dúngal mac Giollapadraicc mic Donnchadha & sochaidhe oile." ("An army was led by Maelseachlainn into Ossory; and he plundered Osraighe, and carried off spoils and prisoners, and slew Dunghal, son of Gillaphadraig, son of Donnchadh, and many others.") AFM, s.a. 1015]

Tadc mac Gilla Pátraic, blinded 1027.
Tadc was blinded by Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic in 1027 ["Tadhg m. Gilla Patraicc do dhallad la Donnchad m. Gilla Patraicc, ri Osraigi." AU.1027.2; ALC 1027.2; AT 1027.2; AFM, s.a. 1027; Ann. Clon., s.a. 1027]. Shearman includes him on his list of kings of Osraige [Shearman (1876-8), 408].

Muiredach mac Muirchertaig, d. 1033.
["Maidm iter Eile i torcair Braen H. Cleridh & Muiredach m. m. Gilla Patraicc & alii multi." ("A rout [was inflicted] among the Éile in which Braen ua Cléirig and Muiredach grandson of Gilla Pátraic and many others fell.") AU 1033.6; "Muiredhach mac Muirchertach maic Gilla Patraic" AT 1033.5; "Muireadhach mac Giollapattraicc" AFM, s.a. 1033; "Maidhm lé hEile, i torcradar Braon hUa Cleirigh, ocus Muiredach mac mic Gillapadraig, et alii multi." ALC 1033.5]

Diarmait mac Donnchada, d. 1036, tanist of Osraige.
["Diarmait, mac Donnchadha, tanaisi Osraighe, do mharbhadh." AFM, s.a. 1036]

Domnall mac Donnchada, d. 1040?, king of Leinster.
Domnall succeeded his father Donnchad as king of Leinster in 1039. The Leinster king list indicates that Domnall was killed after a reign of one year ["Domnall mac Dondchada .i. na Fortuatha ros marb" LL 39c (vol. 1, p. 183)]. This would apparently place his death in 1040, although it is not recorded in the annals. Some versions of the Osraige pedigree begin with Domnall, suggesting that the pedigree was updated in his lifetime [R117e39, Lec. 98Rd36, CGH 15-6]

Muirchertach mac Domnall meic Gilla Pátraic, d. 1095, rígdomna of Osraige.
[in list of men who died of pestilence, AI 1095.13].

Goll Gabráin mac Cerbaill, fl. 1113.
["Domnall m. Donnchadha H. Gillai Patraic do marbadh do Gull Gabrain" AU 1113.6; "Mc. Dondchada Ú Gillai Phatraic do marbad do Goll Gabráin, .i. dia bratha(i)r." ("The son of Donnchad Ua Gilla Pátraic was slain by Goll Gabráin, i.e. by his kinsman.") AI 1113.4] The Osraige king list calls Goll a son of Cerball.

Ua Gilla Pátraic, d. 1115.
Ua Gilla Pátraic and the son of U Crináin were slain by each other in 1115 [AI 1115.4].

NN mac Donnchada Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1119, rigdomna of Osraige.
["Mac Donnchaidh mic Giollapháttraicc, rioghdhamhna Osraighe, do mhárbhadh do Osraighibh fein." ("... was killed by the Osraige themselves.") AFM, s.a. 1119]

NN mac Domnaill meic Donnchada, d. 1175.
["Mac Domhnaill mic Donnchadha ticchearna Ossraighi do mharbhadh i meabhail la Domnall ua mBriáin." ("The son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, lord of Osraige, was treacherously slain by Domnall Ua Briain.") AFM, s.a. 1175]

Women with Osraige connections:
(mostly from the Ban Shenchus)

The following is a list of women known to have been connected to the kings of Osraige, either by marriage or birth. The first list gives the known wives of kings of Osraige, and the second list gives the known female members of the Osraige dynasty, with their known marriages. Each list is given in approximately chronological order.

Wives of kings of Osraige:

Ailbe ingen Máel Sechnaill, wife of Cerball mac Dúngaile, d. 888, king of Osraige.
["Ailbi ingen Maeil Eachlaind m. Mail Ruanaig, mathair Diarmada m. Cerbaill ri Osraidi & Taidc m. Concobair ri Conacht." BS 187 (Lec.); "Ingean Mael Eachlaind m. Mael Ruadnaig, mathair Diarmata m. Cearbaill rig Osraige & Taidg mic rig Conndacht." BS 226 (UM); cf. BS 312, 336] Ailbe was a daughter of Máel Sechnaill mac Máel Ruanaid, d. 862, king of Ireland. She was the mother of Diarmait mac Cerbaill, d. 928×9, king of Osraige.

Aife ingen Fáeláin, wife of Donnchad mac Cellaig, d. 976, king of Osraige.
["Aifi ingen Fhaelain m. Cormaic, mathair Gilli Padraic m. Dondchada." BS 189 (Lec.); "Aife ingen Faelain m. Cormeic .i. rig na nDeisi, mathair Gilla Padraig m. Dondcada." BS 228 (UM)] Aife was a daughter of Fáelán mac Cormaic, king of the Déisi (of Munster), who died in 966 [AU 966.1]. She was the mother of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 996, king of Osraige.

Máel Muire ingen Arailt, wife of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 996, king of Osraige.
["Mael Muiru ingen Arailt m. Gofraid, mathair Dondchada m. Gilli Padraic ri Laigen & Osraidi." BS 189 (Lec.); "Mael Muire ingen Gearailt m. Gofraid, mathair Dondchada m. Gilla Padraig rig Laigen & Osraide." BS 228 (UM)] The father of Máel Muire, Aralt mac Gofraid (Harald son of Godefrid), was apparently, to judge by his name, a member of one of the Viking dynasties which were then ruling in Ireland, but he is not otherwise known. Máel Muire was the mother of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1039, king of Osraige.

Doirenn ingen Dearsada, wife of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1039, king of Osraige.
["Doireand ingen Dearrsaidi hUi Berri rig-druith Laigen, mathair Gilli Padraic m. Donnchada rig Laigen." BS 189 (Lec.); "Ingean Dearrsada hUi Diumai .i. rig-druth-Laigen, mathair Gilla Padraig m. [Dondchada] .i. athair Domnaill m. Gilla Padraig ... neam." (partly illegible) BS 228 (UM)] Doirenn's father Dearsaid appears to be otherwise unknown. She was the mother of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 1055, king of Osraige.

Dinim ingen Cind Fáelad, wife of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 1055, king of Osraige.
["Dinim ingen Chind Fhaelad m. Meadaig do Muscraidi Fheada mathair Domnaill m. Gilli Padraic." BS 189 (Lec.); "Ingen Cind Faelad ... Muscraide Feage, mathair ... m. Gilla Padraig." (partly illegible) BS 228 (UM)] Dinim's father was Cenn Fáelad mac Medaig of the Muscraige. She was the mother of Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1087, king of Osraige.

Dub Choblaig Mac Lorcáin, apparently another wife of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, d. 1055, king of Osraige.
["Dubchoblaig ingen meic Lorcain ri hUa Ceindselaig, mathair Diarmada I Briain ri Muman & Dirbail ingene hI Briain, & Augairi m. Gilla Padraig rig Osraidi, & Chomgaill m. Dunlaing ri Laigen & Orlaithi ingene hi Gilli Chomgaill & Mna Feta .i. ingene hI Mael Ruanaig hUi Domnaill." BS 193 (Lec.)] Dub Choblaig was apparently a daughter of either Máel Morda mac Lorcáin (d. 1024) or his brother Tadc mac Lorcáin (d. 1030), both kings of Uí Chennselaig of uncertain descent. One of Dub Choblaig's sons, Diarmait Ua Briain, king of Munster, died in 1118. No king of Osraige named Augaire is known, which suggests that "rig Osraidi" was describing Gilla Pátraic, who would therefore be the king who died in 1055. By her marriage to Gilla Pátraic, Dub Choblaig was the mother of a son Augaire, who is otherwise unknown.

Cacht Ua Cerbaill, wife of Domnall mac Donnchada, d. 1087, king of Osraige.
["Cacht ingen hUi Chearbaill do Eilib, mathair tri mac nDomnaill hUi Gilla Patraig .i. Dondchad & Cearball & Cellach Merach, & Moiri ingen Domnaill." BS 195-6 (Lec.); "Ingen hUi Cherbaill do Eilib, bean Domnaill (& Cacht a mathair) bean Domnaill hUi Gilla Padraig, mathair Domnaill & Chellaig Meraig & Cearball." BS 200 (Lec.)] Cacht's father is not identified. Two of Cacht's sons were named Cerball and Cellach Merach. The two accounts differ on whether her third son was named Donnchad or Domnall, but since Domnall is known to have had a son Donnchad, the former seems more likely. Cacht also had a daughter Mór [BS 194, see below]

Derbáil ingen Tairrdelbaig, another wife of Domnall mac Donnchada, d. 1087, king of Osraige.
["Dearbail ingen Tairrdelbaig hI Briain, mathair Gilli Padraic Ruaid rig Osraidi, & Conchobair hUi Fhocarta, & Saidbi ingene Domnaill, & Gilli Padraig, & Chaisin ingen Fhocartaig: uair is ar a daig ro dalladh Find m. Dunlaing m. Diarmada." BS 191 (Lec.)] Derbáil was the mother of Gilla Pátraic Ruad, king of Osraige. As already noted above under Gilla Pátraic Ruad, the parentage of Derbáil's daughter Sadb [BS 195, see below] reveals the name of Derbáil's husband.

Sadb ingen Lorcáin, wife of Donnchad mac Domnaill, d. 1089, king of Osraige.
["Sadb ingen Lorcain hUi Brain, mathair Taidc & Dondchada da mac Conchobair, & is i mathair Domnaill & Dondchada da mac Dondchaid m. Domnaill hUi Gilla Padraic rig Osraidi." BS 195 (Lec.)] Sadb was a daughter of Lorcán ua Briain, d. 1078 [AU 1078.1], son of Donnchad, son of Brian Bóruma. She was the mother of Domnall mac Donnchada, d. 1113, king of Osraige, and of a son Donnchad, who is otherwise unknown, unless he was the Donnchad Dub who appears in the Osraige king list (see above).

Órlaith ingen Murchada, wife of Gilla Pátraic Ruad, d. 1103, king of Osraige.
["Orlaith ingen Murchada m. Fhlaind hUi Mail Eachlaind, mathair Domnaill m. Gilli Padraic Ruaid rig Osraidi & Moiri .i. ingene Domnaill m. Conchobair, comarba Brigde." BS 198 (Lec.); "Orlaith ingen Murcada m. Flaeind hUi Mail tEachlaind, mathair Dondcada Bacaid m. Gilla Bríde Ruaid, & Moire ingen Domnaill m. Concobair, comarba Brigide." BS 230 (UM)] Órlaith was a daughter of Murchad mac Flainn Ua Máel Sechlainn, king of Mide, 1073-6. This entry has obviously undergone textual corruption. That Gilla Brigte in the Uí Maine version should be corrected to Gilla Pátraic is suggested by the fact that Donnchad Bacach is a king of Osraige who appears in the list of kings of Osraige in the Book of Leinster [LL, see above]. However, accepting Donnchad Bacach as a son of Gilla Pátraic Ruad is complicated by the fact that Gilla Pátraic Ruad is documented with a son named Donnchad, who died in 1123 (see above) and is clearly different from the Donnchad Bacach given in the king list. While it is possible that Gilla Pátraic Ruad had two sons named Donnchad, this part of the Osraige genealogical table must remain very uncertain.

Cacht ingen Loígsig, wife of Gilla Pátraic Mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1146, king of Osraige.
["Cacht ingen Laigsíg hUi Morda, mathair Dondcada & Domnaill da mac Gilla Padraig da ri Osraide, & mathair Aeda m. Dondcaid hUi Concobur ri hUa Failge, & mathair Aeda & Tutail & Concobur tri meic Muircertaig hUi Tutail, & Moire ingene Muircertaig mna Diarmada m. Dondcada m. Murcada rig Laigen & Gall, & mathair side Aife mna in Iarla & Concobair rigdamna Laigen." BS 232 (UM)] Cacht was a daughter of Loígsech Ua Morda, d. 1149 [AFM, s.a. 1149], king of Loíchsi, by his wife Gormlaith [BS 233]. In addition to her marriage to Gilla Pátraic, she was also married to Donnchad Ua Conchobair of Uí Failge and Muirchertach Ua Tuathail, having children by all three marriages. By Gilla Pátraic, she was the mother of sons Donnchad (d. 1162) and Domnall (d. 1165), both of whom became kings of Osraige.

Cacht ingen Dúnlaing (status uncertain), perhaps wife of Muirchertach mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1041, leth-rí of Osraige.
The Book of Lecan version of the Ban Shenchus would appear to place her as the mother of Muirchertach's son ["Ingen Dunlaing m. Thuathail, mathair mic Muircertaig hUi Gilla Padraic." BS 198 (Lec.)], but the corresponding entry in the Book of Uí Maine version offers contradictory information ["Cacht ingen Dunlaing m. Tutail, mathair Muircertaig hUi Bricc" BS 231 (UM)].

Daughters of Osraige dynasts:

Mugain ingen Conchraid, daughter of Conchrad mac Duach (king of Osraige?).
["... m. Óengusa Conath m. Concrath cuius filia Mugain ben Diarmata meic Cerbaill dia tá Carn Mugaine i nArgatrus. m. Duach Cliach m. ..." R151a25, CGH 222; "Mugain ingen Conrach m. Duach do Conachtaib, bean Diarmada, mac Aeda Slaine." BS 180 (Lec.); "Mugain umorro do Conndachtaib, (no ingen Concraid m. Duach Cliach m. Maine Muncain m. Oililla Flaind Bic) diata Carnd Mugna a nAirgeadros, mathair Aeda Slaine." BS 217 (UM); the metrical Ban Shenchus makes her wife of Diarmait and mother of Colmán and Áed, BS 305, 330; "Ben ghnóoech robhoí ag Diarmaid mac Cerbhaill .i. Mughain inghen Concraidh meic Dhuach a hAirgetros." Cóir Anmann #133 (pp. 342-3)] Mugain married the early Uí Néill king Diarmait mac Cerbaill, d. ca. 565 [AU 565.1].

Croinsech ingen Áeda Find, daughter of Áed Find, king of Osraige.
["Croinseach ingen Aeda Find rig Osraigi, bean Mail Choba." BS 184 (Lec.)] Croinsech married the Uí Néill king Máel Coba mac Áeda, d. ca. 615 [AU 615.1].

Lann (Flann) ingen Dúngaile, d. 890, daughter of Dúngal mac Fergaile, d. 842, king of Osraige.
["Land ingen Dungaili m. Fheargaili rig Osraidi, mathair Floind m. Mail Echlaind ri Midi." BS 186 (Lec.); "Land ingen Dungaili m. Feargaili m. Athaidha m. Con Cearca m. Faelain m. Crundmail m. Ronain Rig-flaite m. Scandlain Moir m. Cind Faelad rig Oisrige, mathair Fhlaind m. Mael tSecland." BS 225 (UM); cf. BS 311, 335; "Innsit dno na h-éoluigh gurob í a bhean as móo ro greis Aod i cceann na Lochlannac[h], .i. Land ingean Dunlaing: & as i-sidhe ba bean do Maoilseachloinn reimhe, mathair mc. Maoilseac[h]lainn, .i. Flainn. Ba hí mathair Cennedigh mc. Gaithine í, .i. ri Laoighsi." ("The learned relate that it was his wife who most incited Áed against the Norwegians - namely Land, daughter of Dúnlang: and she was the one who was Máel Sechlainn's wife previously, and the mother of Máel Sechlainn's son, i.e. Flann. She was the mother of Cennétig son of Gáethíne, king of Loíches.") FA #327 (pp. 118-9); "Úair tainig Cinnetigh mc. Gaithin, rí Laoigsi. Mac esidhe do land ingin Dunlainge, isidhe dno mathair Flainn mc. Maoilseac[h]lainn, & as í ba bean an tan sa d'Áodh mc. Néill, righ Teamhrach." ("For Cennétig son of Gáethíne, king of Loíches, came. He was a son of Land, daughter of Dúnlang, who was also the mother of Flann son of Máel Sechlainn, and she was then the wife of Áed son of Niall, king of Temair.") FA #338 (pp. 122-3); see also ibid., #246 (pp. 96-7), #260 (pp. 104-5), #366 (pp. 132-3), #387 (pp. 142-3)] Lann married Gáethíne mac Cináeda of Loíchsi, by whom she had Cennétig mac Gáethíne, d. 903 [AU 903.3], king of Loíchsi. Lann also married Máel Sechnaill mac Máel Ruanaid, d. 862 [AU 862.5], king of Ireland, by whom she was the mother of Flann Sinna, d. 916 [AU 916.1], king of Ireland. Later, she married Áed Findliath mac Néill, d. 879 [AU 879.1], king of Ireland. Lann died in 890 ["Flann ingen Dungaile, rigan righ Temhra, in penitencia dormiuit." ("Flann daughter of Dúngal, queen of the king of Temair, fell asleep in penance.") AU 890.5; AFM, s.a. 886].

NN ingen Cerbaill, daughter of Cerball mac Dúngaile, d. 888, king of Osraige.
["... mac Áodha mc. Duibhghiolla, mac ón ingine Cearbhall mc. Dunlaing, ..." ("... the son of Áed son of Dub Gilla - the son, indeed, of the daughter of Cerball son of Dúnlang, ...") FA #443 (pp. 178-9)] She married Áed mac Duib Gilla, king of Uí Dróna.

Cacht ingen Donnchada, daughter of Donnchad mac Cellaig, d. 976, king of Osraige.
["Cacht ingen Dondchada m. Cellaig ri Laigin (no leithrig Osraidi), mathair Dondchada m. Congalaig." BS 188 (Lec.); "Cacht ingen Dondchada m. Ceallaig rig Osraíde, mathair Dondcada m. Domnaill m. Dondcada m. Congalaig Cnobda." BS 227 (UM); metrical BS 312, 337; "Cacht ingen Dondchada mc. Ceallach rig Osraidhe mathair Dondchada mc. Congalaig." BB 286b49] The statement that Donnchad mac Cellaig was king of Leinster is a late addition which was intended to repair an earlier scribal slip [see Baldwin (2001)]. The identity of the husband and son is difficult to determine from the contradictory accounts. Congalach Cnogba died in 956 [AU 956.3].

Derborgaill ingen Taidc, d. 1098, daughter of Tadc mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1027.
["Dirborgaill ingen Taidc m. Gilli Padraic ri Osraidi mathair Aeda hUi Conchobair, & mathair da mac Tairrdelbaig hUi Briain .i. Taidc & Muircheartaig, & mathair da mac Dunlaing hUi Chaelluide ri ind Ochla, & Find & Duindslebi da mac Dunlaing hUi Chaelluid ri Eili & Focarta, & Mael Echlaind hUi Focartai, & Domnaill hUi Lorcain & Saidbi & Duibileasa & Chaichti, tri hingena hUi Lorcain, & Orlaithi ingine hI Domnaill." BS 190 (Lec.); see also BS 195 (Lec.); "Derborgaill ingen Taidhg maic Gilla Padraic, máthair Muirchertaig h-Úi Briain, ríg Erenn, a n-Glend Da Locha quieuit." AT 1098.1; mother of Muirchertach and Tadc Ua Briain, AFM, s.a. 1098; Ann. Clon., s.a. 1097] Derborgail had children by six different husbands. Since her son Áed Ua Conchobair became king of Connacht in 1046, her birth would have to be placed no later than about 1010. Derborgaill married Tadc Ua Conchaobar, d. 1030 [AU 1030.5], king of Connacht, by whom she was the mother of Áed in Gaí Bernaig, d. 1067 [AU 1067.4], king of Connacht. By her marriage to Tairrdelbach ua Briain, d. 1086 [AU 1086.4], king of Munster and Ireland, she was the mother of Tadc Ua Briain, d. 1086 [AU 1086.4], and Muirchertach Ua Briain, d. 1119 [AU 1119.2], king of Munster. By Dúnlaing Ua Cáellaide, she was the mother of sons Find (probably the king of that name who ruled part of Osraige, see above) and Donn Sléibe. By her husband Augaire Ua Lorcáin [see BS 195 for her husband's first name], she was the mother of a son Domnall and three daughters Sadb [see BS 195], Dub Leasa, and Cacht. By Ua Fogartaig (first name unknown), she was the mother of Máel Sechlainn Ua Fogartaig, and by Ua Domnaill (first name unknown) she was the mother of a daughter Órlaith.

Dub Choblaig (ingen Gilla Pátraic Ruaid?), d. 1095.
["Dubhchobhlaigh, inghean tighearna Osraighe, & baintighearna Osraighe, décc." ("Dubhchobhlaigh, daughter of the lord of Osraighe, and the lady of Osraighe, died.") AFM, s.a. 1095] If she was the daughter of the current king of Osraige, then her father would have been Gilla Pátraic Ruad, but we cannot be certain of this. For this reason, she has been left off of the genealogical table.

Mór Oinsech ingen Domnaill, daughter of Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1087, king of Osraige.
["Mor Oinseach ingen Domnaill m. Gilli Padraig, mathair Chonchobair m. Diarmada hUi Briain." BS 194 (Lec.)] She was a daughter of Domnall by his wife Cacht [BS 195-6, see above]. She married Diarmait Ua Briain, d. 1118 [AU 1118.2], and was mother of his son Conchobar, d. 1142 [AT 1142.1], king of Tuadmuman.

Sadb ingen Domnaill, daughter of Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic, d. 1087, king of Osraige.
["Sadb ingen Domnaill hUi Gilla Padraig, mathair Domnaill m. Dondchada m. Murchada m. Fhloind hUi Maeil Eachlaind, & Mael Echlaind & Aeda Bailb hUi Uidir, & Murchada m. Conchobair hUi Chonchobair rig hUa Failgi." BS 195 (Lec.)] Sadb was a daughter of Domnall by his wife Derbáil [BS 191, see above]. She was married to Donnchad Ua Máel Sechlainn, d. 1106 [AU 1106.1], king of Meath (by whom she had a son Domnall, d. 1123 [AFM, s.a. 1123]), to Ua Uidir, first name unknown (by whom she had Máel Sechlainn and Áed Balb), and to Conchobar Ua Conchobair, d. 1115 [AU 1115.4], king of Uí Failge (by whom she had a son Murchad).

Sadb ingen Donnchada.
["Ingen hUi Gilla Padraig mathair Domnaill hUi Briain, ri Muma[n]," BS 192 (Lec.); "Sadb ingen Dondcada m. Gilla Padraig, mathair Domnaill m. Toirrdealbaig hUi Bríaín ríg Muman, & Consaidín espog Gillae-da-lua." BS 233-4 (UM)] The father of Sadb is difficult to determine, because there were several Donnchads in the family. She married Tairrdelbach Ua Briain, d. 1167 [AU, s.a. 1167], king of Tuadmuman (Thomond), and was mother of Domnall Mór Ua Briain, d. 1194 [AU, s.a. 1194], king of Munster.

Radnaillt Ua Gilla Pátraic.
["Radnaillt ingen Domnaill hUi Gilla Padraig, mathair Enda m. Dondchaid Ruaid rig Laigsi, & mathair Domnaill & Cearbaill da mac Muirchertaig m. Gilla-mo-Cholmog, & Briain m. Domnaill hUi Briain." BS 198 (Lec.); "Ragnailt ingen Dondchada hUi Gilla Padraig, mathair Enda m. Dondcada m. Murcada rig Laígean & Gall, mathair Dondcada & Cearbaill da mac Muircertaig m. Gilla-mo-Colmog, & Braen Baírce m. Domnaill hUi Briaín." BS 230-1 (UM)] Because of the conflicting sources, the name of her father is unknown. She was married to Donnchad Ruad of Loíchsi, to Muirchertach mac Gilla Mocholmóc, d. 1103 [AU 1103.5], and to Domnall Ua Briain [d. 1115?, see AFM, s.a. 1115].

Derbáil ingen Muirchertaig.
["Derbail ingen Muircheartach hUi Gilli Padraig, mathair Domnaill m. Fhaelain." BS 199 (Lec.)] The individuals in this entry of the Ban Shenchus are insuffiently identified.

Additional Ban Shenchus entries of uncertain relevance

There are two additional entries in the Ban Shenchus, each showing a daughter of an otherwise unidentified Gilla Pátraic, a name common in the Osraige dynasty. In the absence of further evidence, there is no good way of telling whether or not these women belong to this dynasty.

Aife ingen Gilla Pátraic.
["Echraid ingen Charrlusa m. Aililla ri hUa nAeda Odba, mathair Thaidc m. Briain & Aifi ingene Gilli Padraic, mathair Diarmada m. Mail na mBo, & Domnaill & Aimirgen hUi Morda ri Laigsi, & Echduind m. Dunlaing ri Laigen & Aibindi ingen Dunlaing, mathair Domnaill hUi Fheargail ri na Forthuath." BS 189 (Lec.); "Aife ingen Gilli Padraig, mathair Diarmada m. Mael na mBo, & Amargein U Morda rig Laigsi, & Eachduind m. Dunlaing, ri Laigen & Aibinde ingene Dunlaing, mathair Domnaill ... rig Fortuath Laigen." (preceded by an entry on Eacrad ingen Carlosa m. Oililla without the ampersand before Aife) BS 228 (UM)]

Radnaillt ingen Gilla Pátraic.
["Unchi ingen Choncraid hUi Beargi de Uib Duach & Radnailti ingene Gilli Padraic, mathair Gusain, .i. Muircheartach, [&] Murchaid da mac Muireadaig mic-mic Gormain, & da ingen .i. Radnailt, Cacht." BS 196 (Lec.)]

Icelandic families claiming descent from Cerball mac Dúngaile

Icelandic sources mention a king Kjarvalr who is said to have been the ancestor of a number of Icelandic families. This Kjarvalr has generally been identified with Cerball mac Dúngaile, king of Osraige, who died in 888 (see above). The identification is supported by the name of the king, chronology, and the fact that Cerball mac Dúngaile was active in the Viking wars, sometimes as an ally of the Vikings. Further support for this is given by the Fragmentary Annals, based in part on a lost Osraige source that gave Cerball mac Dúngaile a prominent place and also contains much information on the Scandinavian invaders. Also, the Icelandic sources give Kjarvalr a son named Keallakr (Cellach), in agreement with the Irish sources. The main source for Icelandic descendants of Cerball is Landnámabók, from a thirteenth century manuscript that embodies earlier sources. The extent to which these genealogies should be trusted for the ninth century is unclear.

In addition, according to Orkneyínga Saga, the Irish king Cerball had a daughter Eðna (Eithne), who married Hlöðver Þorfinnsson. jarl of Orkney, and had a son Sigurðr Digri, the jarl of Orkney killed at Clontarf on 23 April 1014 ["Hlöðver Þorfinnsson tók jarldóm eptir Ljót ok var mikill höfðíngi; hann átti Eðnu, dóttur Kjarvals Íra-konúngs; þeirra son var Sigurðr digri." Orkneyínga Saga, c. 11, Icelandic Sagas, 1: 14], and this Eithne is often represented as a daughter of Cerball mac Dúngaile. However, since Cerball mac Dúngaile died in 888, it is extremely improbable that he would be the maternal grandfather of a man who died 126 years later.

Dufnial (Domnall), son of Cerball mac Dúngaile.
["Ásgeirr Hnockan, son Dufþacs, Dufnials sonar, Cearvals sonar Íra konungs." Landnámabók V.9.10, Orig. Island. 1: 217]

Friðgerðr, daughter of Cerball mac Dúngaile.
["Þórðr átte Friðgerðe, dóttor Þóris Himo, ok Friðgerðar, dóttor Cearfals Ira-konungs." ("Þórðr had to wife Friðgerðr, the daughter of Þórer Hima and of Friðgerðr, daughter of Cearfal, king of the Irish.") Landnámabók III.11.2, Orig. Island. 1: 142] She married Þórir Hima.

Raforta, daughter of Cerball mac Dúngaile.
["Eyvindr feck síðan á Írlande Raforto, dóttor Cearvals konungs." ("Afterwards Eyvindr took to wife in Ireland Raforta, the daughter of king Cearval.") Landnámabók III.13.2, Orig. Island. 1: 148] She married Eyvindr Austmaðr.

Kormloð (Gormlaith), daughter of Cerball mac Dúngaile.
["Þórgrímr Grímolfsson, ... Móðer Þórgríms vas Cormlod, dótter Cearvals Íra-konungs." Landnámabók V.16.6, Orig. Island. 1: 233] She married Grímolfr.

Rauðr, son of Cellach mac Cerbaill.
["Baugr vas son Rauðs, Ceallacs sonar, Cearvals sonar Íra konungs. ..." Landnámabók V.7.1, Orig. Island. 1: 207-8]

Genealogical tables

The three genealogical tables below show the genealogical relationships of the kings of Osraige from the middle of the seventh century until the Norman invasion. Kings of Osraige are shown in bold face. Females are shown in italics. Sources are indicated above in the lists of kings, relatives, and women. On Table 1, all descendants of Laignech Fáelad from the Osraige Tribal Genealogy are shown [from CGH 110-2], giving a good sample of the kind of detail which those genealogies show. The entire Osraige Tribal Genealogy is several times as large, and has to be spread over several tables. These genealogies are given on a separate webpage [see Osraige Tribal Genealogy]. The earliest reaches of the Osraige Tribal genealogy are pseudohistorical, and it is difficult to tell where fiction ends and fact begins. It is at least arguable, but far from certain, that the part from Laignech Fáelad on is historical.

In Table 2, individuals from whom early Icelandic families claimed descent are marked by an "*". These individuals appear only in Icelandic sources. In cases where a marriage is shown, only individuals who appear with a small number above their name are known to be by the indicated marriage. Even where only one marriage is shown, it should not be assumed that there were not other marriages. Divorce and remarriage was very common in Ireland during this period, as the many entries of the Ban Shenchus show.

In Table 3, dotted lines indicate uncertain relationships, which are discussed above. As noted above, there is difficulty sorting out the kings named Domnall in the last part of the twelfth century.

A note about chronology

The chronology of the Irish annals is complicated. Even in those cases where A. D. dates appear in the annals, the dates are not in general contemporary, and the A. D. dates of the Annals of the Four Masters are often very inaccurate. One widely used chronology is the "corrected" AU chronology, which consists of taking the year given by the Annals of Ulster and adding one from the late fifth century until the year 1012 in the "uncorrected" chronology, which thus becomes 1013 in the "corrected" chronology. It has often been assumed that this gives the correct year of events, but that is often not the case for the earlier period. For example, for many dates in the late sixth or early seventh century, the "corrected" AU chronology seems to be three or four years earlier than the actual date for event which can be independently dated. For numerous years in the late seventh century, the "corrected" AU chronology appears to be one year too late. Nevertheless, the vast majority of dates from ca. 710 on appear to be correctly dated by the "corrected" AU chronology. Dates on this webpage are converted to the "corrected" AU chronology, with the additional qualification of "ca." on dates before 710.


Bibliography

Adomnán = Alan Orr Anderson & Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson, eds., Adomnán's Life of Columba (revised edition, Oxford, 1991).

AFM = O'Donovan, Annala Rioghachta Eireann. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Master, from the earliest period to the year 1616, 7 vols. (Dublin, 1856). The annal entries are cited by the manuscript year (hardly ever correct before the eleventh century), often followed in parentheses by the corresponding year in the "corrected" AU chronology.

AI = Seán Mac Airt, ed. & trans., The Annals of Inisfallen (Dublin, 1944, reprinted 1988). See also the CELT website.

ALC = W. M. Hennessy, ed. & trans., Annals of Loch Cé, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 54, London, 1871). See also the CELT website.

Amra = Whitley Stokes, ed. & trans., "The Bodleian Amra Choluimb Chille", Revue Celtique 20 (1899): 30-55, 132-183, 248-287, 400-437; 21 (1900) 133-6.

Ann. Clon. = Denis Murphy, ed., The Annals of Clonmacnoise (Dublin, 1896).

Ann. Roscrea = D. Gleeson & S. MacAirt, "The Annals of Roscrea", Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 59C (1958): 137-180. Citations are by entry number.

AT = Whitley Stokes, ed. & trans., "The Annals of Tigernach", Revue Celtique 16 (1895), 374-419; 17 (1896), 6-33, 116-263, 337-420; 18 (1897), 9-59, 150-303, 374-91. Cited by entry number on the CELT website.

AU = Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, eds., The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983). See also the CELT website. The chronology followed on this page is the "corrected" AU chronology, with the qualification "ca." (circa) added for emphasis before 710. Up to 1131, citations are by the year and entry number in the Mac Airt - Mac Niocaill edition. Later entries are taken from B. McCarthy, Annala Uladh. Annals of Ulster (vol. 2, Dublin, 1893).

AU-index = B. McCarthy, Annala Uladh. Annals of Ulster (vol. 4, Introduction and Index, (Dublin, 1901).

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BB = Book of Ballymote (from microfilm of the original).

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BS = Margaret Dobbs, "The Ban Shenchus", Revue Celtique 47 (1930): 282-339; 48 (1931): 163-234; 49 (1932): 437-489 (an index to the other two parts); citations are by page number (which automatically gives the volume number).

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BS (UM) = Book of Uí Maine version of the Ban Shenchus [see BS].

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CS = W. M. Hennessy, ed. & trans., Chronicum Scotorum (Rolls Series 46, London, 1866). Citations are given by Hennessy's (often inaccurate) marginal A.D. dates, which do not have manuscript authority but at least give a convenient way to find the correct entry.

FA = Joan Newlon Radner, ed., Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (Dublin, 1978). [See TF for earlier edition of same source.] Citations are by entry number and page.

Graves (1849-51) = James Graves, "The Ancient Tribes and Territories of Ossory, no. I", Transactions of the Kilkenny Archæological Society 1 (1849-51): 230-247.

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Jaski (1997) = Bart Jaski, "Additional notes to the Annals of Ulster", Ériu 48 (1997): 103-152.

Jaski (1998) = Bart Jaski, "Druim Cett revisited", Peritia 12 (1998): 340-350.

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Lec. = Book of Lecan.

LL = R. I. Best, Osborn Bergin, M. A. O'Brien and Anne O'Sullivan, eds., The book of Leinster, formerly Lebar na Núachongbála, 6 volumes (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies 1954-1983).

Mac Niocaill (1972) = Gearóid Mac Niocaill, Ireland before the Vikings (Dublin, 1972)

McF Gen. = Mac Firbis, Book of Genealogies (from a microfilm of the copy made by Eugene O'Curry in 1836)

NHI = T. W. Moody, F. X. Martin, & F. J. Byrne, eds., A New History of Ireland, 10 vols. (Oxford), especially vol. 9: Maps, Genealogies, Lists (1984).

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Ó Buachalla (1951-6) = Liam Ó Buachalla, "Contributions Towards the Political History of Munster, 450-800 A. D.", Journal of the Cork Historical and Archæological Society 56 (1951): 87-90; 57 (1952): 67-86; 59 (1954): 111-126; 61 (1956): 89-102.

Ó Clery Gen. = Séamus Pender, ed., The Ó Clery Book of Genealogies (Analecta Hibernica 18, Dublin, 1951).

Ó Cuív (1986) = Brian Ó Cuív, "Aspects of Irish personal names", Celtica 18 (1986): 151-184.

O'Donovan (1849-51) = John O'Donovan, "Ancient Tribes and Territories of Ossory, no. II", Transactions of the Kilkenny Archæological Society 1 (1849-51): 247(3)-260(16) (article switches between two different paginations).

Orig. Island. = Gudbrand Vigfusson & F. York Powell, ed. & trans., Origines Islandicae, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1905).

Plummer (1922) = Charles Plummer, Bethada Náem nÉrenn - Lives of Irish Saints, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1922).

Shearman (1876-8) = J. F. Shearman, "Loca Patriciana - part XII. The Early Kings of Ossory - ...", Journal of the Royal Historical and Archæological Association of Ireland, 4th ser., 4 (1876-8): 336-408.

Silva Gadelica = Standish H. O'Grady, ed. & trans., Silva Gadelica, 2 vols. (London & Edinburgh, 1892).

TF = John O'Donovan, ed., Annals of Ireland. Three Fragments, copied from ancient sources by Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh (Dublin, 1860). [See FA for more recent eidtion of same source.]

Thurneysen (1933) = R. Thurneysen, "Synchronismen der irischen Könige", Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 19 (1933): 81-99.

VSH = Charles Plummer, ed., Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1910).

Compiled by Stewart Baldwin.

Version 1, uploaded 7 February 2011.